effects of land tenure system on agricultural production






LAND TENURE SYSTEM AFFECTS ON AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

WAY IN WHICH LAND TENURE SYSTEM AFFECTS AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
May lead to fragmentation of land which cannot be mechanized.
Correct ownership of some plots of land cannot be determined.
(iii) Land cannot be used as collateral for loans in some tenure systems.
(iv) Large scale farming cannot be practiced on small scattered farm holdings
(v) Strangers are prevented from owning land; hence they cannot come to develop the land.
(vi) Because of the short tenancy period in some systems, permanent land improvement programmes cannot be carried out by holders.
(vii) There is often restriction on the type of crops (e.g. permanent crops) that can be grown on the land in some systems.
(viii) Some land owners may not have the intention of farming while those willing to farm cannot own land because of the tenure system.
(ix) Some land owners exploit those without land by unfavourable tenancy conditions.
(x) Production is very high on land acquired by purchasing or freehold because land improvement can be carried out.
(xi) Land Use Act/Decree (of 1978 in Nigeria) made more land available to farmers for large Scale production
(xii) Acquisition of land through freehold is expensive, thereby discouraging agricultural investors.

the characteristics of land tenure system by rent




Land Tenure by Rent and its characteristics
In this system, the farmer rents the land for use over a short period of time during which certain amount of money is paid as rent by its use. At the end of the period, the agreement ma he reviewed, if the landlord so desires.


Advantages of Land Tenure by Rent and its characteristics
(i) It makes use of available land r agricultural purposes.
(ii) The land is efficiently used and maintained for maximum production within the short period.



Disadvantages or Problems of Land Tenure by Rent and its characteristics
(i) The land cannot be used for securing loan.
(ii) It affects long term planning.
(iii) There is limitation in the development of such land.

Land Tenure by Purchase or Free hold Features
In this type of land tenure, a farmer buys a piece of land for agricultural purpose. He pays certain amount of money to the landlord and the land becomes his personal property.
It gives the owner compete freedom on the land. He may sell the land, leave it fallow, farm on the land or rent it out. The owner can use the land as collateral for agricultural loan.


Advantages of Land Tenure by Purchase
The farmer can use the land to secure loan from bank
Perennial crops can be grown
Proper planning in the development of such land can be done


Disadvantages or Problems of Land Tenure by Purchase
The land may be too expensive to purchase
The actual owner may be difficult to establish
The farmer may not have sufficient money to buy the exact size of the land he needs



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land tenure by free gift or through pledge




Land Tenure by Free Gift or Pledge
This is the type of land tenure system in which land is donated or given out of goodwill or free of charge in appreciation or as an incentive. The new owner does not need to pay any money.



Advantages of Land Tenure by Free Gift or Pledge
It ensures the maximum use of the land for increased production.
Plantation agriculture can be practiced.
It can be used as security to obtain loan



Disadvantages or Problems of Land Tenure by Free Gift or Pledge
The ownership of the land can be challenged at any time
There may be disagreement over such gift family members



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diseases of rice and pest of rice and their control method




Pest and diseases of rice and how to control disease and pest of rice in the store and farm


Pests of Rice
Birds: These pests feed on the grains, leading to low yield of rice
Control of bird pests of rice pest
Employ children to scare the bird your rice farm
Use scare crows in rice farm
Practice early harvesting of rice

Rodents pests of rice:
Cane rat and grass cutter cut the plants and seedlings on the field leading to great loss.

How to Control animal pests from attacking rice farm

Set or use traps
Fence the farm round
Rice Weevils: this is a store pest Adults and larvae bore into the grains and reduce them to powder.


How to Control diseases of rice

Fumigate store with phostox in tablets

Diseases of Rice

Rice Smut: It is caused by a fungus (Tilleria horrid) which is spread by wind. The grains turn into a mass of black spores

Control of rice smut disease

Use resistant varieties
Use recommended fungicides to spray the crops


Rice blight disease:
It is caused by a fungus (Piricularia oryzae) spread through the soil. Longitudinal red or yellow spots develop on the leaves, leading to poor yield.


Control of rice blight disease:

Avoid the use of heavy nitrogen fertilizer:
Use resistant varieties in other to cub rice blight disease
Use clean seeds anytime you are planting rice


Brown leaf spot of rice:

It is caused by a fungus. It causes small narrow brown spots which appear on the leaves.

How to Control rice brown leaf disease
Plant resistant varieties
Uproot and burn infected plants

pest and diseases of yam and their control method


Pests and diseases of yam and their control methods

Pests of Yam

Yam tuber pests makes holes on tubers, resulting in low tuber marketability.

How to Control the spread of yam pest:


Apply insecticide like BHC at planting to avoid disease spreading around
Dust yam sett with aldrin dust
Practice crop rotation to control disease spread
Yam shoot beetles: Young larvae cluster on vine tips. Adult feed on yam leaves and cause vine to die or defoliate.

How to Control spread of yam diseases

Spray yam plant with insecticides e.g. BHC
By hand picking
Dust with chemical like Agrocide 3 powder.


How to control rodent pests of yam
Rodents: Rats and rabbits eat up tubers
Control: Set traps to catch the rodents.

How to control Diseases of Yam like yam mosaic disease and yam rot disease

Yam mosaic disease: It is caused by a virus which is transmitted by a piercing and sucking insect.
Symptoms: Symptoms include a mosaic pattern and chlorosis of leaves. It cause stunting of affected plant.

Control of yam diseases
Grow resistant varieties
Spray with insecticides

Yam rot: It is caused by bacteria which are spread by splashes of rain and insects.
Symptoms: Liquid oozes out from infected tuber. White – brown liquid emits with pungent odour.

Destroy all affected yam
Apply aldrin dust
Practice crop rotation

how to control the spread of yam leaf spot disease

Yam leaf spot:
It is caused by a fungus (Cercospora spp) which is spread by wind.

Symptoms of yam leaf spot:
Symptoms include dead spots on the leaves
How to Control the spread of yam leaf spot:
Spray yam plants with appropriate fungicides.


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pest and diseases of yam and their control method

Pests and diseases of yam and their control methods

Pests of Yam
Yam tuber pests makes holes on tubers, resulting in low tuber marketability.

How to Control the spread of yam pest: 
 
Apply insecticide like BHC at planting to avoid disease spreading around
Dust yam sett with aldrin dust
Practice crop rotation to control disease spread


Yam shoot beetles: 
Young larvae cluster on vine tips. Adult feed on yam leaves and cause vine to die or defoliate. 

How to Control spread of yam diseases
Spray yam plant with insecticides e.g. BHC
By hand picking
Dust with chemical like Agrocide 3 powder.


How to control rodent pests of yam
Rodents: Rats and rabbits eat up tubers
Control: Set traps to catch the rodents.
        
How to control Diseases of Yam like yam mosaic disease and yam rot disease

Yam mosaic disease: 
It is caused by a virus which is transmitted by a piercing and sucking insect. 

Symptoms: Symptoms include a mosaic pattern and chlorosis of leaves. It cause stunting of affected plant.

Control of yam diseases
Grow resistant varieties
Spray with insecticides

 Causes of Yam rot:
 It is caused by bacteria which are spread by splashes of rain and insects.
Symptoms: Liquid oozes out from infected tuber. White – brown liquid emits with pungent odour.

Destroy all affected yam
Apply aldrin dust
Practice crop rotation

how to control the spread of yam leaf spot disease
Yam leaf spot:
It is caused by a fungus (Cercospora spp) which is spread by wind.
  
  Symptoms of yam leaf spot:
 Symptoms include dead spots on the leaves 

How to Control the spread of yam leaf spot:
 Spray yam plants with appropriate fungicides. 


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cultural practices in the propagation of yam

<h1>Cultural practices in the propagation of yam</h1>
Here are a list of cultural practices that can be carried out during yam propagation
Mulching as a cultural practice in yam propagation:
This is the covering of the heaps or ridges with dry leaves to reduce soil temperature, conserve soil moisture and prevent rotting of yam setts.

Regular weeding is a cultural practice in propagation of yam :
 This should be done regularly to control pest and reduce weed competition with crops for nutrients.

Application of fertilizer as a cultural practice in yam propagation:
Apply 200kg (four bags) of N.P.K. fertilizer per hectare three months after planting, by ring method.

Staking as a cultural practice in yam propagation of yam:
The yam should be staked with strong sticks or bamboo. It ensures adequate exposure of the leaf surface to sunlight and increases yield.


Training of vine through staking as a cultural practice in yam propagation:
 This is done regularly after staking to ensure even spreading and neatness of the vines to receive sunlight.


<h2>Maturity period of yam after planting:</h2>
Yam matures in 8-12 months after planting.

Harvesting process of yam
 Dig the soil gently with cutlass to remove tuber from the soil. Processing: Yam tubers are processed into yam powder or flour or consumed locally. Storage: Yam tubers are stored in barns. It can also be stored in form of yam flour and in dried peeled yam tubers.

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cultural practices in the production of rice

Cultural Practices in rice production

Supplying and thinning of rice
These can be done where applicable.

Fertilizer application in rice farm:

 Apply 150kg or three bags of N.P.K fertilizer per hectare at planting by broadcasting.


Weeding rice farm:
Weeding is done to ensure rapid growth of rice pests and diseases: these should be prevented or controlled by spraying with appropriate chemicals.

Maturity period of rice:
Rice matures in four to seven months depending on variety.


Harvesting of rice
 Red heads of rice are cut off with knife, sickle or combined harvester.


How to process rice
Sun drying: This is done immediately after harvesting for three to four days.
 
Threshing: This is the separation of the grains from the stalk by either beating with stick, treading with feet or by the use of mechanical threshers.


Winnowing: After threshing, the chaff or unwanted dust and remains of stalks are removed by winnowing. This is a fanning operation usually done by throwing the grains in the air to blow away the dust and other residues.
After winnowing, the grains of rice remain enclosed by the husk to form what is called paddy.


Parboiling: This process is used to reduce the breakage of grains during pounding. It also brings some vitamins to the outer layer of the grains and it also reduces the labour required to remove the husks. The paddy rice is heated by putting it into boiling water for about 12-15 hours. The rice swells and the husks are forced apart. The parboiled rice is now sun-dried.

Hulling: This is the removal of the husks from the grains. The grains are pounded gently to remove the expanded husks. The husks are then separated from the rice by winnowing

.
(f)     Polishing: In some cases, the paddy rice is threshed by machine, and polished. Polishing involves the use of specially designed machines to remove the husks and other layers covering the grains. The portion removed is known as rice bran which is very rich in protein and vitamins. Consumption of polished rice may cause vitamin deficiency disease called beri-beri due to the removal of the bran rich in protein.


How to Store harvested rice
Rice can be stored as paddy rice or in processed form in silos or jute bags.





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cultural practices in maize crop production

Cultural Practices in maize production
Supplying: Replanting of seeds to replace those seeds that did not germinate.
Thinning: Removal of weak plants from a stand to give rise to one or two vigorous crop plants.
Fertilizer Application: Apply N.P.K 15:15:15 (200kg/Ha) (four bags) at planting. Also apply 250 kg (five bags) or 150kg (three bags) of urea per hectare, five to six weeks after planting. Farmyard manure, poultry droppings/organic manure can also be applied as side dressing or by broadcast method.
Weeding: this is done three to four times at regular intervals. Weeding can be done manually by hoeing, cutlassing, etc: or chemically with the use of specified herbicides with the use of specified herbicides; or mechanically with machine.
Control of pests and disease: This is done anytime at regular intervals or prevent it completely, using appropriate chemicals.

Maturity period of maize
This takes up to two to three months (60-90 days) for wet maize, three to four months (90 - 120 days) for dry maize after planting.


Harvesting time maize:
Maize can be harvested by hand, sickle or corn picker by combined harvester. Maize matures 90-120 days after planting. It is harvested either green or dry. It is mostly harvested green for consumption when the silk dries and turns brown. Maize is harvested by plucking the cobs on a small scale and by machine.

Processing and uses of maize
Maize can be eaten either boiled or roasted or processed into corn flour, corn flakes or used for corn meal, beer, baking flour and livestock feed.

Storage methods of maize
Dried maize cobs can be stored either in cribs, rhumbus or in a fireplace, on a small scale or in silos, on a large scale.

classification of crops based on their uses



CLASSIFICATION OF CROPS BASED ON THEIR USES
In this classification, crops are divided into the following categories:
Cereal crops: These crops belong f to the grass family and they provide carbohydrate, e.g, maize, rice, millet, guinea corn, wheat, barley and oats.

(2)     Pulses (grain legumes): These crops are rich sources of protein, e.g. cowpea, soya beans,
groundnut, lima bean and pigeon pea.


(3)     Roots and tuber crops: These crops produce tubers under the ground and they provide
carbohydrates, e.g., cassava, yam, cocoyam, sweet potato, beets and carrot.


(4)     Vegetable crops: These crops provide vitamins and minerals e.g amaranthus, onion, okra,
cauliflower, spinach, bitter leaf and talinum.


(5)     Fruit crops: These also provide vitamins and minerals, e.g., orange, banana, pineapple, mango, pawpaw and cashew.


(6)     Beverage crops: These provide food drinks when processed, e. cocoa, coffee and tea, kola nut.


(7)    Spices: These also provide vitamins and minerals. They also add flavour to our stew or soup, e.g. ginger, pepper and onion.


(8)    Oil crops: These are crops which can provide oil when processed both for domestic and industrial uses, e.g., oil palm, groundnut, melon, coconut, soya bean, cotton.


(9)    Fibre crops: These are crops used for making clothing materials, ropes and bags, e.g. cotton, sisal, hemp, kenaf and hibiscus.


(10)    Latex crops: These are crops which provide some white sticky liquid or latex used in plastic industries, e.g., rubber.

advantages and disadvantages of land use decree

 
Advantages and Disadvantages of Land Use Decree

Advantages of Land Use Decree
It has made land acquisition relatively easier for new entrants into agriculture.
It has reduced the number and frequency of court cases over land ownership
It has facilitated borrowing of capital for further investment in agriculture
It prevents fragmentation of land since land acquired under the decree cannot be shared into bits
There is reduction in boundary disputes since survey of acquired land is mandatory for occupancy right to be granted.



Disadvantages of Land Use Decree
It leads to escalation in the cost of land survey
Land acquisition process has become bureaucratic and often meets with bottlenecks
It has impoverished communities whose main assets were their lands.
It has encouraged dishonesty through illegal sale and backdating of ownership or title deeds after 1978
Land is not necessarily allocated to every potential agricultural developer
Land may be acquired by influential people for non-agricultural purpose
Before the land use decree, customary laws governed the right of individuals on land, regulating alienation of land, inheritance and succession, freehold and leasehold, and co-ownership of land.




REASONS WHY GOVERNMENT SHOULD ENFORCE THE LAND USE LEGISLATION
(i)     Security of Tenure: It is to safeguard farmers against unreasonable eviction.
(ii)     Ensuring Proper Land Use: This is ensure that agricultural land is not unnecessarily diverted to non-agricultural purposes.
(iii)     Government Projects: This is to make large tracts of land available for government-sponsored development of large scale farms or resettlement schemes.
(iv)     Land Improvement: It is to carry out large scale improvement such as irrigation, drainage and soil water conservation in order to ensure a reasonable standard of efficient production for a long time. Such requirement should be obligatory, irrespective of land tenure system.
(v)     Influence on Size of Holdings: It is to prevent land fragmentation and encourage the consolidation of small holdings into large units.
(vi)     Freedom of Enterprise: This is to encourage freedom of farming in cases where there are regulations or traditional views that militate against such freedom.
(vii)     Control of Production: It is to encourage the production of certain produce and curtail the production of others through the control of land use.
(viii)     Land Litigation: This is to reduce number of land litigation among the citizens.


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uses and the maintenance of a watering can




Watering can and its uses in the farm

The watering can as a simple Farm tool is a metal or plastic and fitted with a spout which has a perforated metal sheet called Rose over it's mouth.
The Rose at the mouth of the watering can is removable after use and replaceable when needed.
The watering can comes with two handles used for lifting or carrying the can itself


uses of the watering can

There are so many uses of the watering can from this article we are going to limit our scope to the uses of watering can in the farm and for farming activity
The watering can can be used for light irrigation processes like application of water to crops during the dry season where you dude not have access to surface irrigation or mechanized irrigation
Another very important use of the watering can is for the application of liquid fertilizer to crops in the nursery bed or directly on the farm
The watering can is a very important simple Farm tool used for the watering cement blocks used for construction in the farm

how to maintain the watering can and store it after use

One of the ways to keep the watering can very sick and dried up is that after using the Watering can is to wash and keep it dry and clean very clean after use to prevent rusting
Another best way to store the watering can is to hang it upside down after use
The nozzle of a typical watering can to be free from blockage
Remember to keep the watering can stored in a cool and dry place
After use please do not forget to rinse with water if use with liquid fertilizer


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uses of an axe as a simple Farm tool



What are the uses of an axe as a simple Farm tool

An axe as a simple Farm tool consist of a strong wooden or metal handle depending on which type you are using which is also a solid long rod
The flat and heavy metal blade of an axe with a sharp Edge is inserted as shown in the figure below

functions and uses of an axe in the farm

One of the main functions of an axe is for felling of trees
The ox is also used locally for splitting and cutting of wood
The axe is also use for slicing firewood
An axe is very useful in the uprooting of root stumps and pre-planting operations in the farm
The axe is useful in the cutting of firewood and Logs


how to maintain and prolong the uses of an axe as a simple Farm tool

The metal blade of an axe should be sharpened regularly
At every usage time of an axe whenever you finish using the axe in doing any farm activity please store it in a dry and cool place
Please always paint, grease or oil the metal parts of an axe before being putting it away for a long time after you
Do not forget to clean up the axe itself after use
If this axe that you are using in your farm is made of wooden handle then please endeavour to keep it out of the reach of termites

An axe may have other functions that are not listed on this very page or do you have any such functions in view that you think I should have mentioned please reach out to me a comment box below and we will be grateful to receive your view thank you for coming to our place today and thank you for sharing to have a wonderful day



What are the uses of an axe as a simple Farm tool
An axe as a simple Farm tool consist of a strong wooden or metal handle depending on which type you are using which is also a solid long rod
The flat and heavy metal blade of an axe with a sharp Edge is inserted as shown in the figure below

functions and uses of an axe in the farm

One of the main functions of an axe is for felling of trees
The ox is also used locally for splitting and cutting of wood
The axe is also use for slicing firewood
An axe is very useful in the uprooting of root stumps and pre-planting operations in the farm
The axe is useful in the cutting of firewood and Logs


how to maintain and prolong the uses of an axe as a simple Farm tool

The metal blade of an axe should be sharpened regularly
At every usage time of an axe whenever you finish using the axe in doing any farm activity please store it in a dry and cool place
Please always paint, grease or oil the metal parts of an axe before being putting it away for a long time after you
Do not forget to clean up the axe itself after use
If this axe that you are using in your farm is made of wooden handle then please endeavour to keep it out of the reach of termites

An axe may have other functions that are not listed on this very page or do you have any such functions in view that you think I should have mentioned please reach out to me a comment box below and we will be grateful to receive your view thank you for coming to our place today and thank you for sharing to have a wonderful day

the uses of a rake as a simple Farm tool


what is a rake and the uses of rake in the farm

Rake is a simple Farm tool simple Farm tool that consist of a long wooden handle and a strong metal head with several stout prong as shown in the image below


uses and functions of a rake

Typical Rake is a simple Farm tool used for leveling and spreading of soil surface after hoeing
The rake is also used for the removal of stones and weed from seed bed
We also use the rake for covering vegetable seed when they are broadcast
We can also use the rake to break up soil lumps into finer particles

how to maintain the rake and keep it very soon for longer use

As a farmer you must make sure to clean or remove dirt after the use of a rake
Make sure that you as a farmer will store the Rake in a cool and dry place
Most times the rake may have an -iron handle or wooden handle, if it is iron handle then all you need to do is to always spoil the iron part of it.
The wooden handle of a rake should be kept out of the reach of termite
To prolong the lasting power of a rake then the Iron part or the metal part of it must be all all the time after use


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the uses of hand fork in agriculture




the hand fork and its uses in the farm

The hand fork is a simple Farm tool that consist of a piece of metal with three or four short flat prongs.
Some type of hand folk have thought wooden hand while others are entirely made of metal. The type of hand fork that has short handle is mainly used in squatting position because of a small size


Functions of a hand fork

One of the main functions of a garden fork is that it is used for littering surface soil of breaking soil class which is also known as local tillage system
The hand fork is also use for like a weeding in the farm
The hand fork can also be used for mixing small quantities of soil or in the preparation of Manure
Another key function of the hand fork is that it is used for working manure into the soil


how to maintain a hand fork

The first major method of maintaining hand fork is to store it in a dry and cool place
The most important aspect of maintenance of a handbag is to paint oil or Grease the part that are iron to avoid rust
In all to preserve the life span of a hand forkk then it should be cleaned or washed after each use


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the uses of shovel as a simple Farm tool




Uses of shovel as a simple Farm tool

The shovel as a simple farm tool looks like the spade itself but it has a long wooden handle but the blade of a shovel is hollow and broad with a rectangular around age as shown in the image below. The functions of a shovel is almost the same as that of a spade. So below are some of the functions of a typical shopping listed for your knowledge
Well is used for lifting or transferring soil from one place to another. It is worthy of note that a typical shovel has a curved edge on the blade and enables it to hold onto large chunk of soil during transferring
Shovel is also used to load materials from ground-level into wheelbarrow
Typical shovel known as simple Farm tool is used for making garden paths
Shovel is used for leveling the ground and removing Stones or rubbish from the pathway


How to maintain the shovel for longevity
The shovel should be stored in a dry and cool place all the time after use
The Farmer should endeavour to oil grease or paint the metal parts of the shovel regularly to avoid rust
The wooden handle of a shovel should be kept away from the attack of termite
It is very important that after use of the shovel the metal blade of it should be clean

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Spade as a simple Farm tool



what is a spade

Spade and functions of a spade as a farm tool
Spade can be described as a simple Farm implement that has a long wooden handle and broad metal blade
Generally a speed and a shovel looks almost the same. The edge of a spade I mean the metal blade is sharp so that he can easily be driven into the soil when digging soil. . Although spade is a simple Farm tool used locally for farming activity but it is not very rare to see spade use in most farms in African peasant farming system. Even when making ridges or beds and subsistence agriculture they do not use shovel or speed in most cases but they use hoe. So the uses and functions of a speed is outlined below


Functions of a spade

Food is generally known as a simple Farm tool used for lifting soil and completely turned over
This implement call spade is also used for leveling of soil
This period is typically used for digging holes during transplanting operation in the farm
Speed as a simple Farm tool is used for mixing cement concrete for farm structures
A typical speed is also used for making gutters.
A spade is very functional in the activities of the farm operation because it is also used for digging Picks for bearing glasses or other rubbish in the farm
Another function of the spade which we overlook is the use of speed for clearing grasses in weeding activities
A spade is also used for making trenches around the farm



How to maintain a spade to prolong its [email protected]

To prolong the service power or activity of the spade then it should be stored in a dry and cool place
In Spain during storage should be kept away from rain and termite the reason for keeping it away from termite is to avoid those termites eating the wooden handle of the Spade
Make sure that the sharp edges or the metal blade of a speed is sharpened regularly



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types of hoe and functions of hoe


What is a hoe and the uses of a hoe

The hoe as a simple Farm tool consists of a metal blade which may either be round or slightly rectangular in shape with a wooden handle which can be either long or short

types of hoe

There are two types of major hoe used in Farm activity. These two types as follows
The west African hoe. This type of hoe has a short wooden handle and a round metal blade its metal blade is attached to the wooden handle with a strong proon.
West Indian hoe. The West Indian hoe is a type of hoe that has long wooden handle and a rectangular metal blade the metal blade has a long loop round in his handle


What are the similarities between the west African hoe and West Indian hoe

The similarities here on this brand of hoe, like the west African hoe and the west in Indian hoe is that both of them have metal blades
Blade of a west African hoe is attached to the wooden handle with the use of a prong
African who has a round metal blade
By naturally evaluating these two types of hoe one can see from the image below that the Indian who seems to be stronger in his terms that the metal blade has a round hole on it so it can not be easily broken except the wood gets broken but the west African hole can easily be broken because it has a thin Edge used to pierce the wood whereby is fixed for work

functions and uses of the whole

hoe is used for land preparation during planting operations and as a local tillage method
The hoe is used as a local tillage implement for making ridges and heaps
It is also used for planting or transplanting some crops within the farm
The hoe is used for harvesting some crops like cocoyam
In most part of west Africa mostly in Nigeria where I leave the whole is used for weeding which have tested myself train as a farmer and ideas in school where we practice agricultural Farming so we'll use it for weeding very simple it seems to be little faster when you are within within the crops in the farm. it seems be fatter than the use of cutlass


how to maintain a hoe

The maintenance of a hoe like cutlass as a simple Farm tool is not as difficult as it may sound but here in this article I'm going to list a few methods of how to preserve the hoe for long time use
Always make sure that the blade is sharp on all the time. When the blade of a hole is not blunt, it makes it simple and easier for you to use and so that power will not excessively applied to get the work done
The hoe should be kept always in a cool and dry place.
Remember to olive oil or Grease the metal blade before storage
You must always clean or wash the hoe before storage after use

Generally speaking the hoe is used for weeding activities, transplanting, digging and any other activity that the farm requires. it is a simple Farm tool that also serves all the same purpose like a class in miniature form
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calorimetric determination of soil pH



Calorimetric determination of soil pH

In calorimetric methods, the colour developed by the soil colour and a suitable indicator and compared with either by the same indicated in various buffer Solutions or with permanent glass colour standard or with colours on the printed card.
The water extracted must be crystal clear and four methods available to achieve this in filtration centrifugation clearing with a poly electrolyte.

how to remove soil alkalinity from the soil




What is soil alkalinity

Soil alkalinity is caused when there are excessive quantities of soluble minerals in the soil.

The soil which is alkaline is usually found in arid or semi-arid areas like desert and Sahel Savanna.


How to remove alkalinity from the soil

Alkalinity of the soil can be removed through the application of irrigation to dissolve some of the salt present in the soil
The application of some acid fertilizers like ammonium Sulfate can also help to reduce or remove completely soil alkalinity
Important means of removing Alkaline Trio from the soil to the application of sulphur to the soil
This blog post is all about how to remove soil alkalinity it is not too deep but in the case of the pH level of the soil you can read my blog post here on causes of acidity and alkalinity in the soil


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causes of soil acidity, effect of soil acidity and how to remove soil acidity from the soil



Causes of soil acidity

The two can be caused by any of the following reasons
Leaching is a major cause of soil acidity. What it means is that through leaching and washing down the nutrients below the soil surface where it is difficult for plant roots to access in order to get nutrients for growth


The use of acid fertilizers. The use of acid fertilizers like ammonium Sulfate and ammonium nitrate can even cause acidity in the soil
The presence of acid parent materials. The presence of acid parent materials can cause the ground or soil to become acidic. The presence of acid parent materials resort in the easy dissolution of The Rock's leaving behind mineral rich in hydrogen ions
Nutrient uptake by plants can cause the land of soil to become acidic. The absorption of soluble minerals from by plant results in the accumulation of hydrogen ions which causes the soil to become acidic
The presence of sulphur in the soil- sulphur undergoes oxidation and dissolution to form weak acid in the soil


Ways to remove soil acidity from the soil

It can be removed by the application of liming materials which are rich in calcium
The following underlisted are examples of learning materials use to remove soil acidity
Limestone
Slake lime
Quick lime
Calcium bicarbonate
Wood ash
Dolomite or calcite
Basic slag
Gypsum
Organic manure can also be applied to remove soil pH or acidity

Effects of soil acidity on crop production
The following are ways whereby the soil becomes acidic and their effects to crops
production low ph or high acidity causes the disintegration of clay materials which are leached from the soil
Low pH causes and accumulation of aluminium and manganese which may be toxic to plants roots
Low pH reduces the population of some useful soil organisms such as bacteria and earthworm
The presence of hydrogen ions may have adverse effect on the roots of plants as it hinders the absorption of mineral ions
Soil acidity causes nutrient deficiency especially calcium phosphorus and nitrogen
Soil acidity reduces the activities of soil microorganisms
Humans can easily be leached out of the soil if the pH is high
Soil acidity Reduces the formation of pods in legumes
Soil acidity causes reduced growth and yield of crops
The effect of soil acidity causes lower rate of decomposition of organic matter due to its adverse effect on soil microbes



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what is SOIL PH and the the pH scale



what is SOIL PH and the importance of soil pH to agriculture

What is SOIL PH and its agricultural importance to crop production

The meaning of soil pH
The world ph (pondus de Hydronium) the hydronium is defined as a measure of the degree of acidity or alkalinity of the soil. Soil pH can also be known as a measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions present in the soil

A higher hydrogen ion concentration indicates soil acidity while a lower concentration of hydrogen present in the soil indicates oil alkalinity

What do we mean by the pH scale?
A typical pH scale is graduated from 1 to 14 and has been developed to measure the degree of acidity or alkalinity of the soil.
Soil pH below 7 is said to be acidic and above 7 in the pH scale is alkaline while 7 itself is neutral.


Image of PH pondus de Hydronium scale here

From the above image of pH scale that we just suck up there we can deduce that
pH 2 is strongly acidic
pH 6 is slightly acidic
pH 7 is neutral
pH 8 is strongly alkaline
pH 13 is slightly alkaline


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what is soil temperature and its agricultural importance to crop production



what is soil temperature and importance of soil temperature

What is soil temperature and how temperature affect agricultural production
The nation of soil temperature

Soil temperature can be defined as the temperature within the soil
In other words what temperature can also be known as the temperature at is different from the atmospheric temperature which is above the soil so sorry temperature is usually the temperature degree that is affected or that is felt within the soil or in the soil

General importance of soil temperature to crop growth and production in agricultural science
Underlisted are some of the importance of soil temperature to crop
Soil temperature determines the rate of formation and decomposition of soil organic matter
Low temperature causes a decrease in metabolic activity and reduction in enzymatic reactions in plants
Extreme temperatures will impede the activities of microorganisms present in the soil
Temperature affect the level of soil moisture thereby decreasing the productivity of the soil
The rate of temperature affecting the soil will also affect its capacity to absorb water and nutrients by root crops
Optimum temperatures promote seed germination
Appropriate temperatures also promotes the sustainable development fruits
Temperature is most often determines the population of soil microbes
Temperature often determine the maturity and ripening of fruits
Optimum temperatures promote the activities of soil microorganisms like
A higher temperature will always cause wilting of fruits and leaves
High temperature leads to loss of soil nutrients through volatilization
High temperature may be harmful to crops by causing premature dropping of fruits


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what is SOIL STRUCTURE and types of soil structure




What is soil structure and types of soil structure

Definition of soil structure
Soil structure is defined as a structure referring to the ways in which the different particles of the soil are packed or arranged in order

Soil structure also refers to the shape and arrangement of primary particles to form compound particles

Structure has a direct effect on crop yield and production. If they soil structure is good, I will circulate and waterlogging will reduce dramatically including erosion.
so the structure of the soil can be preserved in the following ways
So soil structure can be preserved through planting of cover crops in the Farm
The use of mulching materials is very key in the preservation of soil structure
We can also apply manure green manual liming to preserve soil structure
In order to avoid spoiling the soil structure of a given land we should avoid overgrazing the area
Avoidance of clean clearing with machines is necessary to avoid exposing the soil to erosion
I want to list all types of soil structure has to be found in agricultural science

