TERRESTRIAL HABITAT



TERRESTRIAL HABITAT

WHAT IS TERRESTRIAL HABITAT

Terrestrial habitat refer to life on land. The nature of soil, rainfall and temperature the major factors affecting the nature of terrestrial habitats.

TYPES OF TERRESTRIAL HABITAT

The terrestrial habitat is divided into four groups. These are:
1. Marsh
2. Rainforest
3. Savanna or grassland
4. Arid land

MARSHY HABITAT

Marsh habitat is defined as a lowland habitat which is usually flooded or water-logged all the time. Naturally, grasses and shrubs grow in marsh but when tress grow there, it is called a

swamp

. Marsh is often regarded as a transition between the aquatic and terrestrial habitat






FACTORS AFFECTING PLANT AND ANIMAL IN A TERRESTRIAL HABITAT


abiotic factors that affect plants and animals are: inorganic compounds or elements, e.g.
O, N, salts, CO, HO, etc. water/rainfall, temperature, light/sunlight, wind, altitude, pressure, moisture/humidity, pH, wildfire/thunder and lightning. read more on biotic and abiotic factors affecting ecosystem here

Effects of abiotic factors affecting terrestrial habitat

1. Temperature: high temperature leads to high transpiration rate in plants/aestivation and hibernation in animals.
2. High rate of metabolism in organisms.
3. A high rate of decay of organic matter.
4. A higher rate of growth and shorter length of life cycle in some organisms, e.g. housefly and toad. learn about snail farming here
5. At very low temperature, plant roots absorb water at slower rates, leading to reduction in the rate of transpiration and metabolism of organisms.
6. At low temperature, animals, e.g. snails may hibernate, birds migrate

FORMATION OF MARSHES

Marshes occur in areas of lowlands and where drainage is poor. These areas include: flood plains of rivers and river mouths with extensive deltas. Marshes may develop as a result of water over flowing its bank to accumulate on the adjoining coastal or lowland area. Formation of marsh may also be enhanced with extensive rainfall which also contributes to the accumulation of water on land surface.







The water in a lagoon may also flood the adjoining lowland, causing the formation of a marsh. Marsh can also be formed when ponds and lakes are filled up with soil from the surroundings and organic debris from plants causing water-logging. Marsh formation is a gradual process where an aquatic habitat is transformed into a wet land.


TYPES OF MARSHES

There are two major types of marshes. These are: fresh water marshes and salt water marshes.

a.

fresh water marshes

: fresh water marshes occur on land, just beyond the limits of the salt water marshes tide. In this area, fresh water from rivers, overflows the river banks to flood the adjoining lowlands resulting in the formation of fresh water marshes.

b.

Salt water marshes

: salt water marshes occur along the coastal areas and they are influenced by tides, because the water along the coast is salty, it mixes up with fresh water from rivers to form brackish water. The action of tide in the ocean causes the flooding of adjoining lowlands with brackish water resulting in in the formation of salt water marshes.


CHARACTERISTICS OF A MARSH

The followings are the characteristics associated with marshes:
1.

nature of soil:

the soil in marshes are wet, soft, water-logged and poorly aerated.
2.

lowland habitat:

the marsh is usually a lowland habitat which often enhances flooding and water-logging
3.

high flooding:

the ground of marshes is often flooded most of the time.
4.

presence of stagnant water:

stagnant water is often noticed in marshes especially during the dry season. In raining season, the whole land is highly flooded.
5.

presence of organic matter:

as a result of fallen leaves, dead plants and animals, lots of organic matter are always present in marshes.
6.

high rate of organic decomposition:

the decay of organic matter takes place in large scale in a marsh and this causes a decrease in oxygen content of the water. Lots of foul smelling gases such as hydrogen sulphide and methane are usually experienced in marshes.
7.

high relative humidity:

the relative humidity of the atmosphere around the marshes is usually very high.

plants found in marshes

Examples of plants commonly found in marshes include: Algae, water lettuce (pistia), sword grasses, duckweed (lemna), water lilies (Nymphaea), hornwort, sedges, white mangrove and Raphia palm.

Animals found in marshes

Examples of animals found in marshes are: mangrove crab, lagoon crab, hermit crab, mud skippers,
fishes, bloody clam, oysters, barnacles, frogs, toads, lizards, snakes, turtles, birds, crocodiles and mammals.

food chain in marshes

The plants and decaying organic matter form the basis of food chain in marshes. Some examples of food chain in marshes include:
i. Flowering plants==Insects==Frog==Crocodiles
ii. Detritus==Worms==Fishes
iii. Humus==Earthworms==Frogs==Snakes

factors affecting the marsh habitat

Factors which affects the marsh habitats include: rainfall, temperature, light, relative humidity and salinity.

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52. Major biomes of the world
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WHAT ARE THE PROBLEMS FACING AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT AND POSSIBLE SOLUTION


WHAT ARE THE PROBLEMS FACING AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT AND POSSIBLE SOLUTION

Agricultural development are usually hindered by the following problems.

1.

Inadequate land

: land is one of the major problems hindering agricultural development, due to the type of land tenure system being adopted. Also the soil erosion affects the use of land.

Solutions to :
i. land management practices must be carried out e.g. crop rotation
ii. government must assist the farmers to get land
iii. Fertilizer application must be encouraged.







2.

Lack of finance and credit facilities:

most of the farmers do not have source of credit facilities to increase their production due to high interest rate and lack of collateral security.
Solutions:
i. Farmers should form cooperative societies.
ii. Government should assist the farmers by providing loan.
iii. Interest rate must be reduced to encourage the use of loan.

3.

Lack of basic amenities:

basic amenities such as water, healthcare, electricity are lacking and these affects agricultural development.
Solutions:
i. Government should provide drinkable water, electricity and healthcare system for farmers
ii. Community development should be encouraged among farmers.
4.

Lack of storage and processing facilities:

this is one of the major problem facing agricultural development due to inadequate storage facilities.

Solutions to lack of agricultural facilities:
i. The government should assist the farmers by providing storage facilities
ii. Farmers should form cooperative societies to build storage and processing facilities

5.

Lack of transportation system in agriculture:

the rural areas lack good roads and this increases the cost of transporting farm produce to the market.

Solutions:
i. Government should construct good roads.
ii. More motor vehicles should be provided for the farmers.

6.

Inadequate farm inputs:

farmers do not have farm inputs such as tools, chemicals and farm machinery because they are too expensive to buy and they are not timely in supply.

Solutions:
i. Government should assist the farmers to secure farm inputs at subsided price
ii. Farm inputs should be supplied to the farmers at the right time.

7.

Imperfect marketing system:

due to lack of storage facilities farmers find it difficult to control the price of the farm produce, they sell at reduce prices.

Solutions:
i. The farmers should form union in order to control the price
ii. The government should create an ideal marketing environment for the farmer.

8.

Lack of agricultural education and extension:

most of the farmers are illiterate and cannot adopt modern innovation or technology in agriculture. They are not supervised by the extension agents.

Solutions:
i. More extension agents should be employed by the government
ii. Non-governmental organization must be involved in educating the farmers
iii. Government should embark on anti-illiteracy campaign.







9.

Problems of environmental degradation:

the effects of soil erosion, flooding and pollution of the environment affects crops and animal production.

Solutions:
i. Erosion control must be embarked upon by the government
ii. Farmers must be trained on environment management.

10.

Problems of diseases and pests:

diseases and pests destroys and reduce the yield of crops and animals. It is expensive to control and adds extra cost to production cost there by reducing the profit of the farmers.

Solutions:
i. Farmers must be supplied with insecticides and chemicals at subsidized price.
ii. Government should establish pest and diseases control unit.


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4. Processes of methods of science
5. Usefulness of science
6. Living and non-living things

28. Osmosis
29. Diffusion
30. Turgidity
31. The cell and its environment
32. Mitosis and meiosis


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83. SOIL TEXTURE


FUNCTIONS OF DIGESTIVE SYSTEM ORGANS



DIGESTIVE SYSTEM AND FUNCTIONS

At the end of this article, students should be able to:
1. Describe with appropriate illustration different types of alimentary tracts
2. Explain the feeding mechanism of some animal
3. Explain how some insectivorous plants feed

WHAT IS DIGESTIVE SYSTEM?

Digestive system includes the alimentary tracts or canal and all the glands and organs associated with the digestion and assimilation of food in animals.
Digestion is the breaking down of large molecules of food into simple and absorbable form for use by the animals.
The digestive system including the alimentary tracts varies from one animal to another. Organisms from simple to complex ones have different types of digestive system or alimentary tract. However, there is no definite alimentary canal in plants.

PARTS AND TYPES OF ALIMENTARY TRACTS

A typical mammalian alimentary tract or canal includes the following parts: mouth, pharynx, Oesophagus or gullet, stomach, small intestine or ileum, caecum, appendix, large intestine or colon, rectum and anus. All these parts can be found in most vertebrates. However, there are modification of different parts of the alimentary tracts in various animals. In some animals, some parts may be reduced or enlarged while in others, some parts may be absent as shown in the table below.






Animals have different types alimentary tracts which vary in size, complexity, mode of feeding or the types of diet. The nature of alimentary tract has some evolutionary trend as the complexity tends to increase from simple unicellular animals like protozoa to complex multicellular animals like mammals.


TYPES OF ALIMENTARY TRACTS OF SOME ANIMALS

PLANARIA

The planaria is a free living flatworm that feeds on aquatic animals called zooplanktons. It has a simple alimentary canal with one opening—the mouth. The mouth opens into a short buccal cavity which leads into the pharynx. The pumping action of the pharynx sucks in pieces of food which enters the pharynx and pass into the small intestine. The small intestine has three branches—one leading to the head and the other two

towards the tail. The branches give off numerous side branches.
Digestive in planaria is intracellular. The branched intestine enables digested food to diffuse to all parts of the body. The undigested food is egested from the mouth.

DIGESTIVE ORGANS OF A TAPEWORM

The tapeworm is found in the intestine of some mammals as endoparasites. It has no alimentary canal as it feeds on digested food of the host. It absorbs the digested food from the host by simple diffusion.

DIGESSTIVE ORGANS OF AN EARTHWORM

The alimentary tract of the earthworm is a tube with two openings.
The mouth—through which food enters and the anus—through which undigested food leaves the body. The alimentary canal of the earthworm includes these parts: mouth, pharynx, Oesophagus, crop, gizzard, intestine, caecum, rectum and anus.


1. The mouth is where the food is ingested.
2. The pharynx secretes mucus to lubricate food particles.
3. The oesophagus transfers the ingested food to the crop.
4. The crop is where the food is temporarily stored.
5. The gizzard is where the food is grinded against small stones to break it up.
6. The intestine is where digestion and absorption of food takes place.
The earthworm feeds mainly on dry vegetable matter found in the soil. The digested food then diffuses through the intestinal wall into the blood and finally to the various parts of the body. The undigested food materials are then removed through the caecum, the rectum and finally to the anus.


DIGESTIVE ORGANS OF GRASSHOPPER OR COCKROACH

The grasshopper feeds on green vegetables while the cockroach feeds on household materials like books, sugar and food. The alimentary canal of a grasshopper
or cockroach includes the mouth (mandibles)(biting and chewing insects), salivary gland, oesophagus, crop, gizzard, mid-gut, caecum, ileum, rectum, hind gut, Malphighian tubules and anus. The mouth is surrounded by mouth parts such as: maxillae, mandibles and labium with sharp cutting and grinding of food. A pair of salivary glands opens into the mouth which secretes enzymes for digestion of food.







The food is then swallowed through the muscular oesophagus into the crop. The crop is where the food is stored. The food is later taken to muscular gizzard for grinding. The short mid-gut has six fleshy vascularized diverticulum or mid-gut caecum which increases the surface area for digestion and absorption. The hind gut consisting of ileum, colon, and rectum shapes the faeces into pellets and absorbs water and mineral salts. The faeces are later passed out through the anus.

BIRD

The digestive system of the bird includes the beak, mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, crop, proventriculus, gizzard, intestine, caecum, rectum and anus (cloaca).
The bird has no teeth but the food such as fruits, grains etc. are picked up by the beak. The food then moves from the mouth through the oesophagus to the crop.
The food is stored temporarily in the crop where it is moistened and fermented by some bacteria. From the crop, the food now pass on to the proventriculus where digestive enzymes are secreted on the food. The proventriculus is often regarded as glandular stomach because it has glands which secret digestive enzymes, e.g. pepsin and amylase on the food. From the proventriculus, the food moves to the gizzard where the actual grinding of the food takes place. (The gizzard is often regarded or called grindular stomach) with the aid of small stones or grit the food is grinded by the gizzard. From the gizzard, the food now moves to the duodenum and the intestine where further digestion and absorption of food take place. The undigested food particles are moved through the caeca to the rectum and finally to the anus (cloaca) where the faeces and urine are removed from the body at the same time. It should be noted that birds just like other herbivores have a relatively long alimentary canal is to provide a large surface area for the digestion and absorption of food.

Similarities and Differences Between the Alimentary canals of a Bird and That of Grasshopper

SIMILARITIES
1. Both have narrow oesophagus
2. Crop is present in both organisms
3. Muscular gizzard is present in both
4. There is the presence of caecum in both
5. Mid-gut is present in both organisms
DIFFERENCES
BIRD
1. There is presence of tongue in the mouth
2. Mouth is modified into beak
3. There is presence of duodenum
4. It has a long alimentary canal
5. The hind gut ends in cloaca
6. Malphighian tubules are absent
7. There is presence of pancreas

GRASSHOPPER
1. Tongue is absent
2. Mouth is modified into mandible and maxillae for chewing and grinding
3. Duodenum is not present
4. It has relatively short alimentary canal
5. Hind gut ends in anus distinct from the reproductive tract
6. Malphighian tubules are attached to alimentary canal.
7. Pancreas is absent


Alimentary Canal and Digestion of Food in Man

The alimentary canal of man includes: the mouth, oesophagus, stomach, duodenum, small intestine or ileum, caecum, appendix, large intestine or colon, rectum and anus. read more of these here
The description and importance of the parts are as follows:
1. Mouth: the alimentary canal of man starts from the mouth. The mouth contains the teeth, salivary gland and tongue
2. The teeth: (i) the teeth are used to cut, grind or chew food into tiny particles. (ii) they expose large area of food for the action of enzymes


3. The tongue: (i) the tongue rolls the food into bolus. (ii) it aids movement of food in the mouth (iii) it allows mixing of food with saliva or ptyalin (iv) it aids swallowing of food into the gullet or oesophagus.
4. The salivary gland: (i) the salivary gland secretes saliva which contains an enzyme called ptyalin. The ptyalin breaks down starch into maltose which is later swallowed into the gullet in form of bolus. (ii) It allows easy chewing or movement of food in the mouth for swallowing. (iii) it also serves as solvent for food. The saliva is slightly alkaline.
5. Oesophagus or Gullet: the oesophagus connects the mouth to the stomach. The food swallowed is passed down through the oesophagus by a peristaltic movement into the stomach.
6. Stomach: in the stomach, the food is temporarily stored for few hours and it is released at regular intervals by the opening of the pylotic sphincter. In the stomach, the gastric gland secretes gastric juice which contains two enzymes—renin and pepsin.
The renin acts on milk (or it helps to curdle milk) while the pepsin breaks down proteins to peptones. The gastric gland also secretes hydrochloric acid (Hcl) which creates an acid medium for two enzymes to act. The Hcl also helps to kill some bacteria in the stomach. The food is churned by muscular contraction of the stomach wall (churning movement) which enables the mixing of food with digestive juice.
The churning movement then converts the food into a semi-liquid state called chyme.

functions of the Duodenum

: digestion of food also takes place in this region of the alimentary canal. The duodenum contains pancreas which secrets pancreatic juice that contains three enzymes.
These enzymes are:

the conversion of food by enzymes

i. Amylase: this converts starch to maltose
ii. Lipase: lipase converts fats and oil to fatty acids and glycerol.
iii. Trypsin: it converts protein and peptones to polypeptides.
The pancreatic juice is alkaline and provides that medium for enzymes.
The digestion of fat and oil is aided by a green alkaline liquid called bile which is secreted by the liver and stored in the gall bladder. The bile helps in the emulsification of fats, i.e. breaking down fats into tiny droplets. At the end of digestion in the duodenum the food now in liquid form called chyle passes into the ileum or small intestine.

8.

digestion of food in the Small intestine

: the small intestine or ileum is found between the duodenum and the large intestine. Two major events take place in the small intestine. These events are: (a) digestion and (b) absorption of the digested food.
9. Digestion: the digestion of food also takes place in the small intestine or ileum.The intestinal wall secrets intestinal juice which contains the following enzymes: lipase, erepsin, maltase, sucrase and lactase. The lipase converts fats and oil to fatty acids and glycerol, erepsin converts polypeptides to amino acids, maltase converts maltose to two units of glucose, sucrase converts sucrose to glucose and fructose while lactase converts lactose to glucose and galactose.


In man, the final digestion of food ends in the small intestine. The end products is the digestion of protein are amino acids, fats and oil are fatty acids and glycerol, while that of starch is glucose.
10. Absorption of digested food: the end products of digestion of food (amino acids, glucose, fatty acids and glycerol) are absorbed in the small intestine by tiny finger-like structures called villi (singular villus). The folding of the small intestine combined with presence of numerous villi creates a large surface area for the absorption of digested food.
The inner surface layer or epithelium of each villus is thin. This allow the absorption of the end product by either diffusion or active transport through it. The glucose and amino acids are easily absorbed by blood capillaries through the epithelium while the fatty acids and glycerol enter the lacteal where they are carried through the lymph vessels which eventually empty their contents into the blood vessels near the heart. The blood then carries the fats and other food materials to various parts of the body where they are needed.
11. Caecum and appendix: in man, the functions of caecum and appendix are not well known but the caecum usually contains some bacteria which aid minor digestion of cellulose. Some vitamins such as K and B-complex are partially synthesized in this region.
12. Large intestine: the undigested food passes into the colon or large intestine. Here, water is absorbed. This absorption of water concentrates the waste products and turn them into faeces. The faeces is passed into the rectum and finally out of the body through the anus. For summary, see the table below showing enzyme, source, location, substrate and effects.







HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPIC ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY AND LINK TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
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2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
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Reasons why an athlete in a race would be given a glucose drink rather than a pieces of bread

Glucose is the simplest form of carbohydrate/soluble form of carbohydrate, an energy giving food substance which does not require any form of digestion. Hence it is absorbed in the ileum/small intestine where it diffuses/enter into the blood stream/circulatory system. It is then assimilated and oxidized within the shortest time/quickly/immediately to give energy to the athlete. Bread is a complex carbohydrate/polysaccharide/starch-which will require a series of digestive process/hydrolysis which starts in the mouth and ends in small intestine/ileum. This takes a longer time to produce energy for use and cannot give immediate energy.

MODIFICATIONS AND MECHANISMS OF FEEDING IN SOME ANIMALS

There are five modifications and mechanisms of feeding associated with some organisms. These feeding mechanisms include:

1.

Absorbing mechanisms, e.g. tapeworm:

the tapeworm is an endoparasites which carries out parasitic feeding on its host i.e. man. It has no mouth but absorbs digested food from the intestine of its host. The body of the tapeworm is modified and adapted for parasitic feeding as follows:
i. The alimentary canal is absent, hence food is absorbed through its entire body surface.
ii. The tapeworm has hooks and suckers which are used for attachment to the intestine of the host to avoid dislodgement.
iii. The body has thick cuticle which resists digestive enzymes of the host.
iv. The flat body surface of the tapeworm provides a large surface area for the absorption of already digested food.
v. The entire body is used also for the absorption of food.

2.

Biting and chewing mechanism, e.g. grasshopper or cockroach:

the grasshopper or cockroach has mouth parts adapted for biting and chewing. These insects has four different mouth parts which are modified and adapted for biting or chewing food. These mouth parts are:
i. Labrum or upper lip: the grasshopper has labrum or upper lip which prevents the food from falling off the mouth.
ii. Mandibles: it possesses a pair of mandibles which are heavy, toothed and jaw-like structure used for cutting and chewing food materials.
iii. Maxillae: the grasshopper also has a pair of maxillae which is also a biting blade. This breaks down the food which the mandible has chewed into smaller particles.
iv. Labium: the labium (lower lip) prevents the wastage of food from the mouth.
3. Sucking mechanism: there are three popular organisms which exhibit sucking mechanism. These are: mosquito, butterfly and housefly. These insects have different modifications of mouth parts adapted for feeding on food through the mechanism of sucking.

MOSQUITO

i. The mosquito possesses a piercing mouth parts called the proboscis used for sucking the blood of man and animals.
ii. The mouth parts altogether form a strong stylet capable of penetrating the skin to suck blood.
iii. The stylet except the labium is sharp and pointed to ease penetration into the skin.
iv. The mouth can produce saliva to prevent clotting of blood while it is being sucked in.
v. It has the ability to fold back the labium easily so as to allow the stylet to perform its work of penetration of the skin to suck blood.


BUTTERFLY

The butterfly feeds on liquid food like nectars of flowers. It has its mouth parts modified for sucking in the following ways:
i. It possesses a long, coiled proboscis used for sucking nectars of flowers.
ii. The insect is capable of recoiling the long proboscis under its head when not in use.
iii. There is the non-functioning of the other mouth parts due to the type of food taken by the insect.

HOUSEFLY

The housefly feeds on liquid food materials. It has mouth parts modified for sucking in the following ways:
i. The housefly possesses enlarged enlarged labella which are sucking structures for liquid food.
ii. The housefly has the ability to feed on solidtate food, e.g. sugar by pouring out its saliva to change the food to a liquid state.







iii. It has sucking mechanism called sponging in which the mouth is placed on the liquid food and it will start to rush into the mouth.
iv. The labella have fine channels which aid rapid absorption of liquid food into the mouth.


4.

Grinding mechanism:

grinding mechanism is common among mammals, e.g. man, cattle, sheep, and goat. These animals are capable of grinding the food before swallowing. This grinding is aided by the presence of hard and strong teeth made of enamel and dentine. The animals are adapted to the grinding mechanism by the following features:


i. They possess different sets of teeth to grind food.

ii. The teeth are hard and strong to withstand biting, chewing or grinding and cracking of food.

iii. They possess incisors which are sharp with flat edges used for cutting off bits of food.

iv. Animals have pointed canine teeth which are used for tearing food.

v. There is presence of premolars and molars with undulating and wide surfaces used for grinding of food.

vi. The absence of front teeth [incisors] in sheep [a herbivore] is a special adaption as it helps to grip the grasses during feeding by the animal.


5.

Trapping and absorbing mechanism:

the trapping and absorbing mechanism are common among the insectivorous or carnivorous plants such as bladderwort and sundew. Bladderwort and sundew have structures which enable them to adapt to this mode of feeding.
I. Sundew, for example, traps insects by undergoing nastic movements in response to touch from the body of the insects.
II. The sundew leaf has long hairs which carry digestive glands.
III. Insects on landing on these hairs causes other hairs to curl over the insect and cover it.
IV. The sundew is capable of secreting a fluid rich in enzymes to digest the insect externally.
V. The protein so synthesized is easily absorbed by the carnivorous plant into its body.

FEEDING HABITS

Organisms exhibit different feeding habits.
These are:

Filter feeding

Filter feeders which are also called microphagous feeders feed on very tiny organisms which cannot be easily picked to the satisfaction of the feeder. Filter feeders are mainly aquatic animals and they have to wallow in water through sieve-like structure into their body in order to collect reasonable quantity of their prey or food. Examples of filter feeders are mosquito larva, mussel, ducks and prawns.

filter feeding in mosquito larva

The mouth of mosquito larva, for example, has horny jaws and two small ciliated appendages or mouth brushes. These are used to create a current of water. The small colloidal particles or planktons, small plants and animals are filtered from water and ingested into the mouth as food.

fluid feeding

Animals which feed on any fluid materials are classified as fluid feeders. These are two major groups of fluid feeders. These are:
i. Wallowers: these organisms rest within or wallow in their food, e.g. the tapeworm in intestine of man. The tapeworm lives within the digested food of its host and absorb already digested food of the host.
ii. Suckers: suckers are organisms, mainly insects, which feed by sucking fluid from plants and animals. Examples of suckers are bug, mosquito, butterfly, aphid, tse-tse fly and housefly. The fluid feeding mechanism of mosquito, housefly and butterfly has been discussed earlier.


saprophytic feeding

Saprophytes are mainly non-green plants which do not have chloroplasts and therefore cannot manufacture their own food. They then feed on dead and decaying organic matter from which they derive their food. Examples of saprophytes are Rhizopus, mushroom and mucor. Their body is adapted in the following ways:
i. They have hyphae instead of roots through which they pour out enzymes for digestion.
ii. They are capable of carrying out extracellular digestion, i.e., digestion of food outside the body cells of the plant.
iii. The digested portion of the organic matter is later reabsorbed into the body.


parasitic feeding

Parasitic feeding is found in both plants and animals. Animals parasites are tapeworm, roundworm, liver fluke, louse, tick and guinea worm while plant parasites are Cassytha, dodder and mistletoe. Parasites are structurally modified organisms that depend wholly or partially on other living organisms for their food and survival. The structural adaptation of tapeworm for example, demonstrating parasitic feeding has been discussed earlier in this chapter.







PROCESS OF FEEDING IN PROTOZOA, HYDRA AND MAMMALS


feeding in protozoa

Protozoa like amoeba exhibits holozoic mode of nutrition. Amoeba feeds on micro-organisms like diatoms, demids or other organic particles. It engulfs the food particles by putting out its pseudopodia which surround the food particle by forming a cup-shape when the two ends of the pseudopodia touch. The pseudopodia on meeting or touching, fused and enclosed the food into the body with little drop of water; this forms a food vacuole. The food is digested inside the food vacuole.

feeding in hydra

Hydra feeds mainly on small crustaceans or other smaller aquatic organisms. The food is captured by the action of nematocysts borne on the tentacle. Enzymes are secreted into the enteron by the gland cells. Here digestion takes place extracellularly, i.e., inside
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1. Recognizing living things
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3. Branches of biology
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6. Living and non-living things
7. Characteristics of living things
8. Differences between plants and animals
9. Organization of life
10. Complexity of organization in higher organisms
11. Kingdom monera
12. Kingdom Protista
13. Kingdom fungi
14. Kingdom Plantae
15. Kingdom Animalia
16. Cell as a living unit of an organism
17. Form in which living cells exist
18. Structures of plants and animal cells and functions of their components
19. Similarity and differences between plant and animal cell
20. Diffusion

ENERGY TRANSFORMATION IN THE ECOSYSTEM


ENERGY TRANSFORMATION IN THE ECOSYSTEM

Energy exists in various forms
. These forms of energy are inter-convertible. They can be transformed from one form to another form.

TERMS associated with energy transfer in the ecosystem

Biomass— Total weight, volume, or energy equivalent of all living organisms within a given area.

Ecological efficiency— Energy changes from one trophic level to the next.

First law of thermodynamics— Energy can be transformed but it cannot be created nor can it be destroyed.

Primary consumer— An organism that eats primary producers.

Primary producer— An organism that photosynthesizes.

The vast majority of energy that exists in food webs originates from the sun and is converted (transformed) into chemical energy by the process of photosynthesis in plants. ... At each stage of a food chain, most of the chemical energy is converted to other forms such as heat, and does not remain within the ecosystem.

Energy transformation is governed by the laws of thermodynamics

In nature, energy transformation is brought about by living organisms. Their activities cause energy to flow through the ecosystem.

The sun is the ultimate and eternal source of energy for ecosystem on earth.







ENERGY FLOW IN AN ECOSYSTEM

Energy flow in the ecosystem is unidirectional/non-cyclic: which is, it is either stored or utilized. The light energy of the sun is absorbed by chlorophyll in green plants which is then used to produce carbohydrates. The chemical energy in the carbohydrate in then passed on to the food chain. When the primary consumer feeds on the plants and grasses/producers, the chemical energy is then passed along the food chain to the secondary consumer and then to the tertiary consumer/decomposer


What is energy loss in the ecosystem?

Energy is lost at each tropic level. For example, when herbivores, which are primary consumers feeds on a plant/producer, not all part of the plant is eaten. As a result not all energy in the plant-producer is consumed.

Plants lose energy during respiration and they do not utilize all the energy in preceding members.

Energy is also lost in respiration, excretion, movement and other metabolic activities.
In ecosystem, energy is lost in the following ways. Through
1. Vegetation
2. Soil
3. Air
4. Heat
5. Evaporation
6. Effects of wind
Depending on the type of vegetation and climatic factors, only 1-10% of the solar energy may be available to photosynthetic producers in most ecosystems.







WHAT IS THE LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS?

Thermodynamics ordinarily means heat changes. Heat is a form of energy and it can be changed or converted from one form to another form is governed by two laws.
These laws are called the first and second laws of thermodynamics

FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

The first law of thermodynamics states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed.
What this laws simply means is that you cannot create or destroy energy but you can convert it to another form of energy

SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

The second law of thermodynamics states that in any conversion of energy from one form to another form, there is always a decrease in the amount of useful energy. It simply means that there is no 100% complete transformation of energy from one form to another


The application of the laws of thermodynamics to ecological phenomena or events

Every ecological event or phenomena can explained using the laws of thermodynamics.
EXPLAIN FOOD CHAIN USING THE LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS
Energy conversion or transfer in the food chain can be explain in the following ways

1.

Using the first law of thermodynamics to explain food chain:

In this portal, energy is generated through the sun and is transferred from the producer to the final consumer. The green plant transfers the energy to the primary consumers, which again transfers the energy to the secondary consumers. In all of the energy transfer, the energy from the sun remains constant

2.

Using the second law of thermodynamics to explain food chain:

While the energy is transferred to the next tropic level, part of it is lost as heat.
In other words, as the energy is transferred from the producer to the primary consumers, to secondary consumers, and then to the tertiary consumers, energy is lost as heat in each tropic level
It is then evident that there is no 100% energy transfer from one form or the other that there will not be energy loss

USING THE LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS TO EXPLAIN PYRAMID OF ENERGY


1. Using the first law of thermodynamics to explain pyramid of energy:
In this, it is discovered that energy is transferred from one tropic level to another. The energy of the producer at the base of the pyramid is always higher and is transformed gradually from one stage of the tropic level to another. Even though the energy is transformed from one tropic level to the next successive level, the sum of the energy is still constant


2.

Using the second law of thermodynamics to explain pyramid of energy:

Here as the energy is transformed from tropic level to another, part of it is converted into heat which is lost, causing a progressive drop in successive tropic level






USING THE THERMODYNAMICS LAWS TO EXPLAIN THE FLOW OF ENERGY

1. Using the first law:
This states that as the producers converts the solar energy to useful energy, this energy is progressively transformed from one tropic level to the next.
It is important to note that the energy flow in a food chain is in one direction only

2.

Using the second law of thermodynamics to explain energy flow in an ecosystem:

Here the transfer of energy from one tropic level to another is not 100%. This means that energy is or cannot be completely transferred. This is to say that energy available for use by the next level or organism in the food chain starting from the producers is always on the reducing end till it gets to the tertiary consumers

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You can read some of most interesting topics below

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE

43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR

48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS

80. SANDY SOIL
83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES

126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE/a>
149.
PLOUGHS
142. FIELD MACHINES
157. PLANTERS
164. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

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