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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one stomach 1. Po...

FISH POND MANAGEMENT



ESTABLISHMENT/CONSTRUCTION OF A FISH POND

The following operations are normally carried out when establishing a fish pond:

(i) Site selection: Site selection involves the choice of best site based on necessary conditions like a piece of land through which a perennial stream flows. The site should be on a fertile and clay soil to prevent seepage of water. It should have a valley with narrow neck and a fairly open area.

(ii) Reconnaissance or general survey: Detailed survey of the chosen site should be carried out, especially by intensions workers. Such workers help to determine the height of pond, volume of earth to be used for dyke, total water
surface area, volume of water in the pond or embracement.
(iii) Clearing and stumping of site: This involves the removal of thrash, cutting of trees and removal of stumps.

(iv) Construction of dam: Dam is usually constructed across the stream. Materials used in the construction should be of good quality. Clay soil should be used for dam construction because of its ability to hold water.

(v) Construction of core trench: This involves the removal of the soil or excavation. It is positioned at right angle to the dam. Such dam should be made with consolidated stones or cement walls.

(vi) Construction of spill way: Spill way is positioned at one end of the dam. Wood and wire-mesh screen should be used to construct the spill way.







(vii) Impoundment of pond: This involves the filling of the pond with water by opening the monk board of the reservoir. This leads to the release of water and flow to fill the pond.

(viii) Liming: This involves the addition of limestone or calcium carbonate powder to the sides and bottom of the pond to seal pores and prevent water loss. Liming also reduces acidity of the pond water and encourages the growth of planktons (fish food). However, liming is done before filing the pond with water. The lime materials should be left for four weeks in its dry state.

(ix) Pond fertilization: Fertilizer encourages the growth of planktons (fish food). Pond fertilizer is done by pouring organic fertilizers such as poultry droppings, cow dung or the use of inorganic ones like N.P.K or super phosphate. Pond fertilization should be carried out 15 days before stocking pond with water.
(x) Pond inoculation: This is the introduction of proper planktons species into the pond. This is done by obtaining some water from a plankton-rich pond and pour into a newly fertilized pond. When the pond water begins to turn green, this green water indicates the abundance of planktons (natural food of fish). To keep the water green, fertilizer is added into the pond every week.
(xi) Stocking of pond: This is the introduction of the proper baby fish called fingerlings or fries into the pond. The pond is stocked at the rate of two fingerlings per square metre. The fingerlings should not be poured into the pond. Rather, the container should be placed gently into the water and the fingerlings allowed to swim into the water pond themselves.


1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE


CONDITIONS OR FACTORS NECESSARY FOR SITING A FISH POND

The factors or conditions necessary for siting a fish pond include:
(1) Adequate water supply
(2) Soil in the area
(3) Vegetation of the area
(4) Topography of the area
(5) Availability of fast growing fishes.
(6) Availability of supplementary feedstuff
(1) Adequate water supply: There must be constant supply of water of good quality and quantity. The water can be from streams, lakes, rivers, irrigations canals and springs. Good quality water is necessary because it will provide oxygen and food to fish, create a medium for waste discharge and reproduction. The water should not have a bad smell, taste or colour and should not be too muddy and must be free from pollution.

(2) Soil in the area: soil in the area must be fertile so as to supply nutrients to the fish. It should be clay because of its ability to hold water which is very important in fish pond construction. Soil with too much sand or gravel is not good and would not retain water.

(3) Vegetation of the area: Low vegetation, especially grasslands are preferred. Woody sites are not suitable because clearing and stumping will greatly increase the cost of setting up the fish pond.

(4) Topography: The shape of the land should allow for easy draining and filling of pond with water. The waste must flow from a place that is higher than the pond so that the water can flow into the pond directly. If not, the need for water pumps would arise and this will increase the cost of the p rejects. However, fish pond can be constructed on a flat or level ground but lots of soil have to be removed to create the slope.

(5) Availability of fast growing fish: Fingerlings or baby fish for stocking a fish pond should be the type that can grow fast and mature within a very short time. The use of improved varieties (breeds) in stocking fish pond makes fish farming more profitable.

(6) Availability of supplementary feedstuff: Supplementary feeding is done to ensure rapid growth of fish and allow high stocking density. Artificial or compounded feeds in form of pellets are used to supplement the natural feed (planktons). The addition of fertilizers also promotes the rapid growth of planktons (natural fish food) in the pond.









FEATURES OF A STANDARD FISH POND

The essential features of a standard fish pond include.
(i) Dam
(ii) Core trench
(iii) Distribution channel
(iv) Spill way
(v) Monk
(vi) Boards
(vii) Screen
(viii) Dam slope (inner and outer).
(i) Dam: This is the large area of the pond that holds water. It ensures the availability of water In the pond.
(ii) Core trench: This is the excavated portion of the fish pond. It consolidates the walls with stones and cement.
(iii) Distribution channel: This is the area which helps to introduce water into the pond. Water is distributed to all the sections of the pond until it gets to a particular volume. Fertilizers can equally be mixed up with the water and distributed together.

(iv) Spill way: This is a passage for water to flow over or around a dam. It is positioned at one end of the dam. It uses wood or wire-mesh screen.

(v) Monk: The monk regulates water level automatically in the pond. It helps in the discharge of water from both the surface and bottom. It has vertical low and horizontal culverts or pipes. They are constructed with concrete.

(vi) Boards: These are structures which regulate the flow of water. They are made up of desirable wood and also hold water inside the pond. They are fitted at the centre or middle of slabs at the gates.
(vii) Screens: These structures help to prevent the entry of undesirable species of fish into the pond. They also prevent fish movement out of the pond.
(viii) Dam slope (inner and outer): This helps to regulate water movement into and out of the pond. It also ensures the availability of water in the pond. It is usually constructed at the beginning and end of the pond.






MAINTENANCE OF A FISH POND

To ensure the continuous availability of fish in a fish pond or maintain high fish yield, it is necessary to ensure;

(1) Regular feeding: The fish must be fed twice daily from selected point(s). supplementary feed in the form of compound feed should be given in sufficient quantity to ensure rapid growth and early maturity of the fish.

(2) Deweeding: This is the removal of weeds from the pond. It allows the dissolution of oxygen in water, the penetration of sunlight to the bottom of the pond which will promote the growth of fish food (planktons). It also prevents the build-up of pests and diseases.

(3) Desilting: This is the removal of silt or prevention of silt from entering into the pond. Desilting makes the water to be clean, prompts easy movement of fish within the water and also prevents pollution of the water.

(4) Aeration: Aeration enables oxygen to dissolve in water which is required by fish for respiration. Fishes usually come to the surface of water due to lack of oxygen in the water. Weeds, excessive organic manure, overstocking, etc prevent proper aeration of the pond.

(5) Constant supply of water: The pond should always be filled with water and any leakages reared.

(6) Control of predators: Predators like birds and snake should be prevented from entry into the pond because they could eat up the fish in the pond. This can be done by keeping the pond’s surrounding clean (i.e. constant weeding)







(7) Prevention of diseases: Diseases should be prevented as this could kill all the fish in the pond. Adequate feeding, stocking, temperature, manuring, weeding, etc help to prevent diseases.

(8) Regular harvesting: Regular harvesting of fish is necessary to prevent over-population, outbreak of diseases and cannibalism. Periodic or total harvesting could be done six month after stocking, using net or by draining of the
pond.
(9) Regular application of fertilizer: This should be done once in a month to promote the growth of fish food (planktons) in the pond.

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT

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