What are Angiosperm?

What are Angiosperm? They are the most complex green flowering plants They are vascular plants They have well developed and complete flowers They are seed plants with seeds enclosed in the fruit They are mainly terrestrial plants They show more specialized reproductive mechanism involving pollination and fertilization. Angiosperms can be sub-divided into two classes according to the number of seed leaves (cotyledons). These are: (i) Dicotyledonous plants and (ii) Monocotyledonous plants. Dicotyledonous Plants of Angiosperm Characteristics of Dicotyledonous Plants as an Angiosperm They bear seeds which have two seeds leaves or cotyledons The vascular bundles of each stem are arranged in a regular pattern Their floral parts exist in groups of four or five The leaves have veins arranged in branched network They have tap root system They usually undergo secondary growth Examples include mango, orange, cowpea, groundnut, balsam plant. Monocotyledonous Plants of Angiosperm Characteristics of Monocotyledonous Plants as an Angiosperm They bear seeds which have only one seed leaf (cotyledon) The vascular bundles of the stem are scattered. Their floral parts exist in groups of three or multiples of three Their leaves have veins running parallel to another They fibrous root system The do not undergo secondary growth Examples are maize plant. Rice, oil palm trees and guinea grass Some major Differences between Monocotyledonous and Dicotyledonous plants Monocotyledonous plantsDicotyledonous plants(i)They possess only one seed lead or cotyledonThey possess two seed leaves or cotyledons(ii)They have scattered vascular bundles of stemVascular bundles of stem are arranged in regular pattern(iii)They have fibrous root systemThey have tap root system (iv)They exhibit hypogeal germinationThey exhibit epigeal germination (v)Floral parts exist in groups of three or multiples of three The floral parts exist in groups of four or give (vi)They possess parallel venation They possess net venation (vii)There is presence of large pith, ring of vascular bundle in the centre of stemThere is presence of xylem (water conducting tissue) in the centre of stem (viii)They do not undergo secondary growthThey undergo secondary growth

Types of yam

What are Angiosperm? They are the most complex green flowering plants They are vascular plants They have well developed and complete flowers They are seed plants with seeds enclosed in the fruit They are mainly terrestrial plants They show more specialized reproductive mechanism involving pollination and fertilization. Angiosperms can be sub-divided into two classes according to the number of seed leaves (cotyledons). These are: (i) Dicotyledonous plants and (ii) Monocotyledonous plants. Dicotyledonous Plants of Angiosperm Characteristics of Dicotyledonous Plants as an Angiosperm They bear seeds which have two seeds leaves or cotyledons The vascular bundles of each stem are arranged in a regular pattern Their floral parts exist in groups of four or five The leaves have veins arranged in branched network They have tap root system They usually undergo secondary growth Examples include mango, orange, cowpea, groundnut, balsam plant. Monocotyledonous Plants of Angiosperm Characteristics of Monocotyledonous Plants as an Angiosperm They bear seeds which have only one seed leaf (cotyledon) The vascular bundles of the stem are scattered. Their floral parts exist in groups of three or multiples of three Their leaves have veins running parallel to another They fibrous root system The do not undergo secondary growth Examples are maize plant. Rice, oil palm trees and guinea grass Some major Differences between Monocotyledonous and Dicotyledonous plants Monocotyledonous plantsDicotyledonous plants(i)They possess only one seed lead or cotyledonThey possess two seed leaves or cotyledons(ii)They have scattered vascular bundles of stemVascular bundles of stem are arranged in regular pattern(iii)They have fibrous root systemThey have tap root system (iv)They exhibit hypogeal germinationThey exhibit epigeal germination (v)Floral parts exist in groups of three or multiples of three The floral parts exist in groups of four or give (vi)They possess parallel venation They possess net venation (vii)There is presence of large pith, ring of vascular bundle in the centre of stemThere is presence of xylem (water conducting tissue) in the centre of stem (viii)They do not undergo secondary growthThey undergo secondary growth

Pest and diseases of cowpea and their control methods

Pests and diseases of cowpea and their control methods The cowpea as a crop is just like soya beans. This type of crop known as cowpea is useful in many way to man and other farm animals. Cowpea is an example of a leguminous crop. It possess a taproot system Pest of Cowpea Pod borers: Adults pierce or bore holes into fruits and stems and may inject toxic saliva. How to Control pod borers of cowpea: Spray with insecticide Bean beetle of cowpea (Callosobruchus spp): This is a field-to-store pest. Adults and nymphs of bean beetle of cowpea bore holes into seed, feed on them and turn them to powder, thereby reducing the quality and market value. How to Control bean beetle of cowpea: (i) Early harvesting of the cowpea pods (ii) Fumigation of containers or store containing the cowpea bean with fumigant like phostoxin tablets Leaf Hoppers of cowpea: They eat up the leaves, thereby causing low yield of crops. How to Control leaf hoppers of cowpea: Spray plants with insecticides

Diseases of Cowpea and control methods

Cowpea mosaic disease: (1) Cowpea mosaic disease is a viral disease which is transmitted by aphid or thrip. It causes stunting, reduces pod size and cause premature dropping of flowers. How to Control Cowpea mosaic disease: (i) Use resistant varieties cowpea when planting (ii) Control insect vector by spraying with pesticides (iii) Remove and burn infected cowpea plants Bacterial blight: Bacterial blight is caused by a bacterium which is spread by water. Infected leaves produce water-soaked spots which later enlarge and turn brown How to Control Bacterial blight of cowpea : (i) Use resistant varieties (ii) Use clean seeds when planting Nematode disease of cowpea: Nematode disease of cowpea is caused by nematode transmitted through soil. It cause twisting, rolling of roots. How to Control Nematode disease of cowpea: (i) Use resistant varieties of cowpea (ii) Practice good cultural operations READ HERE (iii) Treat soil with nematicide Damping-off disease: This disease is caused by a fungus (Phytophthora spp). It is transmitted through the hyphae in the soil. It results in the destruction of seedlings in the soil HOW to Control Damping-off disease of cowpea: (i) Dress seeds with fungicides (ii) Practice crop rotation (iii) Grow resistant varieties (iv) Remove infected plants Thank you for visiting us today. You can leave us a message if you have any

Pest and diseases of cotton and their control method

Pests and diseases of Cotton and control their control methods The following are the diseases and pests of cotton and their control methods These diseases are not the only ones but they are the ones I can mention here for the sake of this article Cotton stainer (Dysdercus spp): It feeds on the contents of the boll and also transmits bacterial and fungal diseases. They stain the lints. Control: By handpicking the insects and regular spraying with insecticides. (2) Boll worms: The caterpillars (larvae) eat their way into the boll and spoil the lint. Control: (i) This is done by handpicking. (ii) Destruction of infected plants. Diseases of cotton and control methods Bacteria blight: It is caused by a bacterium. Symptoms include angular spots which appear on the leaves and branches How to Control Bacteria blight of cotton: It is used by dressing Destroy and burn infected plants Grow resistant varieties Leaf curl: It is caused by a virus transmitted by an insect. Affected leaves become twisted, mottled, vein clearing and curl at the margin. How to Control Leaf curl of cotton: Plant resistant varieties Destroy infected plants by burning Damping off: It is caused by a fungus which is spread through the soil. Cells of seedling become water logged, resulting in the death of the plants.

cultural practice in the cultivation of tomato

Cultural Practices in the cultivation of tomatoes The following are some of the cultural practices involved in the planting of tomato Weeding: This should be done at regular intervals. Watering of tomato farm: Soon after transplanting, seed-lings should b44e watered every morning and evening till the plants are able to stand on their own. Fertilizer Application in tomato farming: Apply N.P.K 15:15:15 fertilizer to each plant of tomato three weeks after transplanting at 250kg/hectare; or apply any organic manure like compost or farmyard manure at 30-40 metric tons per hectare. Staking of tomato: Provide stakes to enable the tomato plants to stand erect and prevent lodging. Stems are tied or trained to the stakes. Staking allows for good fruiting of the plant of tomato and keeps fruits from disease attack. Arising from contact with soil. Staking should be done before flowering. Maturity period of tomato: This occurs between two to four months after planting. Methods of tomato Harvesting: Matured or ripe fruits are harvested by handpicking and stored in dry, cool place. Harvesting starts as from two months. Tomato Processing: Tomato is either used or consumed after harvesting, or it can be processed into tomato juice or paste. Storage of tomato : It can be stored as canned paste.

what is leasehold system of land tenure system of farming farming

What is Leasehold System of land tenure? This type of land tenure requires the payment of certain amount of money for the use of the land over a stated period of time. In other words, leasehold tenure system is a special contract existing between a person called the leasor and another called the leasee for the lease of a piece of land for a specified period of years, which may be ten years, twenty years fifty years. The lessee will exercise his right on the use and maintenance of the land for the period of lease. Advantages of Leasehold System of land tenure It ensures the use of available land. It enables the farmer to maximize the use of the land in terms of maintenance of the soil fertility in order to improve the productivity of crops Disadvantages or Problems of Leasehold System of land tenure (i) The land cannot be used as security to obtain loan from commercial banks. (ii) The farmer cannot develop the land beyond the lease agreement terms. (iii) Perennial crops like oil palm, cocoa, rubber. etc cannot be grown.

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general control measures of diseases of the crop plant

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