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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one stomach 1. Po...

CROPPING SYSTEMS in agriculture


TYPES OF CROPPING SYSTEMS

Cropping system can be referred to as the different patterns of growing crops in the farm. A farmer may be growing only one type of crop or many types of crops on the same piece of land, at the same time in each growing season.
MONO CROPPING OR SOLE CROPPING
Mixed cropping
Inter-cropping
INTER-PLANTING OR CATCH CROPPING

Alley cropping
CONTINUOUS CROPPING
Multiple cropping
MONOCULTURE
MONOCROPPING
TAUNGYA FARMING
CROP ROTATION

(i) Shifting cultivation
(ii) Continuous cropping
(iii) Monocropping
(iv) Mixed cropping
(v) Pastoral farming
(vi) Ranching
(vii) Agro-forestry
(viii) Taungya system
(ix) Bush fallowing/land rotation
(x) Crop rotation
(xi) Monoculture
(xii) Mixed farming
(xiii) Nomadic herding
(xiv) Ley farming
(xv) Alley cropping

(xvi) Ecological/Organic farming






Cropping Systems
Cropping system can be referred to as the different patterns of growing crops in the farm. A farmer may be growing only one type of crop or many types of crops on the same piece of land, at the same time in each growing season.
TYPES OF CROPPING SYSTEMS
1.

MONO CROPPING OR SOLE CROPPING

This is a system of cropping where one type of crop is grown on a farm or the same piece of land at the same time. Mono-cropping is usually practiced on large scale farms, where crops such as oil palm, cocoa, kolanuts, rubber, rice, millet, maize, sorghum, etc. are grown.
In mono-cropping, crops tend to remain in a particular land or farm for many years where permanent or tree crops are grown, while in case of annual crops, the farmer grows a particular crop e.g. maize which is harvested at maturity before planting another one on the same piece of land. read about diseases and pests of maize here
This system of cropping can only be successful, where there is plenty of farmland.
read article on land tenure system here


ADVANTAGES OF MONO CROPPING

(i) Mono-cropping encourages specialization
(ii) It encourages mechanization of farm operation
(iii) Through mono-cropping, management of farm crop is made easy.
(iv) The farmer can easily improve on the various farm operations to increase yield

DISADVANTAGES OF MONO CROPPING

(i) The system is very risky. The farmer may lose all his crops, if there is an outbreak or epidemic of pests, diseases, flood or drought.
(ii) There may be a build-up of pests and diseases on the farm.
(iii) The system might lead to a glut in the market of such crop, causing low price. The glut may be cause by good or surplus harvest.
(iv) Farmers may be discouraged from producing more if there is low pricing in the world market of cash crops such as cocoaand rubber.

Mixed cropping:

This system involves the growing of two or more crops on the same piece of land at the same time, during the same growing season. This system is very common among small scale farmers in Nigeria and West Africa. Crops commonly grown under this system include: yam, cassava, maize, cocoyam, pepper, okra and melon. The crops are mixed together on the same piece of land. Mixed cropping is commonly practiced where farmland is in shortfall. Mixed cropping can be categorized into two forms namely: inter-cropping and inter-planting.

Inter-cropping :

This is a system where a crop is grown in-between another crop, and the crop planted first is harvested last, while the crop planted last is harvested first. For example, yam can be inter- cropped with melon. The yam is planted first before melon is planted, but melon is harvested first before the yam. The principle of inter-cropping is that an early maturing crop is planted among late maturing crop, which is normally planted first, but the short season crop is harvested first.







INTER-PLANTING OR CATCH CROPPING
This system involves the planting of two crops at different times, and the crop planted first is harvested first before the second crop. For example, maize is said to be inter-planted with (i.p.w) yam or cassava. The maize is planted first before the yam or cassava is planted, and the maize is harvested first, while the yam or cassava is harvested later.
ADVANTAGES OF MIXED CROPPING
(i) Mixed cropping provides insurance against crop failure, in the sense that when one crop fails, the farmer falls back on the other crops.
(ii) The fertility of the soil is used to its maximum by the growing crops.
(iii) Protection against soil erosion by the extensive root systems and leaves is guaranteed by the crops.
(iv) Spread of pests and diseases is minimal
(v) The fertility of the soil can be improved with the inclusion of legumes in the system
DISADVANTAGES OF MIXED CROPPING
(i) It discourages farm mechanization
(ii) It is difficult to use chemical, e.g. herbicides, to control weeds under this system, because such herbicides may be harmful to some of the crops.
There are competitions between crops for nutrients, air, water, space and light, which may seriously reduce the yield of the less competitive crops



FACTORS THAT DETERMINE THE USE OF FARMING SYSTEMS
There are many factors that may be responsible for the use of a particular system in any given area. These include:
(i)
Environmental factors
Climatic factors which include rainfall, relative humidity and temperature, in no small way determine the type of crops that can be grown in an area. For example, tree crops such as oil palm, cocoa and kola-nuts are grown in the Southern part of Nigeria, due to heavy rainfall and other favourable climatic conditions such as high relative humidity and vegetational cover (forest zone), while crops such as millet and sorghum are grown in the Northern part, which is covered by grassland due to high temperature, low rainfall and low relative humidity, which favour the growing of such crops. Soil factorswhich are also environmental factors such as structure, texture and nutrients availability also determine the type of crops that can be grown on a particular soil. For example, deep loamy soil can be used for growing a number of crops such as yam, cassava, cocoyam, etc. Soil such as sandy soil cannot give good yield of such crops. Also, heavy clay soil does not favour the growing of groundnut.







(ii)
Social factors:
These factors include the taste and religious beliefs of some people in an area. For .example, pigs are not kept or reared by Muslims, because they forbid the eating of pork. Some cultures in the country forbid the eating of goat meat, due to their local belief or taste, while it is a delicacy to some.
(i)
Land tenure system:
This is a system of inheritance that greatly determines the type of farming system that may be used at a particular time in an area. For example, if the land in an area belongs to the community (land tenure system), it is very difficult for an individual to practice large scale farming, because such land is usually shared to every member of that community in small portions of small scale farming.


HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION

126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149. PLOUGHS
142. FIELD MACHINES
157. PLANTERS
164. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION