PROCESSES OF CROP IMPROVEMENT


PROCESSES OF CROP IMPROVEMENT

The processes of crop improvement include:
(1) Introduction
(2) Selection
(3) Breeding or Hybridization

Introduction to crop improvement

This involves the importation of introduction or some varieties of crops with desirable characteristics into areas where they have not existed before. In other words, it involves the movement of crop from its origin or supposed centre of evolution to another region or area where it can adapt. Crops with desired qualities are identified in their centres of origin and then procure& such crops are then introduced into the breeder’s country for testing and ultiplication. Such imported crops are usually quarantined by the nation’s plant quarantine service before introduction into the country importing it. Introduction is usually carried out to upgrade the qualities of the local varieties of crops.




Advantages of Introduction

(i) it helps in bringing new varieties of crops to a new area.
(ii) It may enhance greater productivity.
(iii) It may perform better if there is better climatic condition in the new location.
(i) It may also perform better if there is better soil condition in the new area.
(v) Absence of pests and diseases.
(vi) It helps to upgrade the quality of the local varieties of crops.


Disadvantages of Introduction

(i) There is the Possibility of introducing new crop diseases.
(ii) The new crop may not be able to adapt to climatic conditions of the new environment
(iii) It may also introduce new pest to the new environment
(iv) The introduced crop may not be able to adapt to soil conditions of the new environment.


Selection in crop improvement:

This involves the artificial picking of crops with desirable characteristics which are most favoured by the environment
In other words, selection is the ability to choose certain crops which possess specific artificial or external characteristics which are easily recognized by merely seeing them.

Methods of selection include

(i)

Mass selection

: Crop plants are selected or rejected on the basis of their own performance or merit.
Crop plants with the desired characteristics are chosen in preference to those not possessing item from a large group of crops.
(ii)

Pure line selection

: This is the type of selection in which only one crop plant with good characteristics is selected It leads to the concentration of that character which is uniform and pure.
(iii)

Pedigree selection

: Crop plants are selected on the basis of the performance of their ancestors. It is based on the belief that the crop plant selected is likely to perform equally or even better than the ancestors.
(iv)

Progeny selection

: Crop plants are selected on the basis of the performance of their offspring or progeny




Advantages of selection

(i) It ensures that only the best naturally available crop is grown
(ii) Crops with desired quantities are selected
(iii) Seeds from best stands are multiplied for distribution
(iv) Crops with undesirable characters are detected and rejected
(v) It reduces the spread of diseases and pests




Disadvantages of selection

(i) Selection is tedious and time consuming
(ii) It is very expensive in terms of time and money
(iii) It requires expertise which may not be available
(iv) It brings about the elimination of some desirable traits of the parent stock.



HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS

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