FACTORS OF PRODUCTION IN AGRICULTURE



FACTORS OF PRODUCTION IN AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

DEFINITION OF PRODUCTION

Production refers to all economic activities which result in the creation of goods and services. In other words, production is the process of making or manufacturing goods as well as the process of providing services. For goods and services to be created during the process of production, certain factors have to come together. These resources or factors that are combined for goods and services to be produced are known as factors of production. There are four factors of production. These are Land, Labour, Capital and Entrepreneur or Management.

LAND AS A FACTOR OF PRODUCTION

Definition: Land refers to where productive activities such as growing of crops, rearing of animals and establishment of farmstead are carried out.




FEATURES OF CHARACTERISTICS OF LAND

(i) Land is a natural gift
(ii) Land can appreciate or depreciate in value
(iii) It is geographically immobile
(iv) It is abundant in some areas and scarce in other areas
(v) It is heterogenous in quality differing from one place to another in topography, soil texture and structure and soil fertility
(vi) Because of its limited supply, land is also subject to the law of diminishing returns
(vii) Reward for land is rent
(viii) Availability is subject to land use Act/Law
(ix) Its suitability influences output
(x) Its value is determined by its location
(xi) It can be used as collateral for loan


IMPORTANCE OF LAND IN AN AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISE

(i) Land is used for the cultivation of food crops such as maize, rice and cowpea
(ii) It is also used for the cultivation of cash crops, e.g. cocoa, rubber and oil palm
(iii) It is used for the rearing of animals
(iv) It is used for forest development
(v) It is also used for fish pond development
(vi) It is used for wildlife conservation
(vii) Land is used as collateral for securing loans from banks


NON-AGRICULTURAL USES OF LAND

(i) Land is used for construction purposes, e.g roads and airports
(ii) It can be used for social or recreational purpose e.g stadia, schools, markets and cemeteries
(iii) Land is used for residential building
(iv) Land can also be used for industrial buildings
(v) Land can also be used for mining purposes e.g extraction of petroleum and gold


APPRECIATION OF LAND

Land can appreciate (increase) in its value through the following ways:
(i) Fallowing – allowing farmlands to rest thereby regaining its lost nutrients
(ii) Addition or use of fertilizers or manure to increase its fertility
(iii) Use of clean uninfected inputs, e.g planting materials like seeds
(iv) Weeding/clearing to remove weeds that compete with crops for nutrients and space
(v) Good or appropriate soil tillage that can prevent soil erosion
(vi) Irrigation the artificial application of water to soil to supplement insufficient rain
(vii) Good access road – to ensure proper usage of land
(viii) Good drainage – the artificial removal of excess water from soil to promote crop growth
(ix) Increase in population density – which makes land expensive to buy





DEPRECIATION OF LAND

Land can depreciate or decrease in its use or value through the following ways:
(i) Erosion menace – this removes the top soil
(ii) Infestation by weeds – these remove nutrients from soil
(iii) Infestation by pests – these pests reduce the yield of crop if present in the soil
(iv) Infestation by diseases – this also reduces the yield of crops
(v) Continuous cultivation without the use of fertilizers or manure
(vi) Abuse on land, e.g overgrazing, indiscriminate bush burning
(vii) Dumping of toxic materials at it tends to reduce soil fertility
(viii) Water logging – this also reduces soil fertility and land for farming


LABOUR AS A FACTOR OF PRODUCTION

Definition: Labour includes all forms of productive human efforts put into or utilized in production. It also refers to man’s mental and physical exertions generated in the process of production

FEATURES OR CHARACTERISTICS OF LABOUR

(i) Labour is also one of the factors of production
(ii) Human effort can be intellectual or mental, manual or physical, provided it is directed towards the production of goods and services
(iii) Labour is mobile and had feelings and cannot be used anyhow
(iv) Labour exist in three kinds. These are:
(a) Skilled Labour (White Collar Jobs): Highly educated and technical to provide the expertise for farm operations
(b) Semi-skilled Labour: Averagely educated to perform simple farm operations
(c) Unskilled Labour: (Brown Collar Jobs): These are illiterates that provide manual labour for farm operations
(v) The unit of labour is man-hours or man-days
(vi) The reward of labour is wages and salaries
(vii) It converts natural resources into usable products
(viii) It is a variable asset
(ix) Its size and quality influence production or output
(x) Its output can be improved by training

FORMS OF LABOUR AVAILABLE TO THE FARMER INCLUDE

(a) Family Labour
(i) This refers to the labour provided by the man, his wife and children, i.e. the farmer’s family)
(ii) It involves the head of the family as the operator/manager
(iii) He organizes the family labour by himself
(iv) He assigns job to each member of the family
(v) This is the major source of labour available to the farmer and it is very cheap
(b) Personal Labour
This is the labour provided by the owner of the farm
(c) Communal Labour: This is the kind of labour provided by neigbours and the community
(d) Hired or Paid Labour
(i) This is the kind of labour that is paid either daily or they receive salary at the end of the month
(ii) It is common where a farmer has large farm size
(iii) Hired labour is engage either in a permanent or time-rated basis
(iv) The farmer pays for each labour
(v) It is not readily available; hence, expensive





IMPROTANCE OF LABOUR IN AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISE

Agricultural Enterprise
(i) It uses other factors for production
(ii) Intellectual labour ensures high agricultural production
(iii) Skilled labour provides the expertise required for major farm operations
(iv) Labour ensures the success of any agricultural enterprise
(v) It provides the services required to achieve the various stages of agricultural production
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE


CAPITAL AS A FACTOR OF PRODUCTION

Definition: Capital includes all man-made productive assets which are used in production. In other words, these are assets made by man to enable him to produce goods and services.

FEATURES OR CHARACTERISTICS OF CAPITAL

(i) Capital is also a factor of production
(ii) Examples of capital are hoe, cutlass, tractor, farm building, cash in hand and plough
(iii) It can depreciate or appreciate
(iv) Sources of capital include personal savings, banks, government agencies and cooperative societies
(v) The reward for capital is interest
(vi) It is a stock of assets used in production
(vii) It is used to purchase farm inputs, e.g. seeds, agro-chemicals or used as working capital
(viii) It is used to acquire other factors, e.g. land and labour
(ix) It is obtained in form of loans or subsidies
(x) Capital is grouped into two classes:
(a) Fixed Capital: These are capital or assets purchased for continuous use in production. In other words, these are items or materials which are not used up during production. Examples of fixed capital include: farm building, motor vehicles, farm tools and implements, land furniture and fittings, incubators, ploughs, harrows, tractors, milking machine, feeders, drinkers, hoes and irrigation equipment
(b) Working or Variable Capital: These are capital or assets which are used up during the process of production. Examples are: water, feeds, drugs, cash in hand vaccines, litters, fertilizers, seeds and chemical


IMPORTANCE OF CAPITAL IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

(i) Working capital is used in the day-to-day running of the farm enterprise
(ii) Working capital is used for paying wages
(iii) Working capital is used for purchase of farm inputs, maintenance services on the farm, and feeding livestock, etc.
(iv) Fixed capital in form of immovable house and farmsteads provide shelter for farm operations.
(v) Fixed capital in form of machinery provides farm power for farm operations
(vi) Fixed capital is used to generate more funds and the success of farm enterprises usually depends on the maximum use of these capital assets
(vii) Working capital helps to facilitate farm expansion or increase in farm size
(viii) Capital is used to establish farm enterprise








Some of the important factors of production are: (i) Land (ii) Labour (iii) Capital (iv) Entrepreneur.

Whatever is used in producing a commodity is called its inputs. For example, for producing wheat, a farmer uses inputs like soil, tractor, tools, seeds, manure, water and his own services.

All the inputs are classified into two groups—primary inputs and secondary inputs. Primary inputs render services only whereas secondary inputs get merged in the commodity for which they are used.

ADVERTISEMENTS:

In the above example, soil, tractor, tools and farmer’s services are primary inputs because they render services only whereas seeds, manure, water and insecticides are secondary inputs because they get merged in the commodity for which they are used. It is primary inputs which are called factors of production.

Primary inputs are also called factor inputs and secondary inputs are known as non-factor inputs. Alternatively, production is undertaken with the help of resources which can be categorised into natural resources (land), human resources (labour and entrepreneur) and manufactured resources (capital).

All factors of production are traditionally classified in the following four groups:

Factors of Production
(i) Land:

It refers to all natural resources which are free gifts of nature. Land, therefore, includes all gifts of nature available to mankind—both on the surface and under the surface, e.g., soil, rivers, waters, forests, mountains, mines, deserts, seas, climate, rains, air, sun, etc.
(ii) Labour:

Human efforts done mentally or physically with the aim of earning income is known as labour. Thus, labour is a physical or mental effort of human being in the process of production. The compensation given to labourers in return for their productive work is called wages (or compensation of employees).

Land is a passive factor whereas labour is an active factor of production. Actually, it is labour which in cooperation with land makes production possible. Land and labour are also known as primary factors of production as their supplies are determined more or less outside the economic system itself.
(iii) Capital:

All man-made goods which are used for further production of wealth are included in capital. Thus, it is man-made material source of production. Alternatively, all man-made aids to production, which are not consumed/or their own sake, are termed as capital.

It is the produced means of production. Examples are—machines, tools, buildings, roads, bridges, raw material, trucks, factories, etc. An increase in the capital of an economy means an increase in the productive capacity of the economy. Logically and chronologically, capital is derived from land and labour and has therefore, been named as Stored-Up labour.
(iv) Entrepreneur:

An entrepreneur is a person who organises the other factors and undertakes the risks and uncertainties involved in the production. He hires the other three factors, brings them together, organises and coordinates them so as to earn maximum profit. For example, Mr. X who takes the risk of manufacturing television sets will be called an entrepreneur.

An entrepreneur acts as a boss and decides how the business shall run. He decides in what proportion factors should be combined. What and where he will produce and by what method. He is loosely identified with the owner, speculator, innovator or inventor and organiser of the business. Thus, entrepreneur ship is a trait or quality owned by the entrepreneur.

Some economists are of the opinion that basically there are only two factors of production—land and labour. Land they say is appropriated from gifts of nature by human labour and entrepreneur is only a special variety of labour. Land and labour are, therefore, primary factors whereas capital and entrepreneur are secondary factors.

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT

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