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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one stomach 1. P...

FARM SURVEYING AND MATERIALS



FARM SURVEYING AND PLANNING

MEANING OF FARM SURVEYING
Farm surveying is defined as the process of measuring and mapping out the position, topography, size and boundary of an area of farmland. It can also be defined as the process by which measuring of land is made on the farm. Such measurements by tables, plans or layout are done for specific purposes.

IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEYING AND PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE

Reasons why farm surveying is important include the following:
(1) Determination of size of farmland: Farm survey helps to determine the size or hectare of farmland.
(2) For feasibility studies: Farm survey is also important or useful for the preparation of feasibility studies.
(3) Proper use of farmland: Farm survey enables farmers to make proper use of the land.
(4) Location of farm buildings: Farmers can determine where to site and locate certain buildings or structures in the farm.
(5) Planning of farmstead: Farm maps or soil maps are useful in planning the farmstead.
(6) For soil classification: Characteristics and features of the various soil units are used for soil classification.
(7) Projection of yield: The yield or productivity of farmland can be projected.
(8) For collateral security: Results of farm survey can be used as collateral for securing loan from financial institutions.
(9) Acquisition of certificate of occupancy (C of O): Farm survey facilities acquisition of certificate of occupancy (C of O).
(10) Determination of gradient of farmland: Farm survey also helps to determine the gradients of the farmland.
(11) Construction of roads: Road and others access ways can be constructed with the knowledge derived from surveying of the land.








SOME COMMON SURVEYING EQUIPMENT/INSTRUMENTS

Some common surveying equipment or instruments.
(1) Ranging pole
(2) Gunter’s chain
(3) Measuring tape
(4) Prismatic compass
(5) Theodolite
(6) Arrows or pin
(7) Offset staff
(8) Beacons or pillars.

Ranging pole

Description
(i) Ranging pole is made of wood or metal
(ii) It is of varying lengths e.g 18m, 2.4m, or 3.0m
(iii) It is generally circular in section, though some octagonal types are obtainable.
(iv) It is usually painted black, bright, red and white to enable it to be seen from a distance.
(v) It has a pointed end.
Function/uses:
(i) It is used for making stations
(ii) It is also used for making straight lines

Gunter’s chain

Description
(i) It consists of a series of dumb bell-shaped links of steel wires joined together by three small rings
(ii) One Gunter’s chain is normally 20.13m (66ft) in length.
(iii) It has brass handles at either side.
(iv) It is divided into 100 links so that each link is 19.8cm or 7.92 ins.
(v) A link is the distance from the middle of the central ring to the middle of the next central ring.
(vi) The chain is entirely metallic.
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION

TYPES OF SURVEY

Deformation survey:
a survey to determine if a structure or object is changing shape or moving. First the positions of points on an object are found. A period of time is allowed to pass and the positions are then re-measured and calculated. Then a comparison between the two sets of positions is made.


Dimensional control survey: This is a type of survey conducted in or on a non-level surface. Common in the oil and gas industry to replace old or damaged pipes on a like-for-like basis, the advantage of dimensional control survey is that the instrument used to conduct the survey does not need to be level. This is useful in the off-shore industry, as not all platforms are fixed and are thus subject to movement.


Engineering surveying: topographic, layout, and as-built surveys associated with engineering design. They often need geodetic computations beyond normal civil engineering practice.

Foundation survey: a survey done to collect the positional data on a foundation that has been poured and is cured. This is done to ensure that the foundation was constructed in the location, and at the elevation, authorized in the plot plan, site plan, or subdivision plan.

this few types of survey was just sighted to give you a little insight on the different types of land survey. you can also follow these links for information

1. wikipedia.org
2. https://study.com


17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.





39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING

65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER






127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS

153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE

Precautions to be taken when chaining a farmland.

(i) Pull taut chains, tapes or ropes
(ii) Avoid errors of transporting figures on papers
(iii) Equipment such as theodolite should be placed on a perfect horizontal plane.
(iv) All chains, tapes, ropes, etc must be properly allligned before taking measurement.
(v) Avoid error of parallax when reading measurements.
(vi) Make sure the chain is not faulty before use.
Function/use
It is used in taking short or detailed measurement of length and breadth

Measuring tape

Description
(i) It is usually made of linen of fine steel sheet.
(ii) It is usually marked on one side with metric units and the other side with the imperial unit.
(iii) The tape is of various types and lengths.
(iv) The tape is normally wound in a small case from where it is unwound for use.
Function/use





It is used for taking measurement of length, breadth and height.

Prismatic compass

Description
(i) It is normally placed on a stand
(ii) It has a prism
(iii) It has a compass card marked in degrees, half degrees, minutes and seconds in a clockwise direction.
(iv) It has a straight slot.
Functions/uses
It is used in taking bearings; it is also used in measuring angular distance.

Theodolite

Description
(i) It consists of a tripod stand made of wood of lightweight metal solid or telescopic legs.
(ii) The tripod stand forms the base of the instrument
(iii) It has a lower plate which contains the graduated horizontal circle made of glass or brass
(iv) It has a spirit level which is used to define horizontal plain against which angles of the elevation or depression are measured
Function/use: It is used to measure horizontal or vertical angles or planes.


Arrow or pin

Description
(i) This is thin pointed steel wire of about 3cm long with one end curved into a ring
(ii) A red cloth is normally attached to the ring so that it can be seen from afar.
Functions/uses
(i) It is used during chaining for marking off chain lengths as measured
(ii) It can also be used for marking stations

Offset Staff

Description
(i) This is a graduated rod-3m long
(ii) A hook may be fitted at the top for the purpose of pulling a chain through a hedge
(iii) Each telescope link is 0.3m (30cm) in length
Function/Use
(i) It is used for taking short offset measurements


Beacon or Pillar

Description
(i) It is made of rectangular block usually in concrete form
(ii) Marks are usually inscribed on top of the block
(iii) The beacons are always buried in the ground with marked head raised a little above the ground
Function/Uses
(i) It is used for making off points measured
(ii) It is also used for the recognition of the measured


General Maintenance of Surveying Instruments

(i) All instruments must be clean after use.
(ii) Keep instruments in dry and cool places
(iii) Those with metals parts should be oiled or greased or painted before they are put away for a long time
(iv) Keep instruments away from heat and rain to prevent damage and rusting respectively.
(v) Replace worn-out parts
(vi) Use instruments only for the intended functions
(vii) Let competent surveyor hand and use the instruments only or as he may direct.


MEANING AND IMPORTANCE OF FARM PLANNING

(i) It enables the farmer to make proper use of the land






(ii) It also ensures the proper sitting of certain buildings or structures in certain locations within the farmstead
(iii) It ensures the location of livestock buildings in relation to other farm buildings
(iv) It promotes the neatness and prevents pollution within the farmstead

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE