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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one stomach 1. Po...

PASTURE AND FORAGE CROPS


PASTURE AND FORAGE CROPS

MEANING AND USES OF PASTURE AND FORAGE CROPS

Pasture is a piece of land on which forage crops or grasses or mixture of grasses and legumes grow. In other words, it refers to an area of land covered with which are usually grasses and legumes that are grazed or fed on by livestock such as cattle, sheep and goats.
Forage crops on the hand are plants cultivated for their vegetative portions and used in fresh or preserved forms for feeding livestock.

Uses of forage crops:

Forage crops have the following uses:
(i) Livestock feed: Forage crops are usually used for feeding livestock like cattle, sheep and goat. Hay, straw and silage are prepared from forage crops.
(ii) As cover crops: Most forage crops, especially leguminous plants, serve as cover crops which add nutrients to soil and control weed growth.
(iii) Conservation of Soil Moisture: Most forage crops, especially leguminous plants, help to conserve soil moisture by preventing evaporation.
(iv) Prevention of Erosion: Some forage crops, especially leguminous plants, help to prevent water and wind erosion.
(v) As Green Manure Forage crops, especially when they are young could be ploughed into the soil as green manure.
(vi) For Roofing Farmsteads: Some forage crops like guinea grass and elephant grass are usually used for roofing farmsteads as a result of their strong stems and plenty leaves.
(vii) As Bedding Materials: Most forage crops serve as bedding materials for animals.






Types of pastures

These are two main types of pastures. These are:
(1)

Natural Pasture:

Natural pasture is also referred to as natural grassland or rangeland. In this pasture, grasses and legumes grow naturally on their own and are fed upon by farm animals, i.e, grasses are not planted by farmers. Examples of natural grassland are the savanna areas of Nigeria.

Characteristics or Features of Natural Pasture

(i) Natural pasture or grassland contains poor quality grasses and legumes.
(ii) It contains soil types that are low ii fertility or nutrients.
(i) It contains wide varieties of grasses and legumes, some of which may not be eaten by livestock.
(iv) It has good regenerative ability.
(v) Productivity of natural pasture is very low and resistant to drought.
(vi) Forage crops in rural pasture cart withstand trampling by farm animals.
(vii) Natural pasture may contain some grasses which cannot he easily eradicated.
(viii) New growth is stimulated by burning.


(2)

Artificial Pasture:

This is also referred to as established or sown pasture. In this pasture, grasses and legumes are deliberately planted and managed by man to be fed on by livestock.

Characteristics or Features of Artificial Pasture:

(i) It contains high quality grasses and legumes.
(ii) It contains no weeds except some shade trees.
(iii) Selected grasses and legumes are grown in adequate proportion.
(iv) It has high regenerative ability a being fed on by animals.
(v) It can withstand trampling by far animals.
(vi) It is properly managed for productivity of the forage crops e.g. fertilization, irrigation au rotational grazing.





Qualities of a Good Pasture plant

A good pasture plant must have the following qualities:
(1) Ability 40 regenerate fast after being browsed
(2) Ability to withstand trampling effect of the grazing
(3) A good pasture plant must be highly palatable.
(4) It must possess high value of nutrients
(5) Ability to withstand extremes of climatic conditions
(6) It should have moderate moisture content or succulent
(7) It must have a high leaf to stem ratio


FACTORS AFFECTING THE PRODUCTIVITY OF PASTURE

These factors include:
(1) Persistence: This is the ability of the pasture crops to survive and spread by vegetative means.
(2) Aggressiveness: This is the ability of pasture to compete favourably with √Ęther weeds. High aggressiveness ensures continuous availability of the pasture crops.
(3) Resistance to Trampling: This refers to the ability of pasture to resist continuous trampling by farm animals during grazing and still remains available to livestock to feed on.
(4) Seed Viability (or profuseness): Seeds of pasture should be viable over a long period of time. It should be easily propagated to ensure high pasture productivity
(5) Resistance to Drought: Pasture which is able to withstand drought helps to maintain high productivity and ensures all-season availability of forages for livestock.
(6) Pests and Diseases: Absence of pests and diseases within a pasture ensures their increased productivity.
(7) Accurate Stocking : An accurate number of animals should graze a specified area of pasture. Overgrazing does not ensure increased productivity of pasture.
(8) Good Management: Proper management practices such as regular weeding, roguing, irrigation, good grazing and fertilization should be practiced to ensure increased productivity of pasture.


ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURE

Before pasture can established, the following factors should be considered:
(1) Adaptation of species: Legumes and grasses should be adapted to the local environment.
(2) Palatability: Legumes and grasses to be established must be palatable and nutritious for animals
(3) Compatibility: the grass-legume mixture in the pasture must be compatible to each other
(4) Time of maturity: Grasses and legumes to be established should be able to mature within the shortest possible time.
(5) Life Cycle of the Species: Annuals with annual plants or perennials with perennial plants should be mixed together when establishing pasture. This is to ensure continous availability of pasture.
The establishment of pasture takes the following sequence
(i) Site Selection: Select a suitable site which should be well-drained with good loamy soil.
(ii) Clearing of Land: The land should be cleared. Cut back the site with hoes and cutlasses.
(iii) Removal of Debris: Debris on the site should be removed or it could be gathered and burnt.
(iv) Cultivation of Site: The land, field or site should be cultivated by way ofploughing, harrowing and if possible ridging
(v) Planting of Pasture Crops: Planting of the desired pasture, grass or legume is carried out.
(vi) Supplying: Plant materials that fail to germinate should be supplied with new planting materials.
(vii) Planting of Legumes: Leguminous plants should be planted, especially in the case of grass and legume mixture.
(viii) Promotion of Tillering: The grasses should be cut back at regular intervals to promote tillering.
(ix) Weeding: Weeding should be done at regular intervals, especially at the early stages of the pasture
(x) Fertilizer Application Apply fertilizers at the appropriate rate by broadcasting.
(xi) Irrigation: Light irrigation or watering of the planted seeds or stolons should be done, especially in arid areawith low rainfall.
(xii) Paddocking The pasture should be broken into convenient units for good grazing management like rotational grazing

Determination of Plant Population

In the establishment of pasture, it is very important to know the quality of pasture or forage crop to plant in a specified area of land.
In doing this, it is very important to understand certain principles and formula required to ensure an adequate plant population in an area of farmland. In order to be able to do this, it is compulsory to read and understand calculation of area of farmland and population in this blog.
Example I
A piece of land to be used to establish a pasture of Centrosema pubescens was surveyed to be circular:
(i) if the radius of the land is lOOm and the spacing of the pasture legume is 80cm by 40cm, what is the population of the legume at one seed per stand?
(ii) If the germination percentage is 60, calculate the expected plant population.
Solution
(i) Area of land is circular, therefore the formula needed is pr
Area of land = pr = 3.142 x 100 x 100
= 31.42m2
Spacing = 80cm x 40cm
Plant population of Centrosema pubescens
Area of land(m) = pr = 31.420m2
= 0.32m2
= 98,187 stands
(ii) Expected plant population:
Germination % =60%
i.e 60 x 98.187
100

Expected plant population: 58,912 stands of Centrosema pubescens
= 58.912
OR
Area of land pr = 22/7 x 1m00 x 100m
= 31,428.57m2
Spacing 80cm x 40cm = 0.8m x 0.4 m
0.32m
(ii) Expected plant population
Germination % 60
= 60 x 98,2 14
100
58, 928 stands of Centrosema pubescens







HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.

2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88.





89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE