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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one stomach 1. Po...

CROPPING SYSTEMS in agriculture


TYPES OF CROPPING SYSTEMS

Cropping system can be referred to as the different patterns of growing crops in the farm. A farmer may be growing only one type of crop or many types of crops on the same piece of land, at the same time in each growing season.
MONO CROPPING OR SOLE CROPPING
Mixed cropping
Inter-cropping
INTER-PLANTING OR CATCH CROPPING

Alley cropping
CONTINUOUS CROPPING
Multiple cropping
MONOCULTURE
MONOCROPPING
TAUNGYA FARMING
CROP ROTATION

(i) Shifting cultivation
(ii) Continuous cropping
(iii) Monocropping
(iv) Mixed cropping
(v) Pastoral farming
(vi) Ranching
(vii) Agro-forestry
(viii) Taungya system
(ix) Bush fallowing/land rotation
(x) Crop rotation
(xi) Monoculture
(xii) Mixed farming
(xiii) Nomadic herding
(xiv) Ley farming
(xv) Alley cropping
(xvi) Ecological/Organic farming






Cropping Systems
Cropping system can be referred to as the different patterns of growing crops in the farm. A farmer may be growing only one type of crop or many types of crops on the same piece of land, at the same time in each growing season.
TYPES OF CROPPING SYSTEMS
1.

MONO CROPPING OR SOLE CROPPING

This is a system of cropping where one type of crop is grown on a farm or the same piece of land at the same time. Monocropping is usually practised on large scale farms, where crops such as oil palm, cocoa, kolanuts, rubber, rice, millet, maize, sorghum, etc. are grown.
In mono-cropping, crops tend to remain in a particular land or farm for many years where permanent or tree crops are grown, while in case of annual crops, the farmer grows a particular crop e.g. maize which is harvested at maturity before planting another one on the same piece of land.
This system of cropping can only be successful, where there is plenty of farmland.


ADVANTAGES OF MONO CROPPING

(i) Mono-cropping encourages specialization
(ii) It encourages mechanization of farm operation
(iii) Through mono-cropping, management of farm crop is made easy.
(iv) The farmer can easily improve on the various farm operations to increase yield

DISADVANTAGES OF MONO CROPPING

(i) The system is very risky. The farmer may lose all his crops, if there is an outbreak or epidemic of pests, diseases, flood or drought.
(ii) There may be a build-up of pests and diseases on the farm.
(iii) The system might lead to a glut in the market of such crop, causing low price. The glut may be cause by good or surplus harvest.
(iv) Farmers may be discouraged from producing more if there is low pricing in the world market of cash crops such as cocoa and rubber.

Mixed cropping:

This system involves the growing of two or more crops on the same piece of land at the same time, during the same growing season. This system is very common among small scale farmers in. Nigeria and West Africa. Crops commonly grown under this system include: yam, cassava, maize, cocoyam, pepper, okra and melon. The crops are mixed together on the same piece of land. Mixed cropping is commonly practised where farmland is in shortfall. Mixed cropping can be categorized into two forms namely: intercropping and inter-planting.

Inter-cropping :

This is a system where a crop is grown in-between another crop, and the crop planted first is harvested last, while the crop planted last is harvested first. For example, yam can be inter- cropped with melon. The yam is planted first before melon is planted, but melon is harvested first before the yam. The principle of inter-cropping is that an early maturing crop is planted among late maturing crop, which is normally planted first, but the short season crop is harvested first.







INTER-PLANTING OR CATCH CROPPING
This system involves the planting of two crops at different times, and the crop planted first is harvested first before the second crop. For example, maize is said to be inter-planted with (i.p.w) yam or cassava. The maize is planted first before the yam or cassava is planted, and the maize is harvested first, while the yam or cassava is harvested later.
ADVANTAGES OF MIXED CROPPING
(i) Mixed cropping provides insurance against crop failure, in the sense that when one crop fails, the farmer falls back on the other crops.
(ii) The fertility of the soil is used to its maximum by the growing crops.
(iii) Protection against soil erosion by the extensive root systems and leaves is guaranteed by the crops.
(iv) Spread of pests and diseases is minimal
(v) The fertility of the soil can be improved with the inclusion of legumes in the system
DISADVANTAGES OF MIXED CROPPING
(i) It discourages farm mechanization
(ii) It is difficult to use chemical, e.g. herbicides, to control weeds under this system, because such herbicides may be harmful to some of the crops.
There are competitions between crops for nutrients, air, water, space and light, which may seriously reduce the yield of the less competitive crops


FACTORS THAT DETERMINE THE USE OF FARMING SYSTEMS

There are many factors that may be responsible for the use of a particular system in any given area. These include:
(i)

Environmental factors:

Climatic factors which include rainfall, relative humidity and temperature, in no small way determine the type of crops that can be grown in an area. For example, tree crops such as oil palm, cocoa and kolanuts are grown in the Southern part of Nigeria, due to heavy rainfall and other favourable climatic conditions such as high relative humidity and vegetational cover (forest zone), while crops such as millet and sorghum are grown in the Northern part, which is covered by grassland due to high temperature, low rainfall and low relative humidity, which favour the growing of such crops. Soil factors which are also environmental factors such as structure, texture and nutrients availability also determine the type of crops that can be grown on a particular soil. For example, deep loamy soil can be used for growing a number of crops such as yam, cassava, cocoyam, etc. Soil such as sandy soil cannot give good yield of such crops. Also, heavy clay soil does not favour the growing of groundnut.







(ii)

Social factors:

These factors include the taste and religious beliefs of some people in an area. For .example, pigs are not kept or reared by Muslims, because they forbid the eating of pork. Some cultures in the country forbid the eating of goat meat, due to their local belief or taste, while it is a delicacy to some.
(i)

Land tenure system:

This is a system of inheritance that greatly determines the type of farming system that may be used at a particular time in an area. For example, if the land in an area belongs to the community, it is very difficult for an individual to practice large scale farming, because such land is usually shared to every member of that community in small portions of small scale farming.


HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS


41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER


80. SANDY SOIL CLAY SOIL LOAMY SOIL
83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES

soil improvement techniques
90. MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112. THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES FARM YARD MANURE APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE
117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING CLEARING
121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING FARM YARD MANURE
124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149. PLOUGHS
142. FIELD MACHINES
157. PLANTERS
164. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION