what is pest and pests of crops




types of pest

Insect pest are those insects that cause physical damage to crops. Insects belong to the group arthropods.
Generally pests reduce crop yield both in quality and quantity.
Classify insect pests into feeding groups
Name important field and storage pest of crops
Identify nature of damage to crops
State preventive and control measures
State other important pests of crops
Identify the nature of their damage to crops
State the preventive and control measures

list of pests of crop

1. Stem borer (Sesamia spp)
2. Boring insect Pests
3. Aphids
4. Pod Borers (Maruca tesulalis
5. Cassava mealy bug (phenacoccus Manihoti
6. Variegated Grasshopper (Zonocerus variegates)
7. Rodents
8. Amnemus weevil (Amnemus sp.)
9. Ants, Seed harvesting (Pheidole)
10. Aphids (various)
11. Aphid, Soybean (Aphis glycine)
12. Aphid, Spotted alfalfa (Therioaphis trifolii)
13. Aphid, Turnip (Lipaphis erysimi)
14. Aphid, Wheat (Rhopalosiphum padi)
15. Armyworms (various)
16. Armyworm, Common (Leucania convecta)
17. Armyworm, Dayfeeding (Spodoptera exempta)
18. Armyworm, Lawn (Spodoptera mauritia)
19. Armyworm, Lesser (Spodoptera exigua)
20. Armyworm, Northern (Mythimna separata)
21. Armyworm, Sugarcane (Leucania stenographa)
22. Australian plague locust (Chortoicetes terminifera)
23. Bean fly (Ophiomyia phaseoli)
24. Bean leafroller (Omiodes diemenalis)
25. Bean looper or Mocis (Mocis alterna)
26. Bean podborer (Maruca vitrata)
27. Bean spider mite (Tetranychus ludeni)
28. Beet webworm (Spoladea recurvalis)
29. Black field cricket (Teleogryllus commodus, T. oceanicus, Lepidogryllus parvulus)
30. Black field earwig (Nala lividipes)
31. Black leaf beetle (Rhyparida nitida)
32. Black sunflower scarab (Pseudoheteronyx sp.)
33. Bluegreen aphid (Acyrthosiphon kondoi)
34. Blue oat mite (Penthaleus major)
35. Brown bean bug, Large (Riptortus serripes)
36. Brown bean bug, Small (Melanacanthus scutellaris)
37. Brown flea beetle (Chaetocnema sp.)
38. Brown mirid (Creontiades