GOATGoat is a hollow horned small ruminant also belonging to the family Bovidea of the genus capra. Goat is reared for its meat, milk and hide and skin, e.g, morocco leather from Sokoto Red. Goat milk is the richest of all the milk produced by animals including man.
BREEDS OF GOAT(i) Sokoto Red (ii)Bornu Red (iii) West African long legged goat (iv)West African dwarf goat (v) Bantu (vi) Anglo-Nubian (vii) Aiphine (viii) Saanen (ix) Kano Brown (x)Bauchi type (xi)Togenburg (xii) Nubian (xiii)Boer (xiv) Anglo (xv)Nandi (xvi) East Africa Small Goat (xvii) Angora.
TERMINOLOGIES USED IN GOATBuck (Billy) Adult male goat
Doe (Nanny) Adult female goat
Kid A young or baby goat
Wether A castrated male goat
Kidding Act of giving birth (parturition) in goat
Chevon Meat of goat
Reasons for rearing Goats in West Africa: Reasons for rearing goats in W Africa are: for meat (food) production, I skin production, for milk production highly prolific; producing twins a triplets two times a year, hardy animals which are exceptionally healthy, easier keep, high economic value/feeding cos low, for festivals and sacrificial offerings, for prestige purposes, for income, employment, for educational purposes e teaching and research.
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GOAT(i) Goats are tough and hardy animals that can survive unfavourable environmental conditions
(ii) They are small bodied animals
(iii) They can produce kids twice in a year
(iv) Goats are reared mainly for skin, meat, milk and fibre
(v) Male goats are often bearded
(vi) Goats are very inquisitive animals
(vii) Both male and female goats have horns
(viii) They are mostly reared on the extensive system of management
(ix) They have a gestation period of between 145 – 154 days or four to five months
(x) They can browse on many forage plants. Hence, the cost of producing gaots is cheap
SYSTEM OF REARING GOATThere are three main systems of rearing goat. These are extensive, semi-intensive and intensive systems.
Extensive System: Under this system, the goat is allowed to roam about in search of pasture and water. A goat can thrive on any edible material and browses even in extreme condition of drought and rain. It can fend for itself under any condition. It requires very little care as no good housing, feeding and health care are provided. Although the system is cheap, the animals are exposed to adverse weather conditions and thieves.
ADVANTAGES OF THE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM OF REARING GOATS(i) Low cost of labour
(ii) Low cost of feeding
(iii) Low capital investment e.g. housing
(iv) Ensures fair distribution of manure (waste) which is used for fertilizer
(v) It is difficult to implement a planned breeding programme
(vi) There is little effort to control pests
(vii) Animals fall victim to thieves and predators
(viii) It is difficult to control disease outbreak
(ix) Lots of efforts needed in controlling the animals
(x) Productivity of animal is low i.e. low growth in meat and milk production
Semi-intensive System: In this system, goats are provided with house which protects them against adverse weather conditions like heat, cold, rain, etc. However, they are allowed to come out and graze in the pasture which is fenced round the goat house. In some cases, feed is provided for the goats in the house which includes grass, household waste and other remnants. The system needs little initial capital outlay but large labour requirement. Disease and parasite incidence are slightly high.
Intensive System: In this system, the goats are confined within, the stall in a building with limited access to grazing. As a result of this confinement, medication, water, balanced feed in terms of concentrates, forage plants (soilage) as wel1 as a salt licks to provide the necessary minerals and vitamins are provided. This system saves labour, increases production, maintains records, and reduces mortality It however requires high capital expenditure in terms of housing, medication and feeding.
Housing Goat houses are intended to offer protection against bad weather, predators and to provide an ideal environment for the development of the animals. Common features of the goat house are:
(i) It must provide shade from the sun and protection against rain.
(ii) It must be well ventilated and kept dry.
(iii) The shape may vary from the circular type to rectangular structures with series of stalls.
(iv) Walls can be made of bricks, mud or wood.
(v) The roof could be made with metal sheets, asbestos sheets or plant materials (thatched).
(vi) Bedding materials could be straw, wood shavings, etc. The materials chosen must be very absorbent.
(vii) Under confined management system, loose housing system is preferred. Animals are not tied and can therefore move about freely within the building.
(viii) Each housing unit should be provided with a hay-rack or manger for feeding hay or silage.
(ix) Gates should be strong and the fence should be made with woven wires, barbed wires or chain link.
FEEDING REQUIREMENT FOR GOATS(i) The feed for goat must be a balanced diet, i.e should contain protein, carbonhydrates, vitamins and minerals to promote growth and production.
(ii) A goat feeds mainly on roughages, i.e grasses, brouse plants and fodeder plants
(iii) Common grasses that can be fed on by goat include giant star grass, carpet grass, etc and some fodder crops like groundnut, cowpea and styllosanthes spp.
(iv) Goat can also feed on concentrate feeds to provide the required nutrients for fast growth and high production
(v) Goat can feed on household and kitchen waste as they are capable of converting these waster into meat
(vi) Zero-grazing (soilage) can be practiced for goat – a system where grasses and legumes are cut and taken to the goats in the peins
(vii) Rotational grazing can also be practiced, whereby goats are moved about in paddocks as they graze on the pasture
(viii) Feeds should be provided in accordance with production, e.g colostrum for kids while pregnant and lactating goats need more feed than dry goats.
HEALTH CARE AND SANITATIONCommon routine measures that can adopted for goat health care and sanitation include:
(i) The goat pens and stalls should washed and cleaned daily.
(ii) Sick animals should be isolated treated urgently.
(iii) Dead animals should be buried.
(iv) Goats should be dewormed on regular basis.
(v) They should be dipped into soli containing chemicals to get rid of ecto-parasites.
(vi) Rotational grazing should be practised to avoid parasites bi up
(vii) The environment ought to be c at all times.
Common diseases of goat are anthrax, brucellosis, tuberculosis rinderpest, red water fever, etc. Drugs vaccines should be administered at appropriate time to prevent the outbreak of these diseases.
HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
75. SOIL WATER
80. SANDY SOIL CLAY SOIL LOAMY SOIL
83. SOIL TEXTURE
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
soil improvement techniques
90. MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112. THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING CLEARING
121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING FARM YARD MANURE
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
142. FIELD MACHINES
164. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION