Breeding of animals



Breeding of Hybridization

:
Hybridization is a method by which an offspring is produced through the crossing of two different plant varieties of the same species. In other words, it refers to the development of plants by combining inherited qualities of one plant with that of another through the fertilization of female with male gametes.


TYPES OF BREEDING

(i)

In-breeding

: This is the pollination and fertilization of closely related crop plants in order to retain certain desirable characteristics. This can lead to pure breed or pure line.
(ii)

Pure line

: A plant which has been self-fertilized or crossed continuously with closely related species (inbred) for many generations, so that the desirable qualities it possesses do not change from generation to generation, is called a pure line. Pure line will always reproduce itself with great precision.
(iii)

Cross breeding

: This is the pollination and fertilization of unrelated crop plants belonging to different breeds. This results in the production of an offspring which is superior to the average performance of the parents. This is called hybrid vigour “heterosis”.




ADVANTAGES OF BREEDING

(i) breeding can produce a superior offspring resulting in hybrid vigour or heterosis (cross breeding)
(ii) Progency grows more rapidly (cross breeding)
(iii) Production of pure line (in-breeding).
(iv) Offspring can withstand variations of environment (cross breeding)


DISADVANTAGES OF BREEDING

(i) breeding could lead to “inbreeding depression”, which is the depression or loss in vigour and performance of offspring (in-breeding)
(ii) There is a drop in production or yield of crops in terms of quantity and quality (in-breeding)
(iii) breeding may lead to poor or low resistance to disease attack (in-breeding)



Productivity of crops can be achieved through a combination of methods which include

:
(1) Crop Improvement Methods: As discussed earlier, crops can be improved through introduction, selection and hybridization.
(ii) Proper Timing of Planting: Crops should be grown at the right time to avoid high temperature, inadequate rainfall or abundance of pests and diseases during growth.
(iii) Adoption of Better Cultivation Methods: The adoption of better methods of cultivation like crop rotation which adds nutrients to soil, prevents erosion, pests and diseases outbreak and helps to increase yield.
(iv) Use of Manures and Fertilizers: The use of manure like farm yard compost and green manure in combination with the use of fertilizers helps to add nutrients to soil and promotes good growth of crops.
(v) Control of Pests of Crops: The control of pests of crops which I cause reduction in yield and growth can help in the improvement of crops.
(vi) Control of Diseases of Crops: Diseases also cause a reduction in growth and productivity of crops. Where they are adequately prevented, it will lead to improvement of such crops.
(vii) Use of Resistant Varieties: Some varieties of crops are capable of resisting disease’s attack and can mature early thereby increasing the yield of crops.
(viii) Use of good crop varieties: There are some varieties of crops which naturally will grow well in different environmental conditions. Such crops do help to increase the overall production of such crops






HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS

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