What is soil structure and its importance


what is soil structure?


Soil structure is defined as the arrangement of soil particles of soil into aggregate sizes and shapes.
The soil structure of a given sample of soil simply shows the physical appearance of the soil as the particles are arranged in sizes and shapes.







what are the causes of soil structure?

The causes of soil structure and soil particles arrangement cannot be over emphasized but looked at in the following ways
One of the major factors affecting soil structural arrangement is the action of binding agents in the soil
The activities of farmers during planting and tillage operation helps to shape the soil structure.
Chemical substances and their actions can also influence soil structure
Another important factor influencing soil structure is weathering. Weathering which is the breaking down of parent materials or rocks into smaller particles





to form soil by physical and chemical actions such as

Wind
Rainfall
sunshine
temperature
human activities

what are the importance of soil structure?

Some of the facts and importance of soil structure as it concern agricultural activities are as follows
soil structure plays major role in terms of heat transfer within the soil that essentially affect the growth of plants crops
soil structure facilitates soil air aeration
soil water movement can be greatly affected by the soil structure of the soil
last but not the least, soil structure can greatly reduce the degree of soil erosion
the soil structure of the land also affects or determines plant root penetration

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How to store fertilizers


how top store fertilizer

Fertilizer storage is very important to the farmer. Proper fertilizer storage will prevent it from damage dissolution.
Under listed are some of the ways we can store fertilizers in a proper manner for use in the future

1. We should synthetic fabrics which prevents entry of water and moist air that could lead to dissolution








2. The use of tarpaulins is advisable where it is affordable. The use of tarpaulin to cover fertilizers that is 3. storage is to give additional protection and covering


4. Farmers should construct a simple fertilizer store among their farm stead


5. Fertilizers should be stored differently according to types for easy access and identification


6. The stored fertilizers should not rest on the wall of the store to enable air circulation


7. The storage platform should be raised above the ground.


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What is soil texture and importance of soil texture


what is soil texture and it's effect on crops production?

Soil texture can be defined as the relative proportion of the soil particles present in a soil sample.
In clear terms, soil texture can be said to be the relative degree of fineness or coarseness of particles of soil in a soil sample 

Each of the spoil particle sizes in degree is called a fraction
So here is a little table of soil texture showing their degree of fineness





Soil sample fractions Range of diameter in (mm)
Coarse sand 2-0.2
Fine sand 0.2-0.02
Silt 0.02-0,002
Clay 0.002 and below









importance of soil texture  to farming activities and agricultural production

When we talk of the importance of soil texture, we are simply saying is there any benefit of soil texture to a farmer
So the following are the various ways soil texture can be of benefit to a farmer

1. Soil texture of a sample of soil determines the water holding capacity of the soil of the environment

2. The relative sizes of the soil particles making the soil texture helps in soil air movement

3. The soil texture of a portion of land or soil determines the plant root penetration

4. Soil texture can also affect the level of tillage ease of a portion of land


5. During harvesting of crops like cassava the soil texture determines the hardness of the soil thereby making it easy or hard to uproot
Soil texture can adversely affect the water retention capacity of the soil



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What is a biennial crop


what are biennial crops?

Biennial crops are crops that completes their life’s cycle in two planting season or two years after planting. Most biennial crops will use the first year of after planting to gather enough nutrients also called food, leaves store up food while the remaining year is used by the biennial crop to produce what the farmer will harvest for sales or consumption
One very key aspect of biennial crops is that reproduction and maturity takes place in the second year after planting







characteristics of biennial crops

Biennial crops can easily be differentiated from annual crops or perennial crops in the following ways

Biennial crops can never produce or mature in the first year after planting
Most biennial crops have fibrous root system
Biennial crops are not tree crops as such they are not very tall





examples of biennial crops

The following are typical examples of biennial crops. To mention but a few they as follows
Pineapple
Banana
Plantain
Sugar cane/sugar beet
Cocoyam
Fluted pumpkin
Cassava etc.

Conclusion


Before going into cultivation of biennial crops in through large scale farming, the type of land tenure system or type of land ownership system practiced in the community should be considered.

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What is fallow farming and the importance of fallow farming practices


what is fallow farming

Fallow farming in the simple definition means allowing a piece of land to rest and regain nutrients in the natural way after farming on it for some planting season. 
The use of fallow farming method to enrich the land is very essential to farming and quality yield. Fallow farming does not only affect the soil nutrients but also gives room for other wild animals to replenish and multiply.


why do people practice fallow farming?

People practice fallow farming for so many reasons but for the sake of this post I will center on a few of the reason for engaging in fallow farming. The reasons are not limited to the under listed. If you think that there are other reason other than the ones listed here then feel free to use our comment box to reach us.
The reasons for the practicing fallow farming are as follows
Fallow farming is usually practiced in communities with enough farm lands for agricultural activities.
Because in rural communities the planting of annual and biennial crops on a piece of land in one farming period if practiced, therefore it will not wise to cut down the biennial crops while they are yet to mature just because the farmer wants to re-plant on the that same land in the early planting season so he would rather look for another land to farm the next planting season
The practice of fallow farming serves as a natural means or method soil management to replenish the soil nutrient in places where access to fertilizer is scarce. During this time or period, the dead and decayed organic matters forms humus to enrich the soil
Fallow farming serves as a natural means of pest control.


problems facing the practice of fallow farming

It important to note that no matter the advantages of anything, there will be ways whereby that activity will have challenges. So with this notion in mind I am going to list few problems facing the practice of fallow farming agriculture. These problems are as follows
The practice of land tenure system of farming, land fragmentation by communities for farming purposes is always a problem to fallow farming. In this case the choice of land for the next planting season is dependent of the community and not just the farmer
Another problem facing fallow farming is the movement of large farm tools such as tractors, harvesters, planters, ridgers etc.
The cost of labour is always a problem to fallow farming in the sense that pre-planting activities and planting activities are to be re-performed every planting season thereby increasing labour costs



CONCLUSION
Fallow farming is also known as bush fallowing in agriculture. The fallow farm method or fallow system of farming is majorly practiced by peasant farmers who are also known as subsistence farmers

In fallow farming, the use of fertilizers is not much needed in the sense that the fallowed piece of land would have regained much of its lost nutrients during the fallow period or rest


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What is perennial crop and types of perennial plants


what is perennial crop?

Perennial crops are crops which completes their life cycle or harvesting time period in more two years after planting. Perennial crops are mainly tree crops.
So going into plantation farming, you need a very large space or hectares of land. The land allotted for planting of perennial crops are lands reserved for no other purposes.






major characteristics of perennial crops

Perennial crops mature for harvesting after two years of planting
Anything perennial crop can be harvested for than 10 times during its life time
Most perennial crops can live beyond ten years


importance of perennial crops

The benefits or importance of perennial crops are as follows
Perennial crops serves as long term sources of income to the farmer
Crops like cocoa, orange and mango are a major source of food for families
Perennial crops are quantum source of raw materials for the industries or agro-allied industries








lists of perennial crops

The major lists of perennial crops in agricultural science are as follows
Cashes tree
Coconut tree
Mango tree
Oil palm tree
Cocoa tree
Cola nut tree
Rubber tree
Moringa plant
“dogonyaro tree” mostly found in Nigeria
Cherry tree
Ducanut tree known as “ogbono” in Nigeria

You can also read our post on classification of crops and their use here

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permanent tree crop farming and advantages

<h1>WHAT ARE CASH CROPS?</h1>
Permanent crops are sometimes known as cash crops. These crops known as permanent crops are mostly cultivated as plantation farming. Permanent crops are mostly tree crops
When going into or starting a permanent crop farming which is also known as plantation farming, the following factors should be considered and carefully examined before going into its production
Land tenure system. Before starting a plantation or permanent crop farm, the types of land tenure system practiced in the area should be put into thorough consideration. The major problem posed by land tenure system is that access to enough farming land is limited because of land fragmentation, land ownership and communal clashes.
Transportation means. The cultivation of crops is as good as the means to transport the various farm produce for easy reach of potential buyers and consumers. So don’t just site your farm without first considering the type of transportation system of means located in your area of choice. Take my advice, transportation system is good as the success of your business.
Environmental factors. It is very important to note that it is not everywhere and anytime you can plant crops, most crops have their most preferred time of planting. In other note to fail in agricultural crop production then environmental factors should be considered.
Market environment. Nearness to quality market should be your top priority as a farmer going into permanent crop production. The market important to avoid or reduce transportation  costs
Soil type. The type of soil found in an environment should be considered in relation to the types of permanent crops to be planted.

<h2>list of permanent crops</h2>
The following are typical examples of permanent crops
Orange or citrus crops. Read more here
Mango tree
Rubber tree. Read more here
Guava
Coconut
Oil palm tree. Read more here
Cashew tree
Pineapple
Cocoa tree. Read more here
Cola nut
Cotton. Read more of cotton cultivation here


<h2>uses of permanent crops</h2>
Permanent crops serves as source of food for the nation or families
Permanent crops yields foreign exchange for countries
In most cases permanent crops are tailored for cash sales only
They serves as permanent source of income to the farmer

In conclusion
Going into plantation farming, cash crops, and permanent crops farming requires large farm inputs like tillage machineries and access to good road including quality marketing point
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USES OF FISH PRODUCTS





Use of Fish and Fish Products

Food Fish is eaten by man as part of his diet and is a good source of protein.
1.

Source of income

Fishes are sold for money and this provides a major source of income to fish farmers ad fish traders
2.

Fish watching

Man derive great pleasure from watching fish in private and public ponds, television screen and movies.

3.

documentary and film making



4.

Scientific study

Fish are used for scientific experiments and researches to increase knowledge


5.

Recreation

Sport fishing as a recreation man has played important role in the social lives of people who are engage in it. In other words, it has contributed to their happiness.


6.

Improvement of human health

Some species of tilapia and top minnows have been used to control malaria in the tropics since they prey in mosquitoes.










By-products of fishes

Some by-products of fish are useful to man. Examples include:

(a)

Fish meal:

This is obtained by grinding dried parts of fish. It is in animal protein source, especially in poultry feeds.

(b)

Fish oil:

Oil can be extracted from fish and used by man. There are two kinds of fish oil.

The one that is Extracted from the fishes themselves which is used in making paints, enamels, vanishes, candles, and soap;

and the one which is extracted from fish liver, usually from the cod fish (stock fish) known as cod liver oil.

This contains a lot of vitamins and is used as medicine, especially for babies.


(c)

Fish manure:

The discarded parts of fish as well as those fishes that have gone bad are heaped to decompose and are used as manure for growing crops.


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HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS




(d) Fish skins: The skins from fishes especially sharks, are used as leather for bags, shoes and other leather works.

fishing implements and uses



fishing instruments

there are so types of fishing gadgets but we shall be examining just a few of them.

Use of nets:

Nets are made of nylon and are used for fishing both in large and small bodies of water.

Net fishing is very efficient because many fishes can be caught at a time with a net.

There are different forms of net used for fishing.

These are:

(i) The cast or throw nets

(ii) The gill nets

(iii) The lift nets









(iv) The hand net or scoop net.

(b)

Use of hooks:

A hook is made of metal rod which is curved at the tip. Fishing hooks are of two kinds:

(i) The pole and line hook: This consists of a hook to which a twine is tied, which in turn, is tied to a long pole or stick.
A weight or float (could be a small stone or metal nut) is tied to the rope to enable the hook go down the water.

Fish is attracted to the hook by a bait (e.g. earth worm) attached to it.
an article on tapeworm here
When a fish attempts to eat the bait, its mouth is hung to the hook and the fisher quickly throws out the honk from the water to remove the fish.
read about fish products here
The method is time and labour consuming. Only one fish can be caught with this method it a time.

A Pole and Line Hook.


(ii) Long line hook: This consists of several hooks tied to a long line. The whole line is then tied across the course of the stream.


Baits are attached to each hook. This can be left for a long time, while checking to see if any of the hooks has caught a fish as well as to replace the baits. Many fishes can be caught at a time with this method. DIAGRAM Figure 3.9.12: Long Line Hook.

(c)
Use of baskets
Baskets are mainly used in fish pond. They are placed through the water to catch the fishes in it. Baskets are used in periodic periodic harvesting by selecting only large fishes from tin- entire catch and throwing back the under-sized ones into smaller containers.
Many fishes can be caught with baskets at a time.

(d)
Use of fish traps:
These are woven materials usually with canes, rid, ropes or wires.
They are designed in different shapes and sizes. When placed in water, fishes are attracted into them by baits placed inside.
When the fishes enter, they cannot come out. Hand net Cast net Drag net Fishing trap










Fishing nets and trap.


(e)
Use of spear or harpoon
This is used for large fishes like the shark. It is not however a very common method these days.

(f)
Drainage:
This is common in ponds or shallow streams which can be blocked to drain away water. The fishes are then easily. It is used for total harvesting in ponds.

(g)
Use of fishing trawlers
, boats or canoes: These are means of transportation in water.
They enable the fishermen to go into the water from which they can cast nets or set out hooks to catch fishes

read about aquaculture here
1.
Bad Fishing Methods


The following are considered bad "methods of fishing and should not be used:

1.
Use of poisons, or chemicals such as gamahalin 20

2.
Use of explosives such dynamites

3.
Electric stunning
that is, passing electric current into the water to stun or electrocute the fishes before they are picked.

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HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.


48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS


126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION






you can read my other article on modern system and techniques in fishing here

METHODS OF FISH PRESERVATION


Processing and Preservation of Fishes

The following are ways of processing and preserving fishes:
(a)

Smoking:

Fishes are smoked by putting them over a fire and covering them on top.
read about simple farm tools and implements
(b)

Drying:


This can be done by using fire or sun. Drying helps to reduce the water content in the fish and it can preserve the fish for a very long time.

(c)

Canning:


Fishes are processed and canned for export. This method .provides a long lasting means of fish preservation.
Examples of canned fishes are sardine, Geisha, Queen of the Coast.

(d)

Salting:

Fish can be preserved by.rubbing salt on the body. It keeps the fish for a short time unless it is followed in drying.









(e)

Chilling or freezing:


Fish can be preserved in fridges, deep freezers and cold rooms.
This method helps to keep fishes for a long time provided there is constant power supply.

(f)

Icing:


This is done by putting blocks of ice round fishes usually in cooters. The fishes can be transported with this method and can last so long as the ice remains.

other methods include steaming, cooking, frying and roasting.



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HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT

60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING

80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION







87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS

FARMING AS A CAREER IN AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE




FARMING AS A CAREER

Advantages of choosing farming as a career

Many people often think that agriculture means farming.

This is not entirely true.
As it has been seen in the preceding discussions, agriculture is academic, it is a business and it is a vocation or an occupation.

Farming comes under vocation or occupation in agriculture

Agriculture is mainly concerned with the cultivation of crops and the rearing of animals on the farm.

Farming therefore is an important component or sub-sector of agriculture because it is the source of food for mankind.


other aspects of agriculture are geared towards improving farming and hence increasing available food for human consumption.

Therefore, agriculture cam toe regarded as the mother of all professions, occupations or businesses. If agriculture flourishes, every other aspect of human endeavor will flourish, but if the land is allowed to lie fallow, every other thing is at a stand still.










The following are some benefits that are derived from farming activities

:

1.

Provision of Food

Farming provides the food we eat. A good farmer and his family are well fed. They are never hungry. They have access to varieties of food and usually in. their natural forms. This makes farmers and their families healthier and stronger than the non-farmers.

2.

Job Opportunity

Farming provides jobs for farmers and their families: In farming communities, no one is unemployed.

3

Income

Through farming, farmers get money which they use for other purposes, like provision of shelter, children's education, health care, etc. Farmers arc rich because they spend less money on food since they produce most of the food they eat by themselves.

4.

Self-Satisfaction

There is joy and satisfaction in seeing and utilizing what one" produces. The psychological satisfaction a farmer has during harvest time cannot be equaled.

5.

Source of Satisfaction

Farming activities afford farmers sources of exercising themselves. The farmer can never be idle any time of the year. He uses his brain as well as his hands often. This helps him to overcome emotional stress and build good body physique. Farmers fall sick less often, they are not hypertensive or obesed. They live longer than other average non-farmers.


6.

Contribution to National Development

The farmer is the key person in the life and economy of any country. Through the provision of food which sustains life, raw materials for industries and foreign exchange earnings, the farmer helps to build the nation and save it from hunger and diseases. you can read the importance of agriculture here

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Agricultural biology topics







HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION

126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

STUDY QUESTION

1. (a) List five different courses in Agriculture which one can study in the university. (a) What possible jobs would one engage in after completing each course listed

2. State four benefits that could be derived from choosing farming as a career
3. List five possible vocations one could engage in after studying agriculture. 4. Write short notes on the following:
Agricultural education
Agricultural extension
Agricultural economics
Agricultural engineering


summed up as importance of agriculture

ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION


ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION

The practice where by semen obtained from a male animal or organism may be preserved and transported over long distances and Finally deposited The genital tract of the female is described
as artificial insemination

The collection is done by stimulating the male with the aid of an artificial vagina.

Alternatively, an electro-ejaculator that uses mild shocking system could be used to induce or stimulate ejaculations

Artificial insemination makes it possible for
a single male to be able to service a large number of females

It permits a widespread of superior quality males for genetic improvement, read the Mendelian law of genetics, selection and breeding here

It offers a reduction in the risks of infectious and venereal diseases.

It is a very cheap means of reducing the herd of male animals

It mak3s it possible to test the performance the offspring of an individual animal

It makes good the continued use of sperm from a particular male even after the might have died.

It is an economical means of upgrading the variety of indigenous stock with improved breeds.

Worthy of note is that the difficulty in detecting heat period in Animals could also affect the success of artificial insemination.

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HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE

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FISHERY AND IMPORTANCE OF FISH FARMING

Importance of fish farming

Fish farming is important to man in the following ways
1. It is a source offish for food. Fish is a good source of protein in human diets.
2. It makes good use of the land that would have otherwise .Milable for arable farming.
3. It serves as a source of employment for fish farmers,
4. It reduces the pressure of fishing in natural waters e.g. rivers, and lakes.
5. It serves as a source of income to fish farmers and traders.
6. Fish farming can lead to the improvement of natural fish stocks Likes, rivers etc. since the young ones can be raised in It heries and used for restocking, trips in the production of sports fish, ii Fish can be produced for use in industrial fishing.
EXCLUSIVE INDUSTRIAL USES OF FISH, READ HERE

Classification of Fishes

Fishes can be classified according to their:






(a) Habitat
(b) Morphology

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1. According to Habitat.. read more here
Habitat refers to the living environment of an organism. Fishes water. There are three kinds of water habitat HI which fishes are fresh water, salt water and estuarine habitats.
(a) Fresh water habitat: This refers to water which contains no salt. Such water is found in springs, rivers, ponds, lakes, etc.
Fishes that are found in fresh water habitat are called fresh water fishes .read more on fresh water fishes here Examples include electric fish, moon fish, cat fish as clarias and heterobranchus longifilis, gymnarchus niloticus, and tilapia spp.


DIAGRAM
Figure 3.9.2: Tilapia galilaeus (St. Peter's Fish).

(b) Salt water or marine habitat: this refers to water body that has salt taste. Its salt content is about 3% per volume of water. Such water can be found in seas and ocean. Fishes found in salt water or marine habitat are called salt water or marine fishes. Examples include shark, mackerels, herring, sardine, cod (stock fish)

(c) Estuarine habitat: this refers to water found in estuarine where rivers flow into the seas or ocean. Examples is the Niger Delta are of Nigeria. That salt content of this habitat is in between the content of fresh water habitat and marine habitat.
Fishes may not permanently line in this kind of habitat as some do migrate from fresh water or from salt water into the estuaries and go back thereafter. An example of such fishes is mudfish.

According to morphology
This has to do with the form or structure of the fish. There are two categories in this class
(a) Nature of bone: Fishes can be classified according to the nature of bobe
(i) Bony fishes; These posses bony skeletons or hard bones. Examples include Tilapia, mudfish, catfish.
(ii) Cartilaginous fishes: These possess solid bones or what is called cartilage (Biscuit bone). Examples include shark; dogfish.


(b) Nature of body covering: Based on this, fishes can be classified into:
(i) Scaly fishes: These have their body, parts of their head and tail covered by scales which overlap, pointing towards the tail end of the fish. Example is the tilapia galilaeus (See figure 3.9.2).
(ii) Non-scaly fishes- These have no scales. They have smooth shiny skins. Examples are dogfish, mudfish, mackerels.

Other Aquatic Food Organisms
There are many other organisms that live in water







2. Molluscs such as river snail, periwinkle, oyster. They usually covered with shell and these shells serve some useful purposes to man, in addition to their meat.

3. Reptiles such as river snake, turtles, etc.
4. Mammals such as Hippopotamus

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HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL





79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

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Pathogenic diseases and transmission in farm animals


Pathogenic diseases:

These are caused by living organisms, These organisms include:
(i) Viruses
(ii) Bacteria
(iii) Fungi
(iv) Protozoan
(v) Larger organisms such as ticks, lice, worms, etc.


(b) Nutritional deficiency diseases such as rickets, ketosis.
(c) Diseases caused by inanimate objects such as environment nnd chemicals.

How does disease get to animals?

This is through:
1. Droppings or faeces of infected animals
2. Contaminated feeds and water
3. Contact with infected animals
4. Air
5. Insects, feed or water troughs, etc.






How to identify a diseased/sick animal

The following signs help in identifying a sick or diseased animal:
1. Loss of appetite
2. Persistent coughing
3. Fever (high temperature)
4. Watery, bad smelling or blood stained faeces.
5. Inability to rise and sluggishness.
6. Rough skin/coat, and drooping of tail or wings in case of birds,
7. Discharges from the eyes, nostrils, mouth, or anus.
8. Emaciation
9. Death


11.5

Summary of some common diseases of farm animals

The table below shows a summary of common diseases of animals:

Name of disease, Causative agent, Animal affected Symptoms, Mode of transmission, Effects, Control measures.

Foot and Mouth disease Virus Cattle Sores on feet, lips, tongue, cheek, salivation and foaming, inability to eat, weakness, lameness and death Transmitted by contact with infected animals or bv contact with contaminated feed materials from diseased herd.
Serious loss of animals through death.
Vaccination. Isolation ol diseased animals from healthy ones. Bury dead animals deeply. No treatment.

Rinder pest Virus Cattle High fever, blood stained shooting diarrhea. Difficult breathing and animals grind their teeth. Death rate is very high Through contamination with infected animal and eating contaminated food.
Death of animals.


Vaccination. Isolation of diseased animals. Kill and bury deeply infected animals. No treatment.

Newcastle disease (NCD) Virus Poultry Drop in feed intake, severe respiratory difficulties. Neck twisting and paralysis of the legs or wings. Laying of soft shelled eggs, water greenish diarrhea Through contact with faeces of infected birds, nasal and oral discharge from diseased birds and materials, contaminated by the virus.

Low egg production in layers. High mortality rate resulting in loss of birds.
Routine vaccination using freeze dried NCD vaccine given either intra-occular in young birds or inter-muscular in older birds. Good sanitary practices. No treatment.


BRUCELLOSIS (Contagious abortion)
Bacteria (Brucclla Abortus)
Cattle Irritation and catarrhal conditions in the womb of the pregnant cow. This results in the expulsion of foetues at about the 5th – 7th month of pregnancy as still birth Contacted when animals feed on contaminated pasture or other feed. Also servicing by infected bull and flies that have rested on the foetus of affected animals can transmit the disease Loss of foetus.

Reduction in the level of an animal’s production. The disease is zoonotic. That is can affect human beings. Vaccination.

Report any occurrence to the nearest veterinary officer.


ANTHRAX Bacteria (Baccilus anthracis) Cattle, sheep and goat In acute cases, the first sign is death. In less acute cases, there may be blood stained discharges from nostrils and mouth and swelling in the neck, genitals and lower abdomen. Through contact with infected animals and their products Loss of animals. Note: Do not open carcass of infected animals as the disease is also zoonotic. Vaccination. Burn or bury deeply any diseased animal. Disinfect properly after disease has occurred in a herd.

TUBERCULOSIS Bacteria (Mycobacterium spp) Occurs in most animals Infects lungs resulting in persistent cough, emaciation, loss of condition and finally death Contact with infect animal. It can also be through contact with discharge or sputum from cough.

Milk infected with the bacterium can equally transmit the disease. Lowers productivity and also results in loss of animals.

The disease is also zoonotic. No treatment.

Kill and bury deeply infected animal.
Routine checking by a veterinary doctor is important. Good hygien


Vaccination.
FOWL THYPHOID Bacteria Poultry Birds become dull and pass out yellowish diarrhea Contact with the dropping from infected bird or contaminated food, water or soil. Loss of birds Proper sanitation. Vaccination. Contact a veterinary doctor
CHRONIC RESPIRATORY DISEASE (CRD) Not yet identified. Could be bacteria or virus Poultry Nasal discharges rattling sopund during breathing, loss in weight. Through contact with infected birds and their nasal discharges Lowers production in birds and also results in loss of birds Good sanitation. Avoid use of saw dust as litter. Use antibiotics. Consult a veterinary doctor or officer
RINGWORM (Favus in Poultry) Fungus All animals and birds Lesions or scab on the skin of the animals, usually irritating and causing the falling off of the animal’s hair. In Poultry, the disease is common on the combs and wattles producing grey patches The fungus is usually spread from infected to healthy one through contact Results in loss of hair in animals resulting in low market value due to poor appearance of the animal Maintain clean conditions. Isolate infected animals and treat with iodine as surface dressing
TRYPANOSOMIASIS Protozoa (Trypanosoma spp) Mainly Cattle. Also attacks goat and sheep Intermittent fever. General weakness. Hair on tail often pull out. General loss of condition and finally death. Transmitted by tse-tse flies (Glossina spp) by biting infected animal, sucking the protozoan and injecting it into the blood of a healthy animal. Drop in level of animal production death Use drugs e.g. trypanosomide. Rear resistant breeds. Also use chemical to kill the flies and clear bushes around animals pens to ward off the flies


COCCIDIOSIS Protozoa (Coccidia Parasite-E imeria spp) Poultry Blood stained watery droppings. Ruffled feathers. Loss of weight due to fall in feed intake. Death of birds. By taking contaminated food and water from the droppings of infected birds Drop in egg production. Death of birds Maintain high hygienic conditions. Disinfect poultry house before stokcing. Use cocci-diostats e.g. Sulphamethazone added to drinking water.
SCABIES Fungus Cattle, Goat, Sheep It causes very itchy little lumps that can appear all over the body of the animal. It is very common on the udder of femal animals and the genitals of the male. Scratching can cause infection, producing sores with pus and some times swollen lymph nodes or fever. Spreads by touching the affected parts of animals or by beddings. Causes loss of animal hair and destruction of skin. Could affect level of production. Maintain high level of cleanliness in the animal houses. Dip animals in solution lindane.








Other diseases include

(a) Rabbit coccidiosis: This is caused by a protozoan. The signs of the disease include blood-stained faeces and diarrhoea.
Prevention is by separating young animals from old ones. Diseased rabbits should also be separated. Rabbit hutches should be cleared always. Treatment is by the use of sulphonamide drugs.
(b) Swine fever or hog cholera: This affects pig and is caused by virus. The virus is usually present in faeces and blood. The signs are shivering, loss of appetite, vomitting, fever and diarrhoea.

11.6 Animal Parasites
A parasite is a living organism which establishes itself on or in another organism called host, from which it gets its food. parasites are found inside the host. These are called Endo-Parasites, e.g. Tape Worm, Round Worm, Liver Fluke and Trypanosome. Those found on the body of animals are called Ecto-Parasiles. e.g. Ticks, Lice, Mites.

Some parasites of farm animals include:
1. Ectoparasites
(a) Ticks: These are eight-legged organisms belonging to the group arachnida. They feed on farm animals by sucking blood from them. Animals mostly affected by ticks are cattle, sheep, goats and dogs.

The effects of ticks on the farm animals include
(a) Anaemia
(b) Irritation leading to sore formation on the skin
(c) Destruction of skin
(d) Transmission of diseases such as red water, etc.

Ticks can be controlled by:
(i) using clean environment for animals
(ii) practicing rotational grazing
(iii) spraying pens and animals with chemicals such as malathion.

(b) Lice: These are small wingless insects which live under the hair of animals or feathers of birds. They also feed by sucking blood from animals, just like the ticks. Lice cause irritation which results in sore formation and creates avenues for disease agents. They also cause anaemia. Lice can be controlled by:
(i) maintaining clean environment
(ii) avoiding over crowding
(iii) dipping animals in water containing chemicals such, as lindane and DOT.

2. Endoparasites
(a) Roundworms: These are elongated, cylindrical, smooth-skinned, whitish worms, which are pointed at both ends. They are common parasites of cattle, pigs, and poultry. Roundworm is found in the animal's intestine where it gets its food. This parasite deprives the animals of their food thereby reducing their weight. It can also result in slow growth and loss of appetite. The parasite could cause stomach disorders such as diarrhoea, vomitting, etc. Control is by:
(i) maintaining good hygienic conditions in animal environment, and
(ii) use of dewormers such as piperazine.
(b) Liver fluke: This is a short flat worm which attacks mainly cattle and sjheep". It sucks blood from the animal thereby causing emaciation and reducing productivity. It may lead to the death of the animal.

Control can be achieved by:
(i) the use of appropriate drugs
(ii) supplying clean drinking water, and
(iii) destruction of snails on grazing land because they helo to harbor the pest


(i) Tapeworm: This is a long segmented flat worm which looks like the tape of the tailor. The parasite mainly affects pigs and cattle.
The tapeworm possesses hooks and suckers in the scolex and these help to attach the parasite to its host while the suckers assist in feeding. In animals, the presence of tapeworm in tissues or organs could cause some physiological disorders, such as anaemia, abdominal pains, weakness and loss of weight.

The parasite can be controlled by:
(i) maintaining good hygienic conditions (ii) use of drugs
(iii) proper cooking of meat before eating by man which serves as primary host.

General methods of controlling animal diseases
Diseases can be:
(i) Prevented, and






(ii) Controlled.

(a) Prevention: This involves the following practices:

(a) Good sanitation/hygiene
(b) Good feeding .
(c) Vaccination
(d) Quarantine
(e) Breeding
(f) Separation
(g) Rotational grazing.

(b) Control: This involves;
(i) Treatments The use of drugs which may be in the form ot powder, liquid or solids, given in ` water, feeds or as injections.
(ii) Destruction of diseased animals. They arc either burnt or buried.

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You can read some of most interesting topics below

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

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RABBIT REARING


Rabbits

Rabbits just like pigs are monogastric or non-ruminant animals. They are medium-sized hopping mammals with long legs, long ears and short tails.
Rabbits are mainly reared for their meat. Rabbit meat is normally regarded as a white meat.

TERMS USED FOR RABBIT

buck An adult male rabbit
doe An adult female rabbit
Kitten/warren A young or baby rabbit
Hutch The house of rabbit
Kidding The act of parturition in rabbit
Pelt The skin of rabbit







Litter – All the young ones (rabbits) produced at the same time by one doe
Sucking – feeding of young ones on the mother’s breast milk
Dam – The mother of a set of young rabbits
Sire – The father of a set of young rabbits

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RABBITS

(i) Rabbits have small medium sized body
(ii) Rabbits are easy to house.
(iii) Rabbits are very prolific animals or can produce many litters
(iv) Rabbits have a short gestation period of 30 -31 days.
(v) Rabbits grow fast and reach maturity weight in about five to six months. They are efficient converter of wide range of vegetable matter into meat. The fur-covered skins can be processed as pelts for sale.
(viii) Rabbits are easy to handle or manage.
(ix) Rabbits have a weaning period of six to eight weeks.
(x) Rabbits make good quality meat, more delicious and nutritious than that of chicken.
(xi) Rabbits are susceptible to stress.
(xii) Rabbits rate of cannibalism is very high.
(xiii) Rabbits have high rate of disease resistance.

BREEDS AND TYPES OF RABBITS

Common breeds of rabbits include:
(i) California white
(ii) Flemish giant
(iii) California red
(iv) Chinchilla
(v) New Zealand
(vi) Champagne white d’Agent
(vii) The Crosses
(viii) Angora
(ix) Lop
(x) Blue Beveran
(xi) New Zealand red
(xii) Beveren
(xiii) Dutch
(xiv) English spot
(xv) Chekered giants

(1) The Chinchilla: It is a grey-bodied animal and it can weigh up to 5kg at maturity. It is one of the best fur or pelt producers and also a meat producer.
(2) The New Zealand White: This is the most popular meat breed in use. It is a fur breed and can attain a mature weight of 4.5kg in eight months. It is a good converter feed to meat with a high dress percentage. It is also a fast maturing breed.
(3) California White: It is a lighter breed and the adults may attain a mature weight of 3.5kg - 4.5kg. it is characterized by black markings the ears, feet, tail and nose. It in high growth rate and good flesh bone ratio.
(4) The New Zealand Red: This breed is bright-red in colour and weight over 3kg. It has a high growth feed conversion characteristics.
(5) The Giant Flemish: This breed weigh over 5kg and it is the large of all the breeds. It is dark steel-g in colour and produces a dense hard pelt. It is a good m producer.
(6) Angora: This breed requires a of care and attention. It is the only rabbit reared for its wool. Its most common is white. It has tuft of wool on its ear and feet








IMPORTANCE OF RABBIT

1. Meat: The meat of rabbit is white, fine grained, tender and nutritious. the meat of rabbit is even more nutritious than that of poultry chicken
2. Rabbit skin or pelt: This can be used for making jackets, head-gear, carpets or rugs and other decorative households or ornaments.
3. Manure: It has been discovered that rabbit manure is high in nitrogen and phosphorus and therefore can be used to improve the fertility of the soil
4. For research purpose: At the National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI), Vom, rabbits are kept largely as laboratory animals.
READ THIS ARTICLE ON DISEASES OF RABBIT AND CONTROL HERE

Problems Militating Against Rabbit

Production in Nigeria
Major problems which militate against commercial production of rabbits in Nigeria include:
(i) Unpredictable breeding behaviour of rabbits.
(ii) Incidence of respiratory diseases, e.g., snuffles and pneumonia.
(iii) Inadequate sanitation and proper sanitation programmes.
(iv) High nest-box mortality of litters.
(v) Lack of ability to embark on mass production, because most operation in rabbitry cannot be automated.
(vi) It is labour-intensive.
(vii) Lack of capital also impedes large investment in rabbitry.
(viii) Inadequate supply and high cost of concentrate feeds.

HOUSING OF RABBITS

(i) Rabbits are usually kept in hutches
(ii) The hutches are arranged in single, double or triple tiers
(iii) The waist-high, single tier hutches are preferable for they save time and labour in feeding and management
(iv) Wooden or metal hutches with wire-netting surroundings are widely used
(v) The hutches are placed under a building usually referred to as rabbitry. The rabbitry must be well ventilated
(vi) The floor of the rabbitry should be made with concrete for easy cleaning
(vii) The roof should be made with corrugated iron sheets or asbestos sheets
(viii) The hutches can also be placed in poultry deep litter-house
(ix) The makes are kept separate from the female within the rabbitry.
(x) Legs of hutches should be placed in disinfectant bowls to keep off termites and other insects attack.

FEEDING OF RABBIT

(i) Rabbits are simple stomach herbivores, i.e. they feed mainly on plants
(ii) Rabbits are given concentrates in form of pellets in small quantities
(iii) The pellets given can be supplemented with aspilia Africana, sweet potato leaves, Amarantus, Water leaf, Centrosema spp, Emilia spp, Tridax spp and calopogonium spp MORE ABOUT WEEDS AND THEIR BOTANICAL NAMES
(iv) Rabbits can be given poultry grower’s mash in the absence of rabbit pellets. This should however, be sprinkled with water to prevent wastage and nasal irritation
(v) The protein content of feeds for dry Does and Bucks should be 12 – 15% while that of pregnant does and nursing does is 16 – 20%
(vi) The feed should be served in feeding troughs
(vii) Water should be supplied all the time
HYGIENE/HEALTH
Common hygiene or sanitary measures to be adopted in rabbitry include:
(i) Clean the floor of the rabbitry daily.
(ii) Disinfect the rabbitry at regular intervals to keep it germ-free,
(iii) Clean the feed and water troughs to prevent contamination.
(iv) Remove dusts and cob-webs from the rabbitry.
(v) Isolate any sick animal for treatment.
(vi) Remove and bury dead animal.
(vii) Deworm the rabbits at regular intervals.
(viii) Treat the rabbits with drugs such as antibiotics and coccidiostat (Prophylactic).
(ix) Keep the surrounding of the rabbitry weed-free.
(x) Provide a disinfectant bath or foot dip at the entrance to prevent introduction of germs into the rabbitry by visitors.



Rabbits
Rabbits are used in raising frieat at a shortest possible time with least feed. They may be bred for yarn, fur, pels, as a source of letting and for laboratory experiments in Colleges and Universities. They are also a source of income to the farmers. The meat of rabbit is high in protein and low in fat and caloric content. Its manure is high in nitrogen and phosphoric acid.










(a) Breeds of Rabbits
These are the important breeds of domestic rabbits: the New Zealand white. Flemish Giant, the New Zealand Red and Checkered Giatnt. Some rabbits breeders recommend the New Zealand for Nigeria.
(b) Management practices in Rabbits
(i) Housing: Rabbits are kept in cages called hutches. It is most essential that the hutches are protected from rain and sunlight. READ FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
Each adult rabbit should have its own. hutch, which should be 60cm high 75cm deep and 1 ½ - 2m long. The cage should dry and self-cleaning. The bottom of the cage should be made of wire mesh so that the faeces and urine can drop to the ground. Also, the cages should stand on legs and the total height of each should be waist high. It is difficult to keep cages with solid bottom dry. Wet cages encourage breeding of flies, and coccidiosis. A three unit cage is always recommended, that is, that can hold three adult rabbits; two does (female rabbit) and a buck (male rabbit). The walls of the hutch can be made of split bamboo while the roof is made in such a way mil rain from tickling through. All cages (battery cage system of poultry) must stand in filled with water to keep off ants.

Breeding cages may, be provided with nest boxes. These be built into the cages or they may be removable boxes that can be set in cages several days before the does are ready to kindle (give birth to young ones). A nest box should be 55cm. A few small holes should be drilled at the bottom of the box drainage.
Water must be provided in each cage always and the waterer leaned off every morning before adding new one. The waterer must not be leaking.

(ii) Rabbits are fed twice a day. that is. in the morning - evening. Grains are fed in the morning while green led in the evening. Nursing does require more feeds than dry does or bucks. The best feed is poultry mash either growers layers mash. Since poultry mash is dusty, it should prevent irritation of the nose and lungs.
Alternatively, a mixture of guinea com and groundnut cake can be alter grinding. The best green feeds are Amaranthus.
Aspilia Africana Talinum triangulare and grasses.

(iii) Breeding: Most large breeds of rabbit such as New Zealand white sexually mature in 8-9 months and can be bred then. The smaller breeds like the polish can be used for breeding when four months old. Bucks (male) and does (female) mature about same age. One buck can service about ten does if the breeding spread out. However no buck shouId be used more times a week for service l(g due shows signs of heat, it should be taken to the buck’s cage for mating. This is is because if the duck is brought to doe’s cage, the doe may attack it. If the doe is just placed the hutch with the buck, it will often squat in the corner of hutch and will not accept service. Therefore, holding the will quicken mating. After mating, the doe should be sent ha her hutch. The service date should be recorded and approximate kindling date noted. Gestation period is 31 After two weeks, the doe should be examined for pregnan pressing gently with the hand on her belly. If she is preg one will feel some small marble shaped lumps in the wor uterus. If the doe is not pregnant, it should be sent back to when it comes on heat again.

(iv) Kindling: Kindling is the act of giving birth to the young. A nest should be placed in the hutch about 24 days after the has been mated. If it kindles on wire floor the litter (a gro young ones born at the same time) may perish. No strtl bedding is to be placed in the cage. The cage must be The doe will pull out enough hair from her belly to cover litter. As each infant is delivered, the doe licks it. After kindling the litter should be inspected and dead or deformed removed. The cans on which the hutch is standing must be with water to prevent ants from entering to kill the young of Rabbits are nervous animals and are more nervous during kindling periods. Therefore, keep the doe as quiet as poi during this period, keep off all natural enemies like do cats. Keep people and children away from her hutch. Avoid the doe as much as possible on the day before and after kin Excitement also causes abortion.
Some does kill their young ones. This may be a sign under feeding. Some kill for no purpose. Such does should called.
Hygiene: With good housing, it is not difficult to maintain hygiene in rabbits house. It is important to clean hutches and waterers regularly and remove droppings from the floor to build up of disease organisms.
Major diseases of rabbits are pneumonia and diarrhea. These should be controlled when they occur by consulting the nearest veterinary doctor.

don't forget to use the comment box and leave a message or suggestion and we will get back to you within seconds.

You can read some of most interesting topics below







HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF
44.
RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE

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