carborhydrates, types of carbohydrates and importance of carbohydrates



TYPES OF CARBOHYDRATES

There are three types of carbohydrates, they are
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1.

MONOSACCHARIDES OR SIMPLE SUGARS

They are the simplest sugars and have only one unit of simple sugars are represented by the formula C6H12O6, examples are glucose, fructose and galactose.

2.

DISACCHARIDES OR REDUCING SUGARS

THESE CONTAIN TWO UNITS OF SIMPLE SUGARS AND ARE REPRESENTED BY THE FORMULA C12H12O12. EXAMPLES ARE SUCROSE, MALTOSE AND LACTOSE






3.

POLYSACCHARIDES COMPLEX SUGARS

These consists of more than two simple sugars or at least more than three simple sugars joined together. They are represented by the general formula (C6 H10O5)n, where n represent a large number. Examples are starch, cellulose, chitin and glycogen.


EXCESS CARBOHYDRATE IS STORED IN THE BODY AS GLYCOGEN-ANIMAL FATS IN THE MUSCLES AND LIVER, WHICH CAN BE CONVERTED BACK TO GLUCOSE DURING STARVATION


IMPORTANCE OF CARBOHYDRATES

The various importance of carbohydrates are listed in the following ways
i. Carbohydrate provides energy required by animals for daily activities
ii. Carbohydrate provides heat during its oxidation, used in maintaining the body temperature
iii. Carbohydrates are used in some ways to build body parts like the exoskeleton of arthropods
iv. Mucus which an important lubricant in our bodies, is made up of carbohydrates

uses of carbohydrates

1. Providing energy and regulation of blood glucose.
2. Sparing the use of proteins for energy.
3. Breakdown of fatty acids and preventing ketosis.
4. Biological recognition processes.
5. Flavor and Sweeteners.
6. Dietary fiber.
The human body uses carbohydrates in the form of glucose. Glucose can be converted to glycogen, a polysaccharide similar to starch

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPIC ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY AND LINK TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34. FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS





41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR


MECHANISM OF TRANSPORTATION IN HIGHER ANIMALS



MECHANISM OF TRANSPORTATION IN HIGHER ANIMALS

In higher animals, like the mammals, the blood is made to circulate round the body by the pumping action of the heart through the blood vessels like the arteries, veins and capillaries.


Mammals exhibit double circulation, blood passes through the heart twice every time it makes on complete movement round the body.



there are two different circulations

In other words, there are two different circulations.
These are pulmonary and systemic circulation.
in some cases they can be known as open and closed circulation


Types of Circulation

The circulatory system in which the blood flows only once through the heart for
every complete circuit around the body is spoken of as a single circulation. This type
of circulation is found in the fish, insects and other arthropods.

In higher vertebrates,
including most amphibians and all reptiles, the blood passes through the heart twice in
one full circuit around the body. The blood from the heart is pumped into the lungs from
where it returns to the heart before it is finally repumped to the body. This is spoken.
of as a double circulation. To prevent mixing of deoxygenated and oxygenated blood,
the heart is divided into right and left sides. The right side deals with deoxygenated blood
Fig. 10.3: Circulatory System of Fish.
138
and the left side with oxygenated blood. The heart is further divided into the upper and
lower chambers, the atrium and ventricle.
In insects the only blood vessel as such is a single long tubular heart which
extends through the thorax and abdomen and is expanded in each segmentto form a small
chamber pierced by a pair of ostia. In this case the heart may be regarded as one-
chambered as there are no atria or ventricles (fig. 10.1). In fish, the heart contains one
atrium and one ventricle and is said to be two-chambered (fig. 10.3). In the amphibians
and reptiles, the hearts are not fully divided into right and left halves, rather there are two
atria but only one ventricle. This arrangement is spoken of as three-chamberoo;..~e in
the mammals and birds, the heart is four-chambered and has two atria and two ventricles
(fig.
1OJ).
Gills

1. Pulmonary circulation:
during the pulmonary circulation, blood is taken from the heart to the lungs through the pulmonary artery and taken back to the heart through the pulmonary vein.
The role of this circulation is to oxygenate the blood and remove carbon dioxide from the blood in the lungs.









2. Systemic circulation:
this circulation takes the blood (oxygenated blood) from the heart to all parts of the body through the arteries and sends the blood back to the heart through the veins. The role of the systemic circulation is to transport products of digestion, oxygen, water, hormones and other substances to all parts of the body and collect excretory products like water, urea, carbon dioxide and mineral salts from the cells of the body to organs that will excrete them.


The Contribution of the Mammalian Blood Circulatory System


Exchange of gases in higher animals

:
the gases involved in this process are oxygen and carbon dioxide. The blood system has many capillaries in close contact with the air sacs (alveoli) of the lungs. The thin wall of capillaries and air sacs enable oxygen to be exchanged for carbon dioxide through the process of diffusion. Also, in the tissues, carbon dioxide is exchanged with oxygen. The continuous circulation of blood ensures diffusion of oxygen into the blood and carbon dioxide out of the blood in the lungs.








(a)

(b)

Absorption of digested food in higher animals

:
the digested food materials are absorbed by the villi of the small intestine. The mesenteric arteries take the food from the small intestine to the liver through the hepatic portal vein. The liver then regulates the amount of food going into the blood. The blood then transports these food materials to capillaries of tissues and organs. With the aid of the lymph, the food substances diffuse into the cells.


(c)

Removal of excretory products in higher animals

:

the blood is able to collect excretory products like urea, nitrogenous materials, carbon dioxide, and water from the cells by simple diffusion. The waste products are then transported to the various organs like skin, liver, lungs, and kidney from where they are removed from the body.


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MECHANISM OF TRANSPORTATION IN PLANTS









1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES

52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT

90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION

process of blood clotting and functions of antibodies


process of blood clotting and functions of antibodies

One of the methods by which the blood defends the body is by clotting at the site of a wound, thus preventing further loss of blood and the entry of pathogenic organisms at the point of the wound or injury. When the body sustains an injury in which a blood vessel is cut,


the process of clotting takes place as follows

:

1. Platelets plugs are formed due to exposure of damaged blood vessels to air.

2. The platelets release a chemical which causes involuntary muscles in the walls of the damaged blood vessels to constrict and so reducing blood flow.


3. In case the damage is so great to be sealed by a plug, the platelets release an enzyme called thrombokinase or thromboplastin.


4. The thrombokinase converts an inactive prothrombin into an active enzyme called thrombin.


5. The thrombin in the presence of calcium salt [Ca++ ions] converts fibrinogen into fibrin.


6. The fibrin forms a mesh of fine threads which traps blood cells forming a clot that covers the wound.
The mesh of fibrin blocks the cut in the blood vessel and prevents further bleeding while the white blood cells entangled in the fibrin mesh prevent the entry of pathogenic organisms like bacteria, virus and fungi into the body through the wound or injury.

The clot dries to form a scab which drops off after a new skin tissue is formed in the injured area. Some people possess blood which is unable to clot. These people suffer from a disease










7. called haemophilia. In a haemophilia patient, a small cut may cause the loss of much blood as there is no clot formation to prevent bleeding.


functions of antibodies

The white blood cells are known to destroy bacteria and other germs by either ingesting them or by producing chemicals capable of destroying them or their harmful products. Such chemicals are called antibodies. The white blood cells that ingest bacteria are called phagocytes while those that secrete antibodies are called lymphocytes.
Different types of lymphocytes that produce different corresponding antibodies exist.
These

types of antibodies

include:
(i) Antitoxins: antitoxins are antibodies which can neutralize the poisons [toxins] produced by bacteria or other pathogens.
(ii) Agglutinins: agglutinins are antibodies which can cause the bacteria or other pathogens to stick together to as to reduce their effectiveness.
(iii) Lysins: lysins are antibodies capable of dissolving the outer coats of the bacteria or other pathogens and make them to disintegrate.
(iv) Precipitins: precipitins are antibodies which can precipitate toxins produced by bacteria or other pathogens.


A particular type of bacteria or pathogen stimulates the formation of a specific antibody. Antibodies are usually produced in excess of the amount needed to destroy the infecting agent or its toxins. The excess antibodies remain and circulate in the blood for some time [the length of such time varies from the antibody to another] and confers immunity against infection by the particular pathogen.

Antibodies are specific in their action as the antibody formed against one pathogen will not confer immunity against different pathogen.








Immunity created in the body by itself is called natural immunization.

People can protect themselves from certain serious diseases artificially by causing lymphocytes in the body to recognize these antigens. This is done by injecting small dose of the weakened or dead micro-organisms in the body. Such protective methods are known as artificial immunization or vaccination.

The major effect of acquired immune deficiency syndrome [aids] is that when the virus causing aids attacks and destroys certain white blood cells in the immune systems, the infected person is left without a defense when disease causing micro-organisms invade the body. As a result, he suffers from all kinds of microbial infections which eventually cause the death of the individual.
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CIRCULATORY SYSTEM IN MAMMALS

1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING

56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST





90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

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