MEANING AND USES OF PASTURE AND FORAGE CROPSPasture is a piece of land on which forage crops or grasses or mixture of grasses and legumes grow. In other words, it refers to an area of land covered with which are usually grasses and legumes that are grazed or fed on by livestock such as cattle, sheep and goats.
Forage crops on the hand are plants cultivated for their vegetative portions and used in fresh or preserved forms for feeding livestock.
Uses of forage crops:Forage crops have the following uses:
(i) Livestock feed: Forage crops are usually used for feeding livestock like cattle, sheep and goat. Hay, straw and silage are prepared from forage crops.
(ii) As cover crops: Most forage crops, especially leguminous plants, serve as cover crops which add nutrients to soil and control weed growth.
(iii) Conservation of Soil Moisture: Most forage crops, especially leguminous plants, help to conserve soil moisture by preventing evaporation.
(iv) Prevention of Erosion: Some forage crops, especially leguminous plants, help to prevent water and wind erosion.
(v) As Green Manure Forage crops, especially when they are young could be ploughed into the soil as green manure.
(vi) For Roofing Farmsteads: Some forage crops like guinea grass and elephant grass are usually used for roofing farmsteads as a result of their strong stems and plenty leaves.
(vii) As Bedding Materials: Most forage crops serve as bedding materials for animals.
Types of pasturesThese are two main types of pastures. These are:
Natural Pasture:Natural pasture is also referred to as natural grassland or range-land. In this pasture, grasses and legumes grow naturally on their own and are fed upon by farm animals, i.e, grasses are not planted by farmers. Examples of natural grassland are the savanna areas of Nigeria
Characteristics or Features of Natural Pasture(i) Natural pasture or grassland contains poor quality grasses and legumes.
(ii) It contains soil types that are low in fertility or nutrients.
(i) It contains wide varieties of grasses and legumes, some of which may not be eaten by livestock.
(iv) It has good regenerative ability.
(v) Productivity of natural pasture is very low and resistant to drought.
(vi) Forage crops in rural pasture cart withstand trampling by farm animals.
(vii) Natural pasture may contain some grasses which cannot he easily eradicated.
(viii) New growth is stimulated by burning.
Artificial Pasture:This is also referred to as established or sown pasture. In this pasture, grasses and legumes are deliberately planted and managed by man to be fed on by livestock.
Characteristics or Features of Artificial Pasture:(i) It contains high quality grasses and legumes.
(ii) It contains no weeds except some shade trees.
(iii) Selected grasses and legumes are grown in adequate proportion.
(iv) It has high regenerative ability a being fed on by animals.
(v) It can withstand trampling by far animals.
(vi) It is properly managed for productivity of the forage crops e.g. fertilization, irrigation and rotational grazing.
Qualities of a Good Pasture plantA good pasture plant must have the following qualities:
(1) Ability 40 regenerate fast after being browsed
(2) Ability to withstand trampling effect of the grazing
(3) A good pasture plant must be highly palatable.
(4) It must possess high value of nutrients
(5) Ability to withstand extremes of climatic conditions
(6) It should have moderate moisture content or succulent
(7) It must have a high leaf to stem ratio
FACTORS AFFECTING THE PRODUCTIVITY OF PASTUREThese factors include:
(1) Persistence: This is the ability of the pasture crops to survive and spread by vegetative means.
(2) Aggressiveness: This is the ability of pasture to compete favourably with other weeds. High aggressiveness ensures continuous availability of the pasture crops.
(3) Resistance to Trampling: This refers to the ability of pasture to resist continuous trampling by farm animals during grazing and still remains available to livestock to feed on.
(4) Seed Viability (or profuseness): Seeds of pasture should be viable over a long period of time. It should be easily propagated to ensure high pasture productivity. read seed propagation here
(5) Resistance to Drought: Pasture which is able to withstand drought helps to maintain high productivity and ensures all-season availability of forages for livestock.
(6) Pests and Diseases: Absence of pests and diseases within a pasture ensures their increased productivity.
(7) Accurate Stocking : An accurate number of animals should graze a specified area of pasture. Overgrazing does not ensure increased productivity of pasture.
(8) Good Management: Proper management practices such as regular weeding, rouging, irrigation, good grazing and fertilization should be practiced to ensure increased productivity of pasture.
HOW TO ESTABLISH PASTURE GROUNDBefore pasture can established, the following factors should be considered:
(1) Adaptation of species: Legumes and grasses should be adapted to the local environment.
(2) Palatability: Legumes and grasses to be established must be palatable and nutritious for animals
(3) Compatibility: the grass-legume mixture in the pasture must be compatible to each other
(4) Time of maturity: Grasses and legumes to be established should be able to mature within the shortest possible time.
(5) Life Cycle of the Species: Annuals with annual plants or perennials with perennial plants should be mixed together when establishing pasture. This is to ensure continuous availability of pasture.
The establishment of pasture takes the following sequence
(i) Site Selection: Select a suitable site which should be well-drained with good loamy soil.
(ii) Clearing of Land: The land should be cleared. read cultural practices here. Cut back the site with hoes and cutlasses.
(iii) Removal of Debris: Debris on the site should be removed or it could be gathered and burnt.
(iv) Cultivation of Site: The land, field or site should be cultivated by way of ploughing, harrowing and if possible ridging
(v) Planting of Pasture Crops: Planting of the desired pasture, grass or legume is carried out.
(vi) Supplying: Plant materials that fail to germinate should be supplied with new planting materials.
(vii) Planting of Legumes: Leguminous plants should be planted, especially in the case of grass and legume mixture.
(viii) Promotion of Tillering: The grasses should be cut back at regular intervals to promote tillering.
(ix) Weeding: Weeding should be done at regular intervals, especially at the early stages of the pasture
(x) Fertilizer Application Apply fertilizers at the appropriate rate by broadcasting.read how to apply fertilizer here
(xi) Irrigation: Light irrigation or watering of the planted seeds or stolons should be done, especially in arid area with low rainfall.
(xii) Paddocking The pasture should be broken into convenient units for good grazing management like rotational grazing
Determination of Plant PopulationIn the establishment of pasture, it is very important to know the quality of pasture or forage crop to plant in a specified area of land.
In doing this, it is very important to understand certain principles and formula required to ensure an adequate plant population in an area of farmland. In order to be able to do this, it is compulsory to read and understand calculation of area of farmland and population in this blog.
A piece of land to be used to establish a pasture of Centrosema pubescens was surveyed to be circular:
(i) if the radius of the land is lOOm and the spacing of the pasture legume is 80cm by 40cm, what is the population of the legume at one seed per stand?
(ii) If the germination percentage is 60, calculate the expected plant population.
(i) Area of land is circular, therefore the formula needed is pr
Area of land = pr = 3.142 x 100 x 100
Spacing = 80cm x 40cm
Plant population of Centrosema pubescens
Area of land(m) = pr = 31.420m2
= 98,187 stands
(ii) Expected plant population:
Germination % =60%
i.e 60 x 98.187
Expected plant population: 58,912 stands of Centrosema pubescens
Area of land pr = 22/7 x 1m00 x 100m
Spacing 80cm x 40cm = 0.8m x 0.4 m
(ii) Expected plant population
Germination % 60
= 60 x 98,2 14
58, 928 stands of Centrosema pubescens
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69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
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92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL