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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one stomach 1. Po...

AIMS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT


PROCESSES OF CROP IMPROVEMENT

This involves the importation of introduction or some varieties of crops with desirable characteristics into areas where they have not existed before.crop improvement is a deployed means to improve the quality of crops in farming activities. crop improvement is therefore necessary for better yield. the improvement of crop varieties must be done in such a way that it will not undermine the original nature of the crop that is being improved.
so the processes of crop improvement includes the following:
(1) Introduction
(2) Selection
for you to understand the importance of crop improvement in agriculture, carefully follow the thread below on quora then come back here to get basic foundations for crop improvement
more on crop improvement reed here Breeding or Hybridization

Introduction to crop improvement

This involves the importation of introduction or some varieties of crops with desirable characteristics into areas where they have not existed before. In other words, it involves the movement of crop from its origin or supposed centre of evolution to another region or area where it can adapt. Crops with desired qualities are identified in their centres of origin and then procure& such crops are then introduced into the breeder’s country for testing and ultiplication in order to improve the varieties of crops that can be found in that country
. Such imported crops are usually quarantined by the nation’s plant quarantine service before introduction into the country importing it. Introduction is usually carried out to improve the qualities of the local varieties of crops.






Advantages of Introduction

(i) crop improvement helps in bringing new varieties of crops to a new area.
(ii) crop improvement may enhance greater productivity.
(iii) crop improvement may perform better if there is better climatic condition in the new location.
(i) crop improvement may also perform better if there is better soil condition in the new area.
(v) Absence of pests and diseases.
(vi) crop improvement helps to upgrade the quality of the local varieties of crops.


Disadvantages of Introduction

(i) crop improvement can result in the Possibility of introducing new crop diseases.
(ii) The new crop may not be able to adapt to climatic conditions of the new environment during crop improvement process
(iii) the improvement of may also introduce new pest to the new environment
(iv) The introduced crop may not be able to adapt to soil conditions of the new environment.


Selection in crop improvement:

selection in crop improvement involves the artificial picking of crops with desirable characteristics which are most favoured by the environment
In other words, selection is the ability to choose certain crops which possess specific artificial or external characteristics which are easily recognized by merely seeing them and the love for it then lure man into trying to improve the crop yield and nature.

Methods of selection include

(i)

Mass selection

during crop improvement process, Crop plants are selected or rejected on the basis of their own performance or merit.
Crop plants with the desired characteristics are chosen in preference to those not possessing item from a large group of crops.

(ii)

Pure line selection

: This is the type of selection in which only one crop plant with good characteristics is selected leads to the concentration of that character which is uniform and pure thereby enhancing crop improvement and performance.
(iii)

Pedigree selection

: Crop plants are selected on the basis of the performance of their ancestors. It is based on the belief that the crop plant selected is likely to perform equally or even better than the ancestors and this make for its improvement.

Progeny selection
: Crop plants are selected on the basis of the performance of their offspring or progeny


Advantages of selection
(i) selection of crops ensures that only the best naturally available crop is grown
(ii) Crops with desired quantities are selected
(iii) selection of crops of Seeds from best stands are multiplied for distribution
(iv) Crops with undesirable characters are detected and rejected during improvementprocess
(v) crop improvement and selection reduces the spread of diseases and pests


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Disadvantages of selection
(i) Selection is tedious and time consuming
(ii) selection of crops is very expensive in terms of time and money
(iii) selection of crops requires expertise which may not be available
(iv) crop selection ad improvement brings about the elimination of some desirable traits of the parent stock.



HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES







154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE