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ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION farm mechanization ensures that all farm operation are done and completed within a given per...

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TOMATO (LYCOPESICUM ESCULENTUM)


TOMATO (Lycopersicon esculentum)

Tomato is a vegetable crop commonly grown by peasant farmers in West Africa. The fruit called berry when ripe can be eaten raw, used for soup or stew preparation, or in preparing vegetable salad and other food.

Land preparation for tomato planting

Land is cleared with cutlass and ridges are made with local hoe, or land can be prepared by ploughing, harrowing and ridging.

Varieties/Cultivars of tomatoes

These include money-maker, valiant, pork, dwarf gem, marglobe, Ife plum, Bonita, roma, local varieties.

Climatic and Soil Requirements for tomato planting

Tomato requires a temperature of 20C - 25C, rainfall of 50 - 125cm, high level of sunshine and a well-drained loamy soil, rich inorganic matter.





Method of propagation of tomato

These are seeds which can be propagated by drilling or broadcasting.

Planting Date for tomato

Tomato is planted in early September and October.

Seed rate for tomato planting

5 - 10kg of seeds/ha


Nursery Practices for tomato cultivation

(i) It is done on ground, beds or seed boxes/trays with top soil, thoroughly mixed and watered.
(ii) Seeds are sown in drills, 5cm apart and 2.5cm deep.
(iii) Shading, mulching, weeding and watering are done.
(iv) Nursery lasts for three weeks when the plants are at the three-leaved stage.

Spacing for tomato planting

(i) 60cm x 60cm without staking
(ii) 50cm x 30cm with staking.


how to Transplant tomato from nursery

Seedlings with four to five leaves, 15cm – 20cm tall and about 25 – 30days old are measuring 5cm deep are dug and seedlings are transplanted to the field either in the morning or evening.

Cultural Practices in planting tomato

(i) Weeding: This should be done at regular intervals.
(ii) Watering: Soon after transplanting, seed-lings should be watered every morning and evening till the plants are able to stand on their own.
(iii) Fertilizer Application: Apply N.P.K 15:15:15 fertilizer to each plant three weeks after transplanting at 250kg/hectare; or apply any organic manure like compost or farmyard manure at 30-40 metric tonnes per hectare.
(iv) Staking: Provide stakes to enable plants to stand erect and prevent lodging. Stems are tied or trained to the stakes. Staking allows for good fruiting and keeps fruits from disease attack. Arising from contact with soil. Staking should be done before flowering.






Maturity period of tomato

This occurs between two to four months after planting.

Harvesting period of tomato

Matured or ripe fruits are harvested by handpicking and stored in dry, cool place. Harvesting starts as from two months.

how to Process tomato

Tomato is either used or consumed after harvesting, or it can be processed into tomato juice or paste.

tomato Storage

It can be stored as canned paste.

Pests of Tomato, symptoms and their control methods

(i) Cricket and Beetle: These eat up leaves or cut off young seedlings and cause damage to crops.
Control: Spray with insecticides, e.g. Vetox 85

Diseases of Tomato, symptoms and their control methods

(1)

Fusarim Wilt (root rot)

It is a fungal disease (Fusarium oxysporium) which is spread by wind.
Symptoms
These include gradual dropping of leaves followed by wilting and drying up of leaves of the whole plant.
Control
(i) Treat soil with copper fungicide
(ii) Practice crop rotation


(2)

Root knot disease

: It is caused by a nematode. Roots develop galls or knots with yellow, curled leaves and dwarf plants.
Control
(i) Treat soil with nematicide
(ii) Plant resistant varieties
(iii) Practise crop rotation

(3)

Bacterial wilt

: This is caused by a bacterium called pseudomona solaraceurium. It is transmitted through the soil and it attacks roots.
Symptoms
Symptoms include wilting of the leaf, death of the affected plant, and slimy exudation from the stem
Control
(i) Practice crop rotation
(ii) Avoid infected soil

(4)

Leaf spot disease

: This disease is caused by a fungus called Chadosporium spp. It is an air borne disease whose spores are deposited on leaves.
Symptoms
Symptoms include circular white patches which appear on the leaves. Dead spots also appear on the leaves
Control
(i) Use copper fungicides like Perenox and Bordeaux mixture
(ii) Practice crop rotation
(iii) Use resistant varieties

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION





42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL CLAY SOIL LOAMY SOIL
83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
soil improvement techniques
90. MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112. THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES FARM YARD MANURE APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE
117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING CLEARING
121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING FARM YARD MANURE
124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149. PLOUGHS
142. FIELD MACHINES
157. PLANTERS
164. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION