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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one stomach 1. Po...

Nomadic farming system


Nomadic farming:

This is essentially the movement of the herdsman and his flock from one place to another, in search of food and water. It can also be a movement away from areas of pest and disease infestation. For example, the cattle Fulani move their stock from the Northern part of Nigeria toward the Southern part, in search of water and green grass, where they can feed during the dry season when the grasses in the North must have dried up.

Reasons for Movement of Herdsmen Southwards during Dry Season

i. Abundance of forage in the south but scarcity of forage in the north because of the unequal rainfall distribution in the dry season.
ii. Water scarcity in the north during the dry season forces them to move their animals southwards in search of water.








Problems associated with the movement of herdsmen

(i) Exposes animals to natural hazards.
(ii) Death of animals due to fatigue of travelling long distance.
(iii) Movement of animals causes destruction of the soil structure (compaction).
(iv) New diseases are easily introduced into another area.
(v) Indiscriminate mating in the herds leading to the transmission of undesirable traits.
(vi) Diseases spread easily within the herds.
(vii) Animals cause damage to cultivated crops along their route.
(viii) Damage to crops brings about serious conflict/clashes between the herdsmen and local farmers
(i) It exposes the herdsmen to dangers such as extremes of climatic conditions, wild animals, diseases and armed banditry attacks.
(x) New pests are easily introduced into another area.
(xi) It encourages cattle rustling.
(xii) Neglect of formal education for the children of herdsmen.
Solutions to the problems of the herdsmen movement
(i) Provision of adequate security against theft.
(ii) Disease/pest-resistant animals should be reared.
(iii) Provision of nomadic schools in strategic locations.
(iv) Provision of irrigation facilities during the dry season in the north/savannah region to help in the artificial pastures.
(v) Establishment of grazing reserves at strategic locations in the north by government, which is ranching.
(vi) Preservation of fodder which are in abundance in the south into hay and silage and transported to the north during the dry season.
(vii) Provision of cattle tracks/paths for easy passage of herds to prevent destruction of crops along their route.
(viii) Castration of animals with undesirable traits long before the journey.
(ix) Payment of compensation for damage caused to crops.
(x) Both herdsmen and animals should be vaccinated regularly.

ADVANTAGES

The movement of the stock enables the animals feed in areas where water and food are available, thereby preventing the animals from starvation and death

Disadvantages

i. Very poor quality and undersized animals are produced
ii. There is no pasture management
iii. No regular supply of food and water
iv. Animals are exposed to injuries, pests, diseases and death
v. The herdsmen are equally exposed to all sorts of danger and death
vi. Clashes often occur between the herdsmen and crop farmers during migration and grazing when animals graze and destroy crops.








HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER







80. SANDY SOIL CLAY SOIL LOAMY SOIL
83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
soil improvement techniques
90. MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112. THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES FARM YARD MANURE APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE
117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING CLEARING
121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING FARM YARD MANURE
124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149. PLOUGHS
142. FIELD MACHINES
157. PLANTERS
164. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION