OKRA (Abelmoscus esculentus)Okra is also a vegetable crop commonly grown by local farmers in West Africa. The fruits called capsule, read types of fruits here. When young, they are harvested with knife and used in soup preparation.
Land preparation for the planting of OkraThe bush is cleared with cutlass while ridges or heaps are constructed with hoes. Alternatively, the land can be prepared by ploughing, harrowing and ridging.
Varieties/Cultivars of OkraNew lady’s finger and the Perkin’s long pod.
Climatic and soil requirements: Okra requires a temperature of 18CC - 30C, rainfall of 100cm - 150cm per annum and a well-drained loamy soil.
Method of propagation of OkraBy seeds
Planting date for Okra: Early April and May.
Spacing: 60cm x 60cm.
method of Planting Okra:
Seeds are planted directly into beds, two to three seeds per hole which should be 3cm deep. Germination occurs as from the 5th day after planting.
Cultural Practices the cultivation of Okra(i) Thinning and supplying: These can be done where necessary.
(ii) Fertilizer application: Super phosphate fertilizer at 100kg/hectare is required. Ring application is used.
(iii) Weeding: This should be done regularly.
Maturity period of Okra:
This occurs between three and seven
Harvesting: The young and succulent green immature fruits are plucked or harvested with knife. Harvesting is done over a long period of time.
Processing of Okra: The fruits are used as food.
Storage of Okra: The fresh fruits are stored in a cool place, e.g. refrigerator or the dried ones are stored in sacks.
Pests of Okra, symptoms and control methods(1) Flea beetles: These insects attack the plants and eat up the leaves. read about biting and chewing insects here. This they do by putting holes on the leaves as they eat them.
Control: Spray with insecticides
(2) Cricket and grasshopper: These insects also defoliate the plant by eating up the leaves and young stems
Control: Spray with insecticides
Diseases of Okra, symptoms and control(1) Root knot disease: It is caused by eelworm nematode which is found in the soil. read animal pests of crop here
Symptoms: Symptoms include knotting or galling of roots, retarded growth and reduced yield.
(i) Practice crop rotation
(ii) Use resistant varieties
(iii) Treat soil with nematicide e.g. Nemagon
(2) Mosaic disease: It is caused by a virus which is transmitted by piercing and sucking insects. Symptoms include mosaic colouration on the leaves, leading to low yield of the crop.
(i) Spray with insecticide to kill vector
(ii) Uproot and burn infected plants
HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL CLAY SOIL LOAMY SOIL
83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
soil improvement techniques
90. MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112. THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES FARM YARD MANURE APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING CLEARING
121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING FARM YARD MANURE
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
142. FIELD MACHINES
164. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION