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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one stomach 1. Po...

Systems of Rearing Cattle



Systems of Rearing Cattle:

There three systems of rearing cattle. These extensive, semi-intensive and intensive systems.
(1)

Extensive system

: Extensive system of rearing ruminants, e. cattle, sheep and goat is the same involves the following:
Cattle are allowed to move freely from one place to another in search of pastures for grazing or browsing. The cattle fend for themselves and graze on a wide range of pastures. There is no special housing unit provided. In most cases, animals are not provided with medication. It is a very cheap system of rearing livestock. No supplementary feed is usually provided. Animals are exposed to weather hazards such as excessive heat, heavy rainfall and strong windstorm. Disease outbreak cannot be easily controlled. Animals can be stolen or killed by wild animals. There is also indiscriminate mating and the cow deliver their young ones in the field. Cattle and other ruminants generally destroy cultivated crops; thereby causing community disputes.







(2)

Semi-Intensive System

: Under this system, housing is provided for the cattle and they are also allowed to move out and graze on pasture. The animals spend more time outside their pens. Houses are built with suitable materials that can permit free circulation of air. The houses are not completely walled, and rails are preferred to solid walls which should be about2m high.
The grasses or pasture must be managed properly to provide the necessary food for the cattle. The system needs less capital investment but large labour requirements, disease and parasite incidence are slightly high.


(3)

Intensive system:

In this system, the cattle are confined within a building with limited access to grazing. Grasses (by zero grazing), water, medications are supplied daily to the cattle.






ADVANTAGES OF THE INTENSIVE SYSTEM OF REARING RUMINANTS

(i) It gives animals protection against environmental hazards and exposure to adverse weather conditions
(ii) There is proper supervision of animals
(iii) Record keeping is made easier
(iv) It allows for automation e.g. use of automatic feeders and drinkers
(v) Protection against theft
(vi) Protection against predators
(vii) Indiscriminate mating is reduced
(viii) Sick animals are easily identified
(ix) Reduces incidence of disease infection
(x) Reduces incidence of pest infestation
(xi) Ensures adequate and balance feeding
(xii) Ensures provision of better health care
(xiii) Animals do not destroy farmer’s crops
(xiv) Allows efficient use of labour
(xv) High stocking density for all species of animals
(xvi) It gives animals protection against physical hazards
(xvii) It enhances performance of the animals

CATTLE HOUSING

(i) In West Africa, cattle are reared by peasant farmers especially the nomadic Fulanis who roam about with their cattle
(ii) Under the system, there are no formal houses erected for the cattle. The animals are kept in a kraal at night to prevent wandering about
(iii) Open shed with a thatched roof made of strong timber posts and railings is provided as house for the cattle in some areas.
(iv) In modern animal husbandry, houses are built with suitable materials that can permit free circulation of air.
(v) The houses should not be completely walled. Rails are preferred to solid walls.
(vi) The floor should be made of concrete to enhance easy cleaning.
(vii) The roof should be constructed with galvanized roofing sheets for durability.
(viii) The house should be partitioned into breeding house or pen, calving pen, weaner’s pen and rearing pen.
(ix) Houses for dairy cattle may be slightly different in design from that of the beef cattle because of their differences in the type of production.

CATTLE FEEDING

(i) The feed for cattle must be a balanced diet, i.e. it should contain all the nutrients required for growth and production
(ii) Cattle, being ruminants, feed mainly on roughages (grasses and legumes) because of the nature of their stomach
(iii) Common grasses that can be fed on by cattle are elephant grass, guinea grass, giant star grass, etc. and also leguminous plants which include Centrosema spp, calopogonium spp, etc.
(iv) Cattle can be fed on concentrate feed to provide the required nutrients in their diet
(v) Cattle may be involved in pastoral nomadism in which the cattle rearers (Fulanis) move about with their cattle in search of pasture and water.
(vi) In some cases, zero-grazing (foliage) is practiced whereby grasses are cut and taken to the cattle in their pens.
(vii) In some cases, rational grazing is practiced whereby cattle are moved about in paddocks they graze on the pasture.
(viii) Other preserved feeds like hay silage and straw can be fed on cattle especially during the season, when green pastures are not available.
(ix) Diary cattle should be given more concentrates than beef because, the former require concentrates milk production.

HEALTH CARE AND SANITATION FOR CATTLE

(i) Good housing and feeding tend to reduce the rate of disease attack on cattle
(ii) The houses should be cleaned regularly
(iii) Sick animals should be isolated and treated
(iv) Cattle should be dewormed regularly to get rid of endo-parasites such as tape worms , round worms and liver flukes
(v) Cattle should be allowed to pass through water chemicals to eradicate ecto-parasites like ticks and mites
(vi) Regular vaccination should be carried out against certain known diseases of cattle at the right time
(vii) Cleaning of the pens, watering and feeding equipment should be done daily
(viii) Rotational grazing should be practiced to avoid the build-up of parasites.








Common Diseases of Cattle:


Common diseases of cattle include:
foot and mouth disease, rinderpest disease, anthrax, tuberculosis, trypanosomiasis and re water fever. These diseases should 1 prevented through the use of appropriate drugs and vaccines.



HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE