what is estuarine habitat in ecology?



ESTUARINE HABITATS

Estuarine habitat is a body of water formed at the coast as a result of the action of tides which mix salt water from the sea with fresh water from the land. The mixing of salt water and fresh water results in the formation of brackish water
. This brackish water is what is called estuaarine.


Types of Estuaries

Estuary is found in the following bodies of water
1.

Delta:

a delta is where a river divides into many channels before entry into the ocean or sea. Brackish water or estuary (delta) is formed at the mouth of a river as it enters the sea.
2.

Lagoon of Estuarine Habitats:

lagoon is a body of ocean water that enters into the land through a canal and therefore has the opportunity of mixing with fresh water from rivers and streams.
3.

Bay of Estuarine Habitats:

bay is a little or small portion of the sea water which enters into the land and mixes up with fresh water from rivers and streams. It should be noted that a lagoon is bigger than a bay and it may be long enough to join the sea at another end while bay is very small and not long enough to rejoin the sea in another end.








Characteristics of Estuarine Habitats

The followings are the characteristics of the estuarine habitats:


1.

fluctuation in salinity of Estuarine Habitats:

salinity fluctuates in this habitat. Salinity is also affected by season. While rainy season reduces salinity due to addition of fresh water, dry season increases it.

2.

turbidity of Estuarine Habitats:

turbidity of estuarine habitat increases especially during the rainy season when lots of debris are brought down by rivers to the habitat. This high turbidity also reduces the rate of photosynthesis and respiration by organisms.


3.

shallowness of water of Estuarine Habitats:

unlike the sea water which is deep, the water in estuarine habitat is very shallow.


4.

low species diversity of Estuarine Habitats:

the estuarine habitat has low diversity of species compared to marine habitat. Common plant species are phytoplanktons algae, marsh vegetation etc. while animal species are crabs, oysters, lobsters, fishes etc.


5.

water is affected by tides of Estuarine Habitats:

sea water usually flows rapidly into estuaries at high tides and rushes back into the ocean at low tides.


6.

high level of nutrient of Estuarine Habitats:

the estuarine habitat contains abundant nutrients especially the organic detritus which form the bulk of producers in the habitat.

7.

low oxygen content of Estuarine Habitats:

oxygen content of estuarine habitat is generally very low and as a result, much of the microbiological activities are anaerobic.

DISTRIBUTION OF PLANT AND ANIMALS IN ESTUARINE HABITATS







Plant Species and Their Adaptive Features

'
1.

planktons (diatoms) of Estuarine Habitats:

they possess air spaces in their tissues, rhizoids or false feet for attachment to rock shores and air bladder for buoyancy.

2.

algae of Estuarine Habitats:

they possess chlorophyll for photosynthetic activities and small size or large surface area for floating.

3.

red mangrove (rhizophora racemosa) of Estuarine Habitats:

it has silt roots which grow down from the stem into the soft mud and develop numerous rootlets which have air spaces for conducting air to the tissues of the roots. The roots also provide support and prevent plants from being washed away by the tides. Again the seed of red mangrove germinate while they are still on the parent plant thereby preventing the seedlings from being carried away by water current.

white mangrove (Avicenna nitida) :

it has pneumatophores or breathing roots for exchange of gases.


4.

Animal Species and Their Adaptive Features


1.

mosquito larvae and pupae of Estuarine Habitats:

these organisms possess breathing trumpets for gaseous exchange.

2.

crabs of Estuarine Habitats:

they can burrow fast into the mud against predators, strong waves or tides.

3.

water snails and shrimps of Estuarine Habitats:

these animals can burrow into the mud when the tide is going out, thus escaping the periodic dilution of its external medium.

4.

worms of Estuarine Habitats:

they have strong protective and impermeable covering against high salinity.

5.

mud skippers of Estuarine Habitats:

these animals have fins adapted for crawling when on land and for swimming when in water.


6.

fishes of Estuarine Habitats:

fishes like tilapia have fins for movement and swim bladder for buoyancy.


Food Chain in Estuarine Habitat

A typical food chain in an estuarine habitat may have up to three, four or five trophic levels. The phytoplanktons such as diatom and detritus form the basic producers which support the food chain.
Some examples of food chains in the estuarine habitat are:
i. Detritus==Worms==Snails==Birds
ii. Diatoms==Shrimps==fishes.


Factors Affecting Estuarine habitat

The factors which affect estuarine habitats are common to aquatic habitat and these include temperature, wind, relative humidity, light and pH.








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5. Usefulness of science
6. Living and non-living things
7. Characteristics of living things
8. Differences between plants and animals
9. Organization of life
10. Complexity of organization in higher organisms
11. Kingdom monera
12. Kingdom Protista

52. Major biomes of the world
53. Population studies
54. Ecological factors



fresh water habitat and features



FRESH WATER HABITAT

Fresh water habitat is a body of water formed mainly from inland waters and contain very low level of salinity.
Examples of fresh water habitats are:
rivers, ponds, streams, springs and lakes

Types of Fresh Waters

Fresh waters are classified on the basis of their mobility. Based on this, two types are identified. These are:
1.

Lotic fresh waters :

these include all running waters which can flow continuously in a specific direction. In other words, these are flowing or running waters, e.g. rivers, springs and streams.
2.

Lentic fresh waters :

these include standing or stagnant waters. These waters do not flow nor move. Examples are lakes, ponds, swamps and dams.






Characteristics of Fresh Water Habitats

The following characteristics are associated with fresh water habitats:
1.

low salinity:

fresh water habitats normally contains very low level of salts. It has about 0.5% of salt compared to about 3.5% for sea water.
2.

small in size:

fresh water habitat is usually very small compared to the ocean water which is about 75% of the earth surface
3.

variation in temperature:

the temperature of fresh water habitat usually varies with season and depth.
4.

high concentration of oxygen content:

oxygen is usually available in all parts of fresh water especially in the surface of the water.
5.

shallowness of water:

most fresh water habitats are very shallow hence sunlight can easily penetrate through the water to the bottom.
6.

seasonal variation:

some fresh water habitats like streams and rivers normally dry up during the dry season while others have their volume reduced. The volume of water in rivers also increases during the rainy season. Turbidity and fast flow of rivers are also high during the rainy season than in dry season.
7.

currents:

currents can affect the distribution of gases, salts and small organisms in fresh water habitats such as rivers and streams.

MAJOR ECOLOGICAL ZONES OF FRESH WATER HABITATS

The zones of a lentic fresh water habitat, e.g. lake are similar to those of the marine habitats but there are no Supratidal and inter-tidal zones.
There are two major zones in a lentic fresh water habitat. These are littoral and benthic zones.
1.

Littoral zone:

it is the shallow part of fresh water habitat. It contains several plants and animals. The littoral zone has rooted vegetation at its base. It has the highest level of primary production because sunlight can easily penetrate the zone, hence photosynthetic activities are common. Plants associated with this zone include spirogyra, Chlamydomonas, water lettuce, water fern, duckweed, diatoms and sedges. Animals associated with this zone include water fleas, water snails, flatworms, frogs, toads, water skaters, ducks, snakes, crocodiles, tadpoles, hydrae, and hippopotamus.
2.

Benthic zone:

benthic zone is the deepest parts of the lentic fresh water habitat. The benthic zone does not have rooted vegetation like the littoral zone although flowering plants may occur at its surface. Plants associated with the benthic zone have well developed root system in the mud. These plants include water lily, water arum, ferns, crinum lily, commelina and grasses, read more about weeds and their botanical names here. Animals associated with the benthic zone include protozoa, rotifers, hydrae, tilapia fish, mud fish, cat fish, leeches,
caddish fly larvae, larvae and pupae of mosquito
, water snail, water spider, crayfish, water scorpion, water boatman and water bugs.

Lotic Fresh Water Habitat

In a lotic fresh water habitat e.g. rivers, there exist two zones, these are:
1.

pool zone:

in this zone, water is relatively slow and calm.
2.

rapid zone:

in this zone, water is very fast. The lotic fresh water habitat is not as stratified as the lentic fresh water habitat.

ADAPTIVE FEATURES OF SOME ORGANISMS IN FRESH WATER HABITAT

some plants and their adaptive features

1.

Water lily (Nymphaea):

the plant has air bladders, expanded shape and light weight which keep it afloat. It has long petioles attached at the centre of leaf blade which prevent them from being drawn under water by the current.
2.

Water hyacinth (Ipomea grassipis):

they have cavities and intercellular air spaces which give them the ability to float or maintain buoyancy on water.
3.

Spirogyra:

the plant has mucilaginous cover which protect them in water.
4.

Water lettuce (pistia):

water lettuce has hairs on their leaves which help them to trap air and enable them to float.
5.

Hornwort (ceratophyllum):

the plants have submerge or thin dissected leaves which increase their surface area to sunlight and gaseous exchange.
6.

Water weed (elodea):

the plant has a long and flexible submerged petiole which enable it to swing with water currents.

some animals and their adaptive features

1.

Protozoa:

these animals possess contractile vacuole which enable them to carry out osmoregulation in water.
2.

Tilapia fish:

they have swim bladders which enable them to float (buoyancy) in water. They also have gills for respiration.
3.

Duck:

it has webbed digit on its feet for easy locomotion and serrated beak for sieving food in water into its mouth.
4.

Lung fish (protopterus):

he animals obtain oxygen through the gills but when the water dries out during dry season, hey dig into the mud and breathe with lungs until the rain comes again.
5.

Hydra:

it has slippery surface, hooks and suckers for attachment to water particles.
6.

Pond skaters (gerris):

this animal has long legs with which he skates on water surface.
7.

Water boatman:

this animal can carry bubbles of air with it as it goes below the water surface to the bottom and use these as their air supply (respiration) under water.

Food Chain in Fresh Water Habitat

Diatoms, spirogyra, detritus, water lily, and most of the flowering plants are the major producers in fresh water habitat. Some example of food chains are:
i. Diatoms==fish fry==tilapia
ii. Detritus==worm==shrimps==birds
iii. Spirogyra==tadpoles==carps==king fishers.

energy flow in fresh water habitat

1. Energy from sun/radiant energy/solar energy is received
2. It is then absorbed/trapped by green plants/algae/phytoplanking (of fresh water/pond/stream/river, etc.).
3. This is used in photosynthesis, to synthesize/manufacture organic substances.
4. Zooplankton/fish/animals of the pond would now depend or feed on the green plants for food.
5. The feeding is direct if they are herbivores as the plants are eaten by herbivores.
6. The feeding is indirect if they are carnivores as herbivores are eaten by carnivores.
7. When plants or animals/organisms die or when animals discharge their droppings/wastes, they are decomposed via the action of saprophytes/fungi/bacteria-decomposers/micro-organisms.
8. By sodaing, energy is lost.

Factors Affecting Fresh Water Habitats

Factors which affect fresh water habitats are biotic and abiotic factors.
1.

Biotic Factors

a. Plant/producers
b. Animals/consumers
c. Parasites
d. Decomposers/saprophytes/micro-organisms
e. Predators

2.

Abiotic Factors

a. Temperature
b. Sunlight/light
c. Wind
d. Inorganic compounds
e. Turbidity/suspended particles/transparency
f. Topography
g. Dissolved oxygen
h. pH/dissolved CO
i. water current/currents
j. rainfall/precipitation








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AQUATIC HABITATS AND [TS FEATURES



AQUATIC HABITATS

WHAT IS AQUATIC HABITAT

Aquatic habitat is a body of water in which certain organisms live naturally. In other words, aquatic habitats are habitats or places that relates to lives in water.
Organisms that live in water are called aquatic organisms. Examples of aquatic organisms are fish, crabs, toads and plants.

Types of aquatic habitats

There are three types of aquatic habitats. These are:
1. Marine or salt water habitats.
2. Estuarine or brackish water habitats.
3. Fresh water habitats.

MARINE HABITATS

Marine habitats refer to aquatic habitats which contain salt water. Marine habitats include the oceans, lakes, shores and the open seas.

CHARACTERISTICS OF MARINE HABITAT

The marine or salt water habitat has the following characteristics:
1.

Salinity of marine habitat:

salinity is the degree of saltiness or concentration of salt solution in oceans. The marine habitats have a high salinity and its average salinity is put at 35.2 per 1000. In other words, the average salinity of the ocean is 35.2 parts of salts by weight per 1000 parts of water.
2.

Density of the world's aquatic habitat:

the density of a marine water is high, hence many organisms can float in it. While the density of ocean water is about 1.028, that of fresh water is 1.00. So, the density of ocean water is higher than that of fresh water.

Pressure:

water pressure increases in depth at the rate of one atmosphere for every ten metres. In other words, pressure varies from one atmosphere at the surface level to about 1000 atmosphere at the greatest depth. This is why animals in marine habitats have features which enable them to adapt especially at the deep level of the sea.






3.
4.

Size of the wo0rld's aquatic habitat:

marine habitats represents the largest of all the habitats. The ocean alone occupies over 70% or 360 million square kilometres of the earth’s total area of 510 million square kilometres. Examples of oceans are Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, (the largest), Indian Ocean etc.

5.

Currents of aquatic habitat

currents are always produced by wind at the surface of the ocean. Currents are also produced down the ocean as a result of certain variations such as salinity and changes in temperature.
6. Tides of aquatic habitat: tides are the alternate rise and fall of the surface of the ocean approximately twice a day. This alternate rise and fall in water level is due to the gravitational effects of the moon and sun. read about water cycle here and see the impact of it on the ocean tides
7.

Oxygen concentration:

the concentration of oxygen in the ocean is the highest at the surface while it decreases with depth, and in every deep parts of the ocean there is practically no oxygen.
8.

Hydrogen ion concentration:

salt water is known to be alkaline in nature with pH of about 8.0-9.0 near the surface.
9.

Waves of aquatic habitat:

waves are movement of surface waters of the oceans and it can take any direction and are caused by winds. Waves bring about the mixing of sea water especially on the surface of the ocean.
10. Light penetration: light penetrates the ocean water only to a maximum depth of 200 metres. Therefore, plant life is limited to the upper layers of the ocean where light can penetrate. Penetration of light depends on the water turgidity.

MAJOR ZONES OF THE MARINE HABITATS

major ecological zones of the marine habitats include:
1.

Supratidal or splash zone:

this is the exposed zone of the marine habitat. It has occasional moisture since it is the area where water splashes when the wave break at the shore.
2.

Intertidal or neritic zone:

this zone which is also called planktonic or euphotic zone is only exposed at low tide or covered by water at high tide. It has high photosynthetic activities because of abundant sunlight. There is also fluctuation of the water temperature.
3.

Littoral or sub tidal zone:

this zone is about 200m deep. It is constantly under water, it has abundant sunlight and therefore abundant nutrients.
4.

Benthic zone:

benthic zone is also under water and is about 500m deep. It has low light penetration and low nutrients.
5.

Pelagic or abyssal zone:

this zone is about 7000m deep. It has low temperature, low light penetration, high pressure, low photosynthetic activities and the primary production of food is by chemosynthesis.
6.

?Hadal or aphotic zone:

this is the deepest zone of the marine habitat. It is over 7000m deep. It forms the floor or bed of the ocean. There is no light penetration and no photosynthetic activities.
7.

On the basis of depth or light penetration or vertical zoning of marine habitat, there exist three major zones.

These are euphotic, disphotic and aphotic zones.

i.

Euphotic zone:

this is an area which is directly connected with sunshine. Producers, consumers and decomposers are present here. There is enough light penetration for photosynthesis to take place.
ii.

Disphotic zone:

this is a region of dim light. Consumers and decomposers are also found there. Light penetrates water but the intensity is too low for photosynthesis to take place.
iii.

Aphotic zone:

this represents the bottom or bed of the seas and oceans. It is characterized by cold dark water without light penetration and very few living organisms are found in this zone.







DISTRIBUTION OF ORGANISMS IN MARINE HABITATS AND THEIR ADAPTIVE FEATURES

The organisms in marine habitats include plants and animals.

PLANTS IN MARINE HABITAT

1. Sea weeds: they possess hold-fast for attachment. They also possess mucilaginous cover to prevent dissociation. They have divided leaves, floating devices or air bladder for buoyancy.
2. Algae, e.g. sargassum: algae possess chlorophyll for photosynthetic activities, small size or large surface area for drifting or floating.
3. Sesuvium: Sesuvium possesses thick leaves or reduced leaves for water conservation.
4. Planktons, e.g. diatoms: they possess air spaces in their tissues, rhizoids (fake feet) for attachment to rocks and air bladder for buoyancy.

ANIMALS IN MARINE HABITAT AND THEIR ADAPTIVE FEATURES

1. Barnacles: barnacles have protective mantle or pad for attachment or anchorage to rock shore, cilia for feeding, shell which prevents desiccation and mantle which retains water.
2. Cartilaginous fishes: cartilaginous fishes like shark and dog fish have ability to retain urea in their body to cope with high salinity.
3. Bony fish: fishes like tilapia and herring drink salt water to cope with high salt content of the ocean. They also possess salt secreting gland in their gills or eyes to enable them maintain osmoregulation or salt balance.
4. Shrimps: they possess powerful claws or chelipods for seizing or holding food or prey.
5. Crabs: crabs are capable of burrowing fast into the mud to protect them against predators, strong waves or tides.
6. Periwinkles: they possess lungs for breathing and foot for attachment.
7. Starfish: they possess tube feet which enable them to hold on to rock shores, and hard shell which prevents desiccation or drying up.

FOOD CHAIN IN MARINE HABITAT

A typical food chain in marine habitat could be up to three or four trophic levels. The phytoplanktons, e.g. diatoms serve as the major producers which support the food chain. Some examples of food chain includes:
i. Diatoms==Zooplanktons==Tilapia==Shark
ii. Diatoms==Crabs==Tilapia

FACTORS AFFECTING MARINE HABITATS

Some of the major factors affecting marine habitats are temperature, sunlight, wind, density, pH and salinity. These factors have been explained under characteristics of marine habitats.

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5. Usefulness of science
6. Living and non-living things
7. Characteristics of living things
32. Movement and responses
33. Reproduction
34. Skeleton
35. Type of skeleton
36. Bones of axial and appendicular skeleton
37. Joint
38. Functions of skeleton in man
39. Supporting tissues in plants
40. Mechanisms of supports in plants









13. Kingdom fungi
14. Kingdom Plantae
15. Kingdom Animalia
16. Cell as a living unit of an organism
17. Form in which living cells exist
18. Structures of plants and animal cells and functions of their components
19. Similarity and differences between plant and animal cell
20. Diffusion

SYMBIOSIS AND COMMENSALISM


WHAT IS SYMBIOSIS AND COMMENSALISM

SYMBIOSIS
Symbiosis is a close association between two organisms in which the two of them benefits from the association. Symbiosis is therefore a beneficial association where each member is called a SYMBIONT

EXAMPLES OF SYMBIOTIC ASSOCIATION

1. alga and fungus in lichen:
Lichen is made up of two organisms, namely a fungus and a green alga which lives in a close relationship or association
In this association, the alga benefits because the fungus encloses and protects it from physical damage and from drying up. The alga uses some of the water absorbed by the fungus while the fungus benefits by using part of the food manufactured by the green alga
2.

PROTOZOA IN THE INTESTINE OF TERMITES

The protozoa help the termite which is a biting and chewing insect to digest the cellulose in the food while protozoa are protected by the termites







3.

NITROGEN FIXATION BACTERIA IN THE ROOT NODULES OF LEGUMINOUS PLANTS

A bacterium called rhizobium leguminosarium living in the root nodules of leguminous plants obtain nutrients from the cells of the host plant, grow and reproduce there. In return, the rhizobium fixes nitrogen directly into the plant from the atmosphere, thereby increasing the nitrogen requirement of leguminous plants
4.

BACTERIA IN THE RUMEN OF RUMINANTS

Bacteria and other protozoa n the rumen of ruminant animals like cattle, goats and sheep help the ruminant to digest cellulose to sugars, synthesize amino acids and other vitamins from other substances while ruminant in turn provide protection, shelter and food for the bacteria

5.

FLOWERS AND INSECTS

Insects obtain food from flowers in the form of pollen and nectars while in turn, the insects brings about cross-pollination I the plant they visit, thus enabling plants to produce sexually

COMMENSALISM

What is commensalism?
Commensalism is a relationship or association between two organisms of different species, in which one, the commensal, benefits while the other, the host, is not adversely affected in any way. This form of relationship between two organisms has no known effects on the each of the organisms involved.
It is simply stated that commensalism is an association between two organisms in which one of the organism known as the commensal benefits from the union and the other is harmed or affected in any way.

EXAMPLES OF COMMENSALISM

1.

remora fish and shark

The remora fish attaches itself to the body of a shark which carries it about. The remora fish feeds on the food particles left over by the shark, by so doing the remora obtains food, protection and shelter from the shark whereas the shark is neither harmed nor benefitted from the association.
2.

oyster and crab

The habitation of a crab is in the Oyster shell in which case the crab is protected yet no harm is done to the Oyster
3.

man and intestinal bacteria

Some bacteria in the large intestine of man feeds on digested food there. The bacteria receive food and protection from the man whereas man neither gains nor suffers any disadvantage from the presence of the bacteria








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HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS


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PARASITISM



WHAT IS PARASITISM

Definition of parasitism
Parasitism is a feeding relationship or association between two organisms, in which the parasite live in or on the body of the host, deriving benefit from and causes harm to it while the host loses in the process
In other words, parasitism is a close association between two organisms in which one, known as the PARASITE, lives on or in and feeds on the expense of the other known as the HOST. The parasite benefits from the association while the host suffers

Typical examples of parasitism are

1.

MAN AND THE TAPEWORM

The tape worm is a parasite that lives in the small intestine of man, where it derives the benefits of a habitat, protection and food. The man who s the host suffers because he loses to the tape worm parts of the food he has eaten and digested
2.

MISTLETOE AND FLOWERING PLAN

The mistletoe is a plant parasite that lives on other larger flowering plants. The mistletoe benefits because the host gives its support and raises it to a position from which it can receive sunlight. The parasite also derives water and mineral salts from the host while the host suffers harm by losing to the parasite part of the water and mineral salts that it has absorbed








FUNGAL PARASITES OF HOST PLANTS INCLUDE

1. Ustilago on maize
2. Puccinia on maize, wheat or barley
3. Phytophthora palmivora on cocoa
4. Phytophthora infestans on tomato/potato
5. Alternario on tomato







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HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES







RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS

118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING AND CLEARING
121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING FARM YARD MANURE
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE/a>
149.
PLOUGHS
142. FIELD MACHINES
157. PLANTERS
164. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

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MECHANISM OF TRANSPORTATION IN PLANTS


MECHANISM OF TRANSPORTATION IN PLANTS

Plants generally y require sufficient quantities of several minerals and other substances which are transported in them. Materials transported in plants include manufactured food, carbon dioxide, water, oxygen, nitrogenous waste products, latex, amino acids, glucose, Auxins and mineral salts. The medium of transport in plants is the latex or cell sap.
In aquatic, unicellular and simple multicellular plants, gases enter and leave the cells by simple diffusion. Water enters the cells of these plants by osmosis while manufactured food and waste products are transported by diffusion. In multicellular plants like flowering plants, the gases are mainly absorbed through the stomata in the leaves and lenticels in the stem while mineral salts and water are absorbed through the root system. Inside the plants, gases move by diffusion. They dissolve in water of the moist cells before entering the cells. Water, mineral salts and soluble food are transported in the vascular tissues of the plant. The vascular tissues of plants are made up of a network of long tubes called vascular bundles. A vascular bundle consist mainly of the xylem and the phloem tissues. But in the roots and stems of dicotyledonous plants, a layer called cambium exist between the xylem and the phloem tissues. Hence, the vascular bundles are found in the roots, stems and leaves of flowering plants.








1. THE CAMBIUM TISSUES: they are made up of narrow living cells with thin walls and dense cytoplasm.
FUNCTIONS OF THE CAMBIUM TISSUES
They are capable of dividing and multiplying thereby enabling the plants to produce secondary xylem and phloem. This then results in the growth in width or girth of the stems called secondary thickening.
2. THE XYLEM TISSUES: the xylem tissues consist mainly of dead cells with lignified cell walls.
FUNCTIONS OF THE XYLEM TISSUES
The xylem tissues transport water and dissolved mineral salts from the roots to other parts of the plants read here for osmosis and diffusion. It also gives support and rigidity to plants.
3. THE PHLOEM TISSUES: the phloem tissues consist of thin-walled living cells with dense cytoplasm which have perforated cross wall.
FUNCTIONS OF THE PHLOEM TISSUES
The phloem tissues transport manufactured food from the leaves mainly to other parts of the plant either for use or for storage.

PROCESS WHICH AID TRANSPORTATION IN PLANTS

Transportation of materials in plant is aided by the following processes:
(i) Translocation.
(ii) Transpiration.
(iii) Absorption of water and mineral salts.
(iv) Transport of water in the xylem tissue.

Translocation

Translocation is the process by which manufactured food substances are transported from where they are manufactured to tissues where they are needed or stored. Translocation normally begins from the leaves to other parts of the plant. Phloem is the tissue through which these manufactured food substances are translocated.
Substances or materials commonly translocated in plants include sugar, glucose or carbohydrates, oil, resins, proteins or amino acids, alkaloids and hormones.








The functions of these translocated substances include:
(i) Proteins or amino acids which are used for building up new tissues.
(ii) Sugar, glucose or carbohydrates which provides energy for synthetic process.
(iii) Oil provides energy.
(iv) Alkaloids, resins and steroids are protective in function and prevent herbivores from eating the plants as they are all waste products in plants

Experiment 1

Aim: to show that translocation takes place through the phloem tissue (Ringing experiment)
Materials required: two plants marked X and Y, knife.
Procedure: the knife is used to remove the bark and phloem round one of the trees marked X while only the bark of the other tree marked Y is removed. (This tree marked Y serves as the control experiment). The plants are all left for about 2—5 weeks.
Observation: after the expiration of these weeks, it will be observed that swelling begins to appear gradually in the bark along the ring in plant X but no swelling in that of Y. The swelling in X is due to the accumulation of food substances which have passed down through the phloem from the leaves. After a long period of time, tree X will finally die because the root cannot obtain food manufactured in the leaves.
Conclusion: phloem is responsible for the translocation of manufactured food from the leaves to other parts of the plant.

Differences between transpiration and sweating


Transpiration

1. Occurs in plants through stomata or lenticels
2. Transpiration involves only loss of water
3. Water is lost in the form of vapour
4. Occurs during the day
Sweating
1. Occurs in mammals/skin/through sweat pores
2. Loss of water, salts and nitrogenous
3. Water loss is liquid in form. see water cycle here
4. Occurs both day and night
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Important topics related to the above article

1. Recognizing living things

51. Local biotic communities or biomes in Nigeria
52. Major biomes of the world
53. Population studies
54. Ecological factors









HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPIC ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY AND LINK TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE

75. SOIL WATER
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES

126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE/a>
149.
PLOUGHS
142. FIELD MACHINES
157. PLANTERS
164. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION






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