TOMATO (Lycopersicon esculentum)Tomato is a vegetable crop commonly grown by peasant farmers in West Africa. The fruit called berry when ripe can be eaten raw, used for soup or stew preparation, or in preparing vegetable salad and other food.
Land preparation for tomato plantingLand is cleared with cutlass and ridges are made with local hoe, or land can be prepared by ploughing, harrowing and ridging.
Varieties/Cultivars of tomatoesThese include money-maker, valiant, pork, dwarf gem, marglobe, Ife plum, Bonita, roma, local varieties.
Climatic and Soil Requirements for tomato plantingTomato requires a temperature of 20C - 25C, rainfall of 50 - 125cm, high level of sunshine and a well-drained loamy soil, rich inorganic matter.
Method of propagation of tomatoThese are seeds which can be propagated by drilling or broadcasting.
Planting Date for tomatoTomato is planted in early September and October.
Seed rate for tomato planting5 - 10kg of seeds/ha
Nursery Practices for tomato cultivation(i) It is done on ground, beds or seed boxes/trays with top soil, thoroughly mixed and watered.
(ii) Seeds are sown in drills, 5cm apart and 2.5cm deep.
(iii) Shading, mulching, weeding and watering are done.
(iv) Nursery lasts for three weeks when the plants are at the three-leaved stage.
Spacing for tomato planting(i) 60cm x 60cm without staking
(ii) 50cm x 30cm with staking.
how to Transplant tomato from nurserySeedlings with four to five leaves, 15cm – 20cm tall and about 25 – 30days old are measuring 5cm deep are dug and seedlings are transplanted to the field either in the morning or evening.
Cultural Practices in planting tomato(i) Weeding: This should be done at regular intervals.
(ii) Watering: Soon after transplanting, seed-lings should be watered every morning and evening till the plants are able to stand on their own.
(iii) Fertilizer Application: Apply N.P.K 15:15:15 fertilizer to each plant three weeks after transplanting at 250kg/hectare; or apply any organic manure like compost or farmyard manure at 30-40 metric tonnes per hectare.
(iv) Staking: Provide stakes to enable plants to stand erect and prevent lodging. Stems are tied or trained to the stakes. Staking allows for good fruiting and keeps fruits from disease attack. Arising from contact with soil. Staking should be done before flowering.
Maturity period of tomatoThis occurs between two to four months after planting.
Harvesting period of tomatoMatured or ripe fruits are harvested by handpicking and stored in dry, cool place. Harvesting (of crops) starts as from two months.
how to Process tomatoTomato is either used or consumed after harvesting, or it can be processed into tomato juice or paste.
tomato StorageIt can be stored as canned paste.
Pests of Tomato, symptoms and their control methods(i) Cricket and Beetle: These eat up leaves or cut off young seedlings and cause damage to crops.
Control: Spray with insecticides, e.g. Vetox 85
Diseases of Tomato, symptoms and their control methods(1)
Fusarim Wilt (root rot)It is a fungal disease (Fusarium oxysporium) which is spread by wind.
These include gradual dropping of leaves followed by wilting and drying up of leaves of the whole plant.
(i) Treat soil with copper fungicide
(ii) Practice crop rotation
Root knot disease: It is caused by a nematode. Roots develop galls or knots with yellow, curled leaves and dwarf plants.
(i) Treat soil with nematicide
(ii) Plant resistant varieties
(iii) Practice crop rotation
Bacterial wilt: This is caused by a bacterium called pseudomona solaraceurium. It is transmitted through the soil and it attacks roots.
Symptoms include wilting of the leaf, death of the affected plant, and slimy exudation from the stem
(i) Practice crop rotation
(ii) Avoid infected soil
Leaf spot disease: This disease is caused by a fungus called Chadosporium spp. It is an air borne disease whose spores are deposited on leaves.
Symptoms include circular white patches which appear on the leaves. Dead spots also appear on the leaves
(i) Use copper fungicides like Perenox and Bordeaux mixture
(ii) Practice crop rotation
(iii) Use resistant varieties
HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
soil improvement techniques
90. MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112. THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES FARM YARD MANURE APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING CLEARING
121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING FARM YARD MANURE
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
142. FIELD MACHINES
164. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION