CATTLE REARING AND TYPES OF CATTLE


CATTLE REARING

Cattle belongs to the group of animals known as Bovidae. They are ruminants, having hollow horns and hoofs with an even number of toes. Cattle are reared for their meat, milk, hide and skin, manure and as draught animals for work on the farm.

BREEDS OF CATTLE

(i) Azawal
(ii) Sokoto gudali
(iii) Wadara (Shuwa)
(iv) White Fulani
(v) Red bororo
(vi) Muturu
(vii) N’dama
(viii) Keketu Borgu)
(ix) Kuri
(x) Brown Swiss
(xi) Holstein
(xii) Jersey





The breeds of cattle can also be categorized into three groups. These groups are:
(a) Beef Cattle: Beef cattle are the cattle which have the ability to produce meat. Examples are: (i) N’dama (ii) Red Bororo (iii) Sokoto Gudali (iv) Keteku (Borgu) (v) Kuri (vi) Brown Swiss (vii) Rahaji
(b) Dairy Cattle: These are cattle which are reared mainly to produce milk. Examples are: (i) White Fulani (ii) Jersey (iii) Red poll (iv) Kerry (v) Guernsey (vi) Dexter (vii) Holstein / Friesian (viii) Ayshere (ix) South devon (x) Dairy short born.
(c) Dual Purpose Cattle: These are cattle capable of producing milk and meat. Examples are: (i) Azawal (ii) Muturu (iii) Biu (iv) Wadara (shuwa).


TERMINOLOGIES USED IN CATTLE

Bull An adult male cattle
Cow An adult female cattle
Calf A young or baby cattle
Heifer A growing female up to first calving
Bull calf A young male cattle
Heifer calf A young female cattle
Steer A castrated male cattle
Ox A castrated adult male
Vealer A castrated female cattle
Serving Act of mating in cattle
Calving Act of giving birth (Parturition)
Beef Meat of cattle
Dairy cattle Cattle kept for milk production
Beef cattle Cattle reared for meat production
Herd A group of cattle
Polled Cattle without horns
Horned Cattle with horns
Humped Cattle with humps
Humpless Cattle without humps






Characteristics of West African Breed of Cattle

(i) Very hardy (ii) Have greater tolerance to heat and humidity (iii) Tolerant to diseases e.g. trypanosomiasis (iv) withstand stress and travel long distances without water. (v) maturing (vi) Have compact/blocky shaped body. (vii) Are mostly of purpose (produce meat and milk) (Generally long legged animals. (ix) Some are humped (x) Powerful shoulder for use as draught animals Loose, thin and pigmented skin (xii) Low milk yields/small udder (xiii) S growth rate (xiv) Small body weight.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF CATTLE

(i) Cattle provide meat and milk for man
(ii) Some cattle help to pull ploughs and work as draught animals.
(iii) They provide hides and skin
(iv) They provide blood meal and bone meal for farm animals as feed
(v) Fertilizers can be obtained from blood, bones and offals of cattle
(vi) Cattle dung (faeces) is a very good source of manure
(vii) Cattle provide employment and income to people
(viii) Cattle are also a source of revenue to some countries
(ix) Cattle are also used for religious purposes as well as festivals in some places
(x) Cattle are used for research work or work educational purposes

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION



48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
75. SOIL WATER
80. SANDY SOIL CLAY SOIL LOAMY SOIL
83. SOIL TEXTURE
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
soil improvement techniques
90. MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112. THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING CLEARING
121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING FARM YARD MANURE
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149. PLOUGHS
142. FIELD MACHINES
157. PLANTERS
164. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION





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