TYPES OF SOIL STRUCTURE

Here is a list of the types of soil structure that can be obtained anywhere in the world
Single grain soil structure. In this type of soil structure their primary particles exist in single form and are not cemented together it is found in sandy soil
Crumb Structure- this type of soil structure exist in large gravels of tones embedded within the primary particles which are cemented together it is found in the topsoil
Plate like soil structure- this primary soil structure known as plate like structure is the primary site particles that are arranged in horizontal and flat method resembling plate or reflex on top of each other it is commonly found in the subsoil
Spheroidal structure- spheroidal soil structure is also referred to as granola structure the particles are cemented together in a circular form with lots of spaces it is commonly found in topsoil
The prismatic soil structure- this type of soil structure could be columnar or prismatic. This type of structure of the Soul is just like steroidal structure which have a spaces when the top ones are around there are columnar when they are flat just like a prism if they are prismatic it is found in subsoil
Like soil structure- the aggregate are like blocks whose edges are irregular and maybe either be sharp or round. It is commonly found in the subsoil

General importance of soil structure
The following are if you list of the general importance of soil structure to agricultural production
Solid structure helps to determine the level of fertility of the soil
Another very importance of soil structure is that it also prevents soil erosion and water logging
A good soil structure will promote the activities of soil microorganisms
A dependable soil structure that is good for farming activities will always support the growth of crops to a maximum degree
Every good soil structure will always have the capacity to retain water and moisture for plant growth


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Agricultural importance of soil texture



What is soil texture?

Definition of soil texture?

Soil texture refers to the relative proportion of the various particles of soil.
In other words it refers to the degree of fineness or correctness of the various soil particles present in a given sample of soil

the particles that make up a soil sample include gravel sand silt and clay
In a typical soil texture sand silt and clay are usually referred to as the primary particles of soil

How to determine soil texture

Soil texture can be determined by various methods and these methods include

Soil texture can be determined by feeling. Take a little sample of soil and rock them between the four fingers and a thumb a Sharp feel represent the presence of Sand a while a smooth and Powdery feel will represent the presence of clay
Soil texture can be determined by mechanical analysis through sieving. The various sizes of soil particles present in a sample of dry soil can be separated by putting the sample into a series of various measure mesh and diameters and shaken vigorously
Soil texture can also be determined by sedimentation.. a sample of soil is placed inside a glass jar and large volume of water is added and the mixture is vigorously shaking and allowed to settle. At the end of the exercise the large particles like one sand and gravel settle at the bottom while the organic materials float on top of the water in the glass jar there by separating the heavy particles from the Organic ones on top of the water
Method of determining soil texture is by molding. In this method of determining soil texture a mixture of sample of soil with little water and dry to move the mixture if the mixture is Sticky it shows that clay is present but it is not sticky and cannot form a ribbon or cast shows that the sand is present


Importance of soil texture to farmers

Soil texture is very important to farmers especially to farmers in the following ways

soil texture is useful in the evaluation of soil ability to supply mineral nutrients
Another key function of soil texture is that it supports all microorganisms essential for plant growth
Soil texture helps to determine the type of crop that can be grown on a piece of land
Soil texture enables a farmer to know the type of soil present in a Farmland
Soil texture also helps to determine the relative proportion of air and water present in a given land sample
It should not be over emphasized but the truth is that soil texture the camera you the movement of air and water
Orchestra of a sample of land that is meant for farming activities in system helps to determine the kind of tillage practices that should be undertaken in the farm


What is soil texture?

Definition of soil texture
Soil texture refers to the relative proportion of the various particles of soil.
In other words it refers to the degree of fineness or correctness of the various soil particles present in a given sample of soil

the particles that make up a soil sample include gravel sand silt and clay
In a typical soil texture sand silt and clay are usually referred to as the primary particles of soil

How to determine soil texture

Soil texture can be determined by various methods and these methods include

Soil texture can be determined by feeling. Take a little sample of soil and rock them between the four fingers and a thumb a Sharp feel represent the presence of Sand a while a smooth and Powdery feel will represent the presence of clay
Soil texture can be determined by mechanical analysis through sieving. The various sizes of soil particles present in a sample of dry soil can be separated by putting the sample into a series of various measure mesh and diameters and shaken vigorously
Soil texture can also be determined by sedimentation.. a sample of soil is placed inside a glass jar and large volume of water is added and the mixture is vigorously shaking and allowed to settle. At the end of the exercise the large particles like one sand and gravel settle at the bottom while the organic materials float on top of the water in the glass jar there by separating the heavy particles from the Organic ones on top of the water
Method of determining soil texture is by molding. In this method of determining soil texture a mixture of sample of soil with little water and dry to move the mixture if the mixture is Sticky it shows that clay is present but it is not sticky and cannot form a ribbon or cast shows that the sand is present


Importance of soil texture to farmers

Soil texture is very important to farmers especially to farmers in the following ways

soil texture is useful in the evaluation of soil ability to supply mineral nutrients
Another key function of soil texture is that it supports all microorganisms essential for plant growth
Soil texture helps to determine the type of crop that can be grown on a piece of land
Soil texture enables a farmer to know the type of soil present in a Farmland
Soil texture also helps to determine the relative proportion of air and water present in a given land sample
It should not be over emphasized but the truth is that soil texture the camera you the movement of air and water
Orchestra of a sample of land that is meant for farming activities in system helps to determine the kind of tillage practices that should be undertaken in the farm

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how the study of soil profile improves agriculture




Agricultural importance of soil profile

Definition of soil profile soil
profile is defined as the vertical section of the soil showing series of horizontal layers of different types of soil.. horizontal layers in soil profile are called Horizon
A soil profile in an area of the humid tropics such as the forest zones may have about 4 fairly distinct Horizons. First thing that is noticed in a soil profile is the colour of the soil. Horizons in a soil profile represent colours
So definitely The horiizons will surely show you different colours of soil

After the colours found in the soil profile Horizons, the next thing you will recognise is the texture all particle sizes which increases in size in from the top to the bottom these two characteristics of soil profile and label the different Horizons to be identified identified


What what are Horizons of soil profile
soil profile has two to four major horizon
The A-horizon; this horison is also called the topsoil. This top horizon contains more organic matter than other Horizons seen in soil profile. The topsoil is the most Weathered and lesched of all the soil Horizons. Most agricultural crops especially shallow crops that have shallow roots which derive their nutrients from the top soil e.g legumes and vegetables
B-horizon . Horizon B is known as the subsoil is the next immediately after the top so it is rich in minerals which are carried or leached down by percolating water. B Horizon always suitable for the cultivation of crops that have deep roots like cocoa rubber orange oil palm trees
C-horizon . This group of horison is also called parent materials. They represent the type of material from which topsoil and subsoil are derived. Group in soil profile is are parent materials which are small fragment of rocks that are unweathered and found at the bottom of the soil profile.
D-horizons. This horizon is also called the bedrock. This horizon is found at the bottom of the bedrock in soil profile and they are large rock materials


Importance of soil profile to agriculture
Sometimes one is tempted to ask study of soil profile makes no sense but for me I'm going to leave some major reasons why the study of soil profile is very very important and key to agricultural development


Some of the major important aspect of soil profile of Farming activity is listed below
Level of soil fertility. With the study of soil profile it is now easy to determine the level of soil fertility at topsoil represent high level of soil fertility
Soil profile helps to know the type of crops to be grown in an environment. Aspect of soil profile help the Farmer to know the type of crops to grow for example shallow-rooted crops like cowpea, groundnut are grown in the topsoil while deep-rooted crops are grown where the subsoil is sticker
Aspect of soil profile in helping agricultural development is about root penetration of crops. Is a simple logic 3 found out with the study of soil profile being in place we can understand and determine the kind of soil that have parent rocks closer to the subsoil that is not good for agricultural production and planting of crops that have high deep-rooted system
Soil profile helps the Farmer to determine the level of the drainage capacity and aeration of the soil
Soil profile helps a qualified farmer or tech farmer to determine and understanding the percolation capacity of a given land




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loamy soil and it's properties




What is loamy soil and its properties


Loamy soil is a mixture of sand and clay particles with high proportion of organic matter. Loamy soil is more fertile than either clay or sandy soil
Whenever is soil type is described as sandy loamy soil it means that the proportion of sand is high and if it is described as clay loamy soil it means that the proportion is of clay to that of Sand is low.

Properties of loamy soil
The first major characteristics of loamy soil is that it is moist loose with moderate sizes of spaces
The structural break of loamy soil is easily when wet and tribal when dry
A typical loamy soil is never powdery and no sticking in texture
Loamy soil can easily be worked on or cultivated in fact it is high in plant nutrient
A typical loamy soil contains high organic matter is known as humus
A good long is soil does not support erosion or water logging
A typical uninstall contains high plant nutrient hence it is the best soil for the cultivation of crops like maize, rice, cowpea, tomatoes, okra, millet and pepper. tomatoes okra millet and pepper


In reality when it comes to farming activity in the warmest sorel is the best type of soil that is meant for farming it contains high organic nutrient is rich in humus it is also rich in living organisms that I saw it is very high in soil and has lots of spaces for water to go through it is never dry always wet but not sticky

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about to discuss or to find out please use our comment box below and we'll get back to you as soon as possible

What is loamy soil and its properties

Loamy soil is a mixture of sand and clay particles with high proportion of organic matter. Loamy soil is more fertile than either clay or sandy soil
Whenever is soil type is described as sandy loamy soil it means that the proportion of sand is high and if it is described as clay loamy soil it means that the proportion is of clay to that of Sand is low.

Properties of loamy soil
The first major characteristics of loamy soil is that it is moist loose with moderate sizes of spaces
The structural break of loamy soil is easily when wet and tribal when dry
A typical loamy soil is never powdery and no sticking in texture
Loamy soil can easily be worked on or cultivated in fact it is high in plant nutrient
A typical loamy soil contains high organic matter is known as humus
A good long is soil does not support erosion or water logging
A typical uninstall contains high plant nutrient hence it is the best soil for the cultivation of crops like maize, rice, cowpea, tomatoes, okra, millet and pepper. tomatoes okra millet and pepper


In reality when it comes to farming activity in the warmest sorel is the best type of soil that is meant for farming it contains high organic nutrient is rich in humus it is also rich in living organisms that I saw it is very high in soil and has lots of spaces for water to go through it is never dry always wet but not sticky

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how to recognise clay soil and its properties


What is clay soil and the properties of clay soil


The definition of clay soil
Clay soil is is a situation where in the sample of soil has more proportion of clay than the rest of soil type
So a soil is said to be clayey if the proportion of clay in a sample of soil is very high

One of the major properties of clay soil is that the relative size of a clay particle is less than 0.002 mm.
Clay soil is heavy in nature so it is very hard to work on
One major major importance of clay soil is the use of it to produce clay materials such as ceramic wares
Clay is also used to produce local pot used for cooking and storing water in some communities in Nigeria

Without wasting time on this subject let us go sit down and look at the importance of clay in properties of clay how to recognise clay soil

properties of Clay soil

Clay soil particles are fine powdery and smooth when dry
The particles of clay are sticky and moldy when wet
One great aspect of clay soil is that the particles are tightly bound together with little spaces
the physical structure of a given sample of clay is granola and does not lose water easily
a typical clay soil sample is poorly aerated with high water-holding capacity
Percolation in clay soil is low but capillary is high
One good aspect of clay soil is that it does not support leaching when it contains plant nutrient in high quantity
A typical clay soil is very hard and difficult to turn around when dry this property of the clay soil is why it is used for the production of pots and ceramic materials that can We Stand 1000 degrees Celsius
Clay soil can easily form a ribbon or cast when molded
Clay soil support waterlogging and it is very hard for soil erosion to take place in a sample of soil when you have clay at the greater percentage
One physical property of a typical clay soil is that it has a grey and brownish colour

Note,.. clay soil can be improved upon through liming
List of all to remember about clay soil is that it is difficult to cultivate crops on it but with the addition of organic manure on a a piece of land it becomes easy to cultivate crops on it

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how to improve the nutrient capacity of sandy soil



Methods of improving sandy soil for crop cultivation


Like what sandy soil is it is simply is simply a type of soil that is loosely packed together with high rates of leaching and heat loss and can easily be washed away by erosion
Sandy soil can be improved upon through the methods I am going to list it below
Planting of cover crops. If sandy soil is to be improved upon in a simple way and aid crop cultivation then the use of cover cropping is very necessary to improve the nutrient capacity of sandy soil
Application of compost manure. If the nutrient capacity of a sandy soil is to be improved upon to assist and facilitate the act of crop cultivation on that same piece of land then the use of compost manure helps to bind the sand particles together and also add humus which is nutrient to the soil
Application of farmyard manure. The use of farmyard manure to improve on the soil nutrient the use of this method to add nutrients to the soil known as sandy soil in order to improve on the soil capacity to produce good yield of crops this is where the application of farmyard manure is is very important as it hurt to add nutrients to the soil and also improve the soil structure
Mulching of the soil. How do we use motion to improve soil nutrient it is done in this way as in the mulching the soil. Mulching of the soil helps to prevent water loss through evaporation
Avoidance of bush burning. One of the main reasons that you should avoid Bush burning on a piece of land before cultivation is that it help to promote soil erosion


Economic importance of sandy soil
Sandy soil is not a waste even if it is not useful for planting or cultivation of crop.
The following underlisted are some of the importance of sandy soil
Sandy soil is very useful in the cultivation of crops such as cotton groundnut cassava
sandy soil is also useful in building construction especially in combination with cement and water in block moulding
In creating artificial beaches and tourism centre the use of sandy soil is very useful


In conclusion they use of sandy soil or its economic importance is not limited to the point I listed in this article. Despite the fact that sandy soil is not good for crop cultivation except its soil nutrient is improved upon it is also used for building construction

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properties of sandy soil and how to recognise sandy soil


What is sandy soil


How to recognize sandy soil
Sandy soil is a type of soil that has land soil particles loosely joined together
sandy soil is is Coarse and gritty in nature what this means is that when you take a sandy soil sample in your hand you always feel the soil particles very big
so because they're such particles are no littering and not fitted together it lacked the capacity to hold water as a result of this property of sandy soil during dry season when you're working on a ground on the road on bare foot you always did scorching you under your foot

Sandy soil quickly absorbs water and loses it in the same way because the soil particles are not close together

One great aspect of sandy soil is that it is well aerated with low water holding capacity

Soil percolation or air circulation in sandy soil is high but has low capillary

Whenever you are trying to analyse the properties of soil types do you understand is that sandy soil easily heats up during the day and cools down quickly during the night

Sandy soil support leaching of soil nutrient hence it is low in plant nutrient as low as a farmer whenever you want to farm please look at the type of soil very well if it is sandy soil then find a way to enrich the soil before planting you read some of my articles on how to improve sandy soil here

Sandy soil is very low in plant nutrient hence it does not support planting of crops

Sandy soil has grey and brownish colour

you can follow the link below to read more about how to improve sandy soil to enable him to cultivate on it

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importance of soil living organisms


What are soil living organisms



Soil living organisms refers to plant and animals which inhabit the soil

The types of soil organisms present in the soil varies and depending on the type of soil that is questioned.. all these organisms that are present in the soil known as soil organisms off all living organisms or even the microscopic organisms that are present in the soil are useful to the growth of plant as some are beneficial some are not harmful

The most commonly found groups of soil organisms include bacteria fungi virus nematodes infect EG termite soldier ants millipede centipede earthworm snail Reptiles and Mammals EG rodent and rats


Importance of living organisms found in the soil to an agricultural farmer

what organisms are very useful in any way especially in soil formation and improving the soil for the growth of crops

Some of this effect of soil organisms to agriculture is listed in this way

1. Soil organisms help to improve soil structure in granulation
4 organisms like the earthworm and other living organisms present in the soil act act as a catalyst for aeration of the soil
Sometimes living organisms that are present in the soil like the earthworm act as decomposers. These groups of decomposers or living organisms found in the soil helps to improve soil water percolation or drainage
Living most living present in the soil helps to decompose soil organic matter to form humus
living organisms like bacteria help to fix nutrients into the soil
One very good aspect of soil living organisms is that they help to increase the Colloidal Properties of the soil
some soil microorganisms produce acidic materials which helps to break down rocks weathering of rocks to form soil
Soy living organisms and Hans is the cation exchange capacity of the
Through burrowing of the soil by living organisms like earthworm the live host for crop root penetration
Soil living organisms increases the minerals and nutrients status of the soil
In most cases the soil organisms helps to stabilize soil pH through the increase in soil organic matter and buffering

These are some of the importance of soil living organism

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what is soil air and it's importance to agriculture




What is soil air and the importance of soil air to agricultural products

What is soil air?
The term soil air is used for a reference to the gases present in the soil pores found between the soil particles of any given sample of soil
The amount of air present in the soil varies depending on the amount of soil water and the sizes of the soil particles, the type of soil and the amount of living organisms in the soil that helps to dampen the soil structure thereby creating humus in the soil


The total and normal percentage of air that is supposed to be found in the soil that we can assume it is Optimum point of soil air is supposed to be 25% of your volume of the soil itself and so the ability of air to circulate freely in the soil is called soil aeration


1. the effect or importance of soil air and farming

The under listed points are some of few of importance of soil air

1. Soil air especially oxygen is necessary for the growth and development of plants
The presence of oxygen in the soil promotes easy germination of seed this is because oxygen constitutes 23% of the atmospheric air
Soil organisms present in the soil also requires a for respiration as a result without much or the Pores of soil also known as spaces between the soil particles it is not much to retain. it is a hazard for soil organisms like rodent that lives underground to be able to breathe properly
Some plant diseases or disease organisms such as fusarium on which causes damping off are favoredby Poor aeration
Most often soil air is needed in soil or reaction particularly carbon and nitrogen cycle

In conclusion the importance of soil and there is so much more that the lack of soil...

What I actually mean by this grammar is this that's is that soil and soil water is very very important to the growth of crops in the farm



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the importance of soil water on agricultural crops


Importance of water to crops in the farm


200 stand and the importance of water to crops play from the following should be looked into you may not really understand what important cities board for your crops to be successful and grow very well then there are elements of water that should be found around the environment when plants like water or crops last water they tend to die of and weather so it is assumed naturally and in the science that water is the key reason why plants grow very well even those that are planted in area that are carried by desert area they also depend on what is stored in the lives of 10 people to grow very well



So below are some of the importance of water to crops and you're listed in order of importance
Water is an important agent of weathering of rock in the soil as a result of this fact about water it is important to note that without water sometimes I work that are so hard and difficult to the broken down
One of the key areas will notice the importance of water to crops is that it helps to dissolve plant nutrients into solution form which can easily be absorbed by plant roots most times when we apply fertilizer to our crops in the form whenever they're enforce it hurts to lift this fertilizers as nutrient closer to where the route of crops can assess them for assimilation this is one of the reasons why we do not apply fertilizer in dry season except if we are working on the farm through the use of irrigation practices
Another extension aspect of water or its importance to crops in the farm is that water is an essential raw material for photosynthesis
Is very essential to crops if are that hydrolysis of many food nutrients and enzymatic activities are promoted by the essence and presence of water in the soil. What I'm saying in essence is that water is used by enzymes to carry out their activities
Loss of water from plant through a process called transpiration is helpful in the cooling of the plant as a transpiration is known as the state whereby plant loses water through the stomata present and leaves of green plants to the atmosphere
The presence of water aid easily tillage system of the soil and also helps to improve the soil structure what this means is that water helps too soft in the soil surface to enable the Farmer use some crude implement
Water also help to soften the soil in order to allow soil organisms like earthworms to be to permeate the soil in order to enrich the soil nutrients
For those of us who are into farming it is very possible that when planting crops that crop planting should be done during the time of rain
Water provides the medium for most soil reactions
Water as a solvent it aids the turgidityof cells of plants water protects the plant from injurious effects of high temperature. What is simply means is that with a high rainfall in an environment it helps to dampen the high temperature that would have at least made a crops to wither


With this little functions and importance of water to plants that are in the farm is in pangli notice that with water around plants can grow very well even in a hot-tempered regions so the effects of water and importance of a lot of soil cannot be overemphasized but it's noted that if innoventure farming and Environment where there is no rain for the you make use of irrigation practices to aid the growth of plants and crops



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roles of cooperative organisation and cooperative farming scheme in agriculture development and economy of the Nation



Roles of cooperative organisations in agricultural production

The roles of agricultural organisation like the cooperative societies as follows but they are not limited to these ones I'm going to list in this article.

The roles of cooperative organisations in agricultural production

The following are the roles of cooperative organisations in agricultural production
1. The organisation's known as cooperative organisations makes provision for employment of Labour within their jurisdiction. What does simply means is at cooperative organisations employees labour by providing the opportunity for spinning farmers who are stranded in their area not having money enough to start their own farming and buy Farm implement that are needed for crop production

2. Operative organisations provide some input financing money or getting loans from banks as a body to buy some Farm inputs or implement like caterpillars, tillage implement, building storage facilities in modern forms, buying of large machinery is like the bulldozer, the operative organisations that are involved in farming also help to procure Farm implements like harvesting tools that are not easy for a single farmer to buy in the market plan mobile plan and bulldozer.

2. The cooperative farming of farmers also United to provide a processing facilities for their Farmers and members a situation whereby a farm himself cannot procure does implement the cooperative as a body will help in providing access easily for any farmer who is a member of the cooperative organisation to be able to access modern tools and storage facilities.

3. Operative organisations or cooperative farming also provide storage facilities for members

4. The cooperative organisation of society of farmers also helps to make ready a market easily accessible to your members

5. One major aim of a typical cooperative organisations of Farming is to provide training facility and opportunities to their members

6. These organisations provide funds or capital for the members The Intern as a cooperative organisation can also access this phone's or Grant or loan from the government of their country respectively. In most climes of the world individuals who are involved in farming activity is very difficult for them to access loans or grant from the bank or government and so when they are involved or when the partner with cooperative organisations it is easier for them to assess these loans or grants from government as a group

7. One of the functions of a cooperative farming Society organisation is to provide information training awareness among members on what is trending when and how to produce and in modern techniques of production such a cooperative society organisation also functions like agricultural extension workers

8. Cooperative organisations or cooperative farming community and enhances investment opportunities and so they encourage large-scale production and expansion of members investment and Frontiers.


So how does the government partner with cooperative organisations to bring about difference improvement market expansion and the rest of it so in this article were going to analyse and look at the various ways government partners with cooperative organisations or cooperative farmers to bring about the change and the lifestyle of the community and bring about the change or improvement in their social amenities and bring about a change in provision of storage and processing facilities these are some of the things that government are evolving when it comes to developing an environment.

In this article we are looking at the first number one here is the provision of Farm tools by the government in partnership with cooperative organisations. Bring government partners with farmers or cooperative organisations to be able to improve on Farm inputs like chemicals Farm tools and implements fertilizer is improved seed where not only provided by the government but they are provided in sufficient quantities and also served as a subsidized to enable peasant farmers to buy and use them in order to improve on their Farm output




Aspect of government involvement with the cooperative farmers is in this form that is in the provision of storage and processing facility in order to prevent food wastage and provide food in periods of scarcity government decided to provide storage and processing facilities in all parts of the country in order to also boost the Farmers production and Preservation techniques


Whereby the government of any country can also partner with cooperative societies to bring about a change in the community is by provision of effective transportation network that will link the farming Communities and the market beyond. The key point of this transportation means that government provides for a farming community comes in this phone where by the agencies of government through their allies and paralinx like the directorate of food road and rural infrastructure development which has helped in some part of Nigeria in the construction of feeder roads in rural areas to ease and decongest transportation in order to improve on the marketing aspect of Farm. If good road and transportation means are provided by the government of the day thereby reduces the cost of production and also making food readily and easily available to the team in public



One other aspect of government involvement with the cooperative societies to boost agricultural production in any community is by provision of pest and disease control services for farmers to produce Farm full stops in large quantities the government of the day has to make provision for drugs for the Farmer himself and drugs for the animals that are reared in a farm chemicals in Vaccines which are also used for pest and disease control in addition the government also employs pathologist and veterinary doctors to prevent and control pest and disease of crops and animals respectively


In order to boost agricultural production within a community or around a cooperative organisation that are involved in farming practices the government has to provide extension extension services like the extension workers who in turn will help to train the Farmers on new techniques of Farming harvesting new breed and stalks of crops that can produce better yield than the former



And so the government partners with most agricultural cooperative society to provide agricultural education in view of the fact that majority of blacks of farmers around the world are illiterate the government of anything society should decide to provide adult education for nomadic farmers in order to enable them to learn how to read and write so that they will be able to apply modern system of Farming to improve their welfare and also to promote easy acceptance of new techniques and Innovations in agriculture...
One of the ways the government can improve on agricultural community or a cooperative organisation is to help them provide Research Institute by building 8 in the area that can also improve the agricultural production improve the local varieties of breeds of crops and animals respectively the government also also has the obligation of setting up numerous Research Institute to provide solutions to the problems of local crops and animals with a view to increasing production examples of such as obesity Research Institute established by any government to carry out research works are found in Nigeria


here is a list of government establishments in order to improve on agricultural production in Nigeria

1. National cereal Research Institute NCRI

2. Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria ibadan

3. The Nigerian Institute for oil palm research Benin City

4. National Institute for trypanosomiasis research centre

5. National horticultural Research Institute ibadan

9. national Institute for oceanography and marine research Lagos

10.. national veterinary Research Institute form

6. Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria r r i n Benin City

7. National root crops Research Institute
8.. Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria ibadan

11. The International Institute of tropical agriculture ibadan

12. Lake Chad Research Institute maiduguri Nigeria




Conclusion

For a growing economy or developed economy for the farming Society to thrive and produce more and be able to feed the nation the cooperative organisations and farmers Institute have to work hand-in-hand with the government of the day in order to provide efficient means of farming and food production. As we all know that agriculture is the backbone of any nation that developed advanced or an imagination agriculture is still the backbone of any economy so in order for agricultural activities to boom and tried every sensible government has to make provision for farmers by providing incentives bank loans grants by providing Farm implements even if is not for individual farmers for at least two cooperative farming organisation.



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roles of Non governmental organizations NGOs in agricultural development in Africa



Ways in which NGOs contribute to agricultural production in West Africa


The following are the ways by which Ngo that is non governmental organisations contribute to agricultural production in West Africa

1. Of the most important roles of Angels or non-governmental organisations in West Africa or Africa as a whole is that they assist in rural development by providing social amenities like rose water supply of light and health centres across the region

2. One of the key areas whereby non-governmental agencies or non governmental processes or non-governmental organisations in Africa is that they carry out research to improve or develop new crop varieties in order to boost agricultural production in the region



3. Another key aspect of this angel known as known as as non-governmental organisations is that they help to carry out research across Africa in order to prove on breeds of animal trying to come up with breeds of animals that can resist some important diseases of agricultural farm animals

4. This body are also involved in provision of financial support funding or subsidies agricultural projects.. what is this simply means that this engine help rural farmers by providing them access to loans grants and subsidies in order to boost agricultural production and help the economy to stand


5. This non-governmental organisations helps in the improvement of farmers awareness and agricultural knowledge through extension services found all across Africa so what this means is that these bodies help to train farmers to educate them on the newness of improvement based on varieties of all breeds of animals that are resistant to certain diseases found in certain areas of the Continent


5. This organizations also work hand-in-hand with the various host Communities where this farming activities are being done in order to find a better way to understand the peasant farmers with a view to assisting them to improve on their social economic ability

6. To be sincere in West Africa the Works and roles of Ngo that are involved in agricultural activity is not limited to funding the Farmers by granting loans they also found a research for better farming method and also develop Farm implement these are some of the key areas that non-government organisations are involved in Africa and be known to you that African farmers as poor as such that the Lack access to basic amenities and farming system access to modern the information and so the involvement of this angels have brought life back to the Rural communities


7. Most of the time this NGO helps to control pest through the production of pest resistant varieties of crops

8. The Ngo are a body that is not funded by the government are just people who have this Goodwill or good intention to making sure that things are done the right way and they are done efficiently and so they also help to control diseases through the production of disease resistant varieties of crops


9. Is non-government organisations known as Ngo also help to develop appropriate farming system that is suitable to an environment based on the topography social and cultural belief religious concept e t c



To mention but a few of the Ngo found in West Africa is west African rice development agency

One of the key objective of this body known as west African rice development agency is to promote the cultivation of rice within the west African sub-region

Number 2 point or activities or benefit of west African rice development agency that they help to develop rice species with high yield with minimum impute to cultivate

3. This NG will also help to develop rice species that can adapt to the west African sub-region they also develop disease-resistant variety of rice above all this in order to have good rice production that can compete with the Asian tigers these bodies or known as west African rice development agency order was set up in order to develop rice special which can meet the nutritional needs of the west African sub-region Solas of their role is to develop pest resistant varieties of rice




Other non-governmental organisation Ngo station in west African sub-region in order to improve on agricultural production is the International Institute of tropical agriculture Ita this Institute is located in ibadan Nigeria in western Nigeria province and it serves to develop agriculture in many African countries the aim and objective of this body includes


To promote the cultivation of food crops like maize rice cowpea and yam with in the tropics of west Africa


Key function of the International Institute of tropical agriculture at a station in ibadan is to develop high yielding food crops original to West Africa sub-region

One key area that this Institute known as International Institute of tropical agriculture base in ibadan here in Nigeria is that they have helped a lot of services of stations of cooperative farmers to grow and develop food crops and to encourage local farmers to grow the crops improved by The Institute




Non governmental Institute found in West Africa in the tropic region is the international livestock centre for agriculture in Africa

Body known as international livestock centre for Africa ilca is established to promote the rearing of animals within Africa to to breed animals with high production capabilities EG high milk production hi egg and meat production animals


Another objective of the International Institute livestock centre in Africa is to promote the rearing of animals and to breed animals that can produce high quality of products


International Institute for livestock centre popularly known as ilca was set up in order to breed animals that can adapt to the African climate and environment and this is to breed animals with early maturity and fast growth in order to be able to survive in the African terrain



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cattle products and their uses


list of cattle products and their uses


Cattle is one of the most popular farm animal reared through agricultural science and farming

Although there are so many types of cattle and cattle products or in this article we are only concerned about the products from cattle that is the things that are produced from cattle is self-reliance of the meat milk the uses and importance of this thing is to man
The important uses of cattle products across religion continent tribes races and so and so forth it is understood that there is no religion or tribal, continent races and all over the whole world. Body has shown that the consumption cattle products and beef meat is the most consumed meat and products in the whole world. Beef meat is generally Reddish in colour and how you look test that no other animals or meat tastes like beef

Cattle products and uses

1.

Uses of beef meat

I. Beef meat can be cooked and eaten directly by man
i. they're used for making soup
ii. The beef meat is also used for making beef rolls or meat rolls in snacks
III. Beef meat is also used for making local desert like pepper soup in most part of Africa


1.

uses of cattle milk

Use of cow milk as follow
i. Cattle milk is eaten fresh in some part of the world, mostly in northern parts of Nigeria
ii. The use of cattle milk can be seen in the production of powdered milk, tin milk and liquid milk industry






iii. We also use cattle milk also known as cow milk to produce bread.
iv. One very good aspect of the use of cow milk is in The Taking of beverages and chocolate


3.

uses of cattle bones

Cattle bones can be used in the following ways
I. We use the bones of cattle for the production of buttons in shirts and clothes production
ii. Most handles of knife that are used at home as part of cutlery is made from the bones of cattle
iii. In livestock production we grind bones and mix them with feed to form what we call bone meals for farm animals consumption


4.

uses of cattle skin

The uses of cattle skin can be seen in the following ways
i. Hide and skin from farm animals like cattle is used in the production of footwear
ii. Most leather bags that are found in the market places in shops, supermarkets and all around us is made from cattle skin
iii. we also use the hide and skin from cattle to produce belt
iv. Cattle skins or cow skins or hides and skins from cattle is also used in the production of seat of motor vehicles








5.

uses of cattle excreta

The uses of cattle excreta can be seen in the following ways
i. Cattle excreta and dung is used as fertilizers to enrich the soil








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