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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one stomach 1. Po...

AQUACULTURE AND FISH FARMING


AQUACULTURE

MEANING AND TYPES OF AQUACULTURE

Aquaculture is the act of rearing selected species of fish, shrimps and prawns difference’, crabs, etc. under scientifically control conditions in enclosed bodies of water such as ponds, streams and rivers where they feed, grow, breed and are harvested for consumption or for sale.

TYPES OF AQUACULTURE

The different types of aquaculture are: (i) fish farming (ii) shrimp farming (iii) crab farming







DEFINITION AND IMPORTANCE OF FISH FARMING

Fish farming (culture) is the act of rearing selected species of fish under scientifically-controlled conditions in enclosed bodies of water such as ponds, streams and rivers where they feed, grow, breed and are harvested for consumption or for sale.

Terms associated with fish farming

Fingerlings - the newly hatched fishes
Fisheries - this is the study of fish and fishes.
Fish - this refer to a particular species, regardless of the number or quantity.
Fishes - this refers to the different species of fish
Pond - this is artificial body of water where fish(es) can be reared.
Gears - these are equipment used in harvesting fish.
Fry - this refers to young fish(es) or baby fish(es)
School - this is a group of fish (es).
Hatchery - this refers to a unit where fish eggs are incubated and hatched artificially
into fish.
Aquarium - this is an artificial fish pond kept for aesthetic or entertainment purposes at
home .
Aquaculture - this refers to the study and production of fish, shrimps and other aquatic
food organisms.






CLASSIFICATION OF FISHES

Fishes can be classified into two main groups:
(a)

Classification based on fish habitat:

under this classification, two groups exist:
(i) Fresh water fishes: These fishes live in fresh water, i.e the water does not contain salts. Examples of such fresh water are ponds, streams, rivers and lakes. Examples of fishes in this group are tilapia, carp, perch, trout and mudfish.
(ii) Salt water fish: These fishes live in water containing salts such as lagoons, seas and oceans. Examples of salt water fishes are salmons, mackerel, shark, tilapia, rays and eels.

(b)

Classification based on body structure:

Under this classification, two groups also exist.
(i) Bony fishes: These fishes possess bony skeletons .examples are tilapia, salmon, carps, trout, catfish, salmon, perch and herring. Majority of these fishes are found in fresh water.
(ii) Cartilaginous fishes: These fishes possess soft bones composed of cartilages. Majority of these fishes are found in salt water and examples are shark, dolphin, dogfish and rays.
(iii) Scientific names of fish species commonly stocked in a pond:
(1) Clarias spp.
(2) Chrysichtyns nigro digitatus
(3) Gymnacus niloticus
(4) Tilapia spp
(5) Lates nilotica
(6) Gypramus carpis
(7) Heterotis niloticus
(8) Labeo spp.
(9) Heterobranclues spp.
(10) Hypothmichitys spp.
(11) Cypramus
(12) Ophiocephalus spp.



IMPORTANCE OF FISH FARMING

Fish farming is important for the following reasons;
(i) It provides fish which serves as a source of food, e.g protein to man and livestock.
(ii) It provides a means of increasing the availability of protein to people at reduced cost.
(iii) It provides a means of recycling wastes, e.g animal dungs from farms, factories and sewage disposal systems.
(iv) Fish can be processed into fish by-products such as fish meal, fish oil, manure and skin.
(v) It provides employment and income to many people.
(vi) A better use of land and water in our environment is also ensured through fish farming.
(vii) It can generate foreign exchange to a nation, especially when fish are extorted to other countries.
(viii) Fish farming is also useful in the area of research work and other educational purposes.


PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION OF FISH

Harvested fish is either consumed, sold or preserved for future use.
Fish processing involves the removal of scales, fins, gut and gills. The remaining part is then cooked or fried for eating. By-products of fish professing include:
(i) Salting: This is the application of salt on the fish. It prevents the growth spillage organisms.
(ii) Smoking: This is the drying of fish over naked fire. It reduces the moisture content and increases the taste and flavor of the fish.
(iii) Sun-drying: this involves the use of cold storage like refrigerators and deep freezers to store fish over a very long time.
(iv) Canning: This involves the storage of processed and consumable fish in cans under special conditions for future consumption, e.g sardine
(v) Roasting: Roasting of fish over a naked for a beam of light on harvested fish in an enclosed storage facilities in order to preserve the fish.
(vi) Steam cooking: Steam cooking involves the cooking of harvested fish over hot steam. Such activity helps to preserve the fish.
(vii) Icing: Icing involves the placement of ice block over or around harvested fish in a container. This method ensure a temporary storage of fish.
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION





103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE


METHODS OF FISH HARVESTING

Fishing tools or gears
Examples of fishing tools or gears commonly used to harvest fish(es) are:
(i) Cast net
(ii) Drag net, draw net, or seine net
(iii) Clap net
(iv) Set net
(v) Trawler with seine net or fishing trawler
(vi) Fish traps, gill net, fishing basket, harpoon or spear

(a) Fishing nets
Functions/Uses
Fishing nets are generally used for the harvesting of fish(es) from either ponds, streams, rivers, lakes, oceans or sea
Description
There are various kinds of nets commonly used. Examples are:
(i) Scoop Net: This is a small net which may be rectangular or cylindrical in shape with the required or regulated mesh size. It has a wide mouth and a short /long wooden handle. After the pond has been drained, harvesting can be done with a scoop net.
(ii) Gill nets: Gill nets are used to harvest or catch bigger fish(es) in a pond, thus leaving the smaller fish(es) until they attain bigger sizes. Gill nets are usually made of 2 – 3cm mesh sizes.
They are called gill nets because the fish pokes its head through the net mesh and is caught around the gills as it tries to wriggle through the net. The gill nets have lead sinkers (weights) at the bottom rope and floats at the top ropes.
(iii) Seine net: A seine net is capable of collecting all the fishes in the pond at once because it has smaller mesh size than the gill nets. It is made of heavy fibres to hold the fish. The nets usually have lead sinkers (weights) attached to the bottom ropes. These weights hold the nets at the bottom of the pond so that fish cannot escape underneath the nets as they are pulled. The nets also have floats attached to the top ropes to help the net from an enclosure. Seine net is used with trawlers. Seine net is used with trawlers called fishing trawlers.
(iv) Fishing trawler: This is a large fishing boat in which large nets called seine nets can be attached. It is used for harvesting large fish(es) at a time for commercial purposes.
(v) Fishing basket: this is a fishing tool designed like a basket. It has a cylindrical shape with a wide mouth. It has a trigger close to the mouth while at the taper end, hold the food (bait). The bait attracts the fish and when it enters the basket, the trigger is pulled down as the body of the fish touches it and this closes the mouth of the basket. By so doing, the fish cannot come out of the basket as it is being trapped.
(vi) Hook and line: The hook and line is also a fish harvesting tool. It has a long wooden handle, a long line fishing is to offer the fish a bait (usually a small piece of fish or earth worm) fixed to a hook at the end of the line or rope. The fish, while trying to bite the bait, swallows the hook and thus gets caught.

OTHER METHODS OF HARVESTING FISH INCLUDE :


(1) Trapping: This involves the setting of traps to cat fish. It involves the use of gears made from ropes or raffia woven into various models of enclosures for capturing fishes.
They are set along water courses and any fish that enters the trap would not be able to get out but remains there until it is caught by the fisherman.






(2) Netting: This involves the use of various types of nets to catch fish. Nets like gill net, clap net, trawl net, etc. which have been woven into various sizes and thickness are thrown into water to catch fish.

(3) Electro-fishing: This involves the use of electricity to catch fish by creating electric fields in an enclosed area such that current is sent across, killing fishes between poles. It can only be used for total harvesting of fish.

(4) Draining of ponds: This involves draining of pond water for easy use of net to catch large fishes.

(5) Use of ultrasonic: this is an instrument which can make sound in water and attract fishes so that they can easily be trapped or harvested using other means of harvesting.
(6) Impaling: This involves the use of spears or harpoon to attack and catch big fishes.







HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES