CROP IMPROVEMENT


CROP IMPROVEMENT

MEANING OF CROP IMPROVEMENT

Crop improvement is defined as the science that deals with the development of crop varieties with superior quality quantity. In other words, crop improvement refers to the ways of developing and breeding of crop varieties are better than the existing varieties member of characters.

As a result of the ever increasing population, modern scientific of crop improvement became necessary in order to increase productivity as maintain quality of food crops. Man has identified certain crop plants that useful to him, and learnt that if he could viable seeds for planting and adopt I cultural practices, he could obtain quantity and quality of food needed man and industrial purposes. This is the main purpose of crop improvement.




Aims of Crop Improvement


The plants breeders involved in improving usually have certain aims in mind doing their work. They try to lute the undesirable characters in plants with desirable ones so that higher yields will be produced with improved quality.

The aims of crop improvement therefore include:

(1)

To increase yield

: The varieties of crops so developed by breeders are capable of giving very high yield or quantity of crops per unit of land. This quantity is measured in kg/ha, e.g. high yield of tomato plant from 800kg/ha to 2000kg/ha.

(2)

To improve the quality of produce:

The quality of farm produce enhances its usefulness and value. Plant breeders can improve on the taste, colour, size, nutritive value and fibre content of crops.

(3)

To adapt to climatic conditions

: Plant breeders develop varieties of crops that are able to withstand extreme conditions of cold, drought and wind by adjusting the growth cycle of the variety better to suit the available growing season.

(4)

To increase resistance to diseases

: Plant breeders also develop varieties of crops which are not only resistant to diseases but produce high yield in the presence of diseases.



(5)

To increase resistance to pests

: It is also the aim of plant breeders to develop varieties of crops which are not only resistant to diseases but produce high yield in the presence of pests.

(6)

To meet the needs of growers

: Improvements in farming methods may make particular characteristics desirable to growers in their plants. For example, many growers would prefer short variety of maize which can be harvested by machine, instead of tall ones which can only be harvested by hand.

(7)

To produce crops with uniform agronomic characteristics

: One of the aims of plant breeders is to breed crops which can grow and mature uniformly to facilitate mechanization or ease of harvesting.

(8)

To breed crops with early maturity

: Plant breeders are involved in the production of crops which will mature early. This can allow for the production of that crop many times in a year, depending on the crop.

(9)

To improve harvesting qualities

: Breeders try to produce crops that can be harvested with ease and without damage to the seeds/fruits.

(10)

To improve the nutritional value of the produce

: It is the ultimate aim of plant breeders to develop crops that have nutritional value like high protein, mineral, vitamin, etc. which are useful to man.

(11)

To meet the needs of consumers (processors or industrialists)

: The demand by food processors as well as other consumers creates pressure for new quality of plants. For instance, improved quality in farm products, e.g. maize with high protein content will contribute to good health of the people.




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Agricultural biology topics


HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS


41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL

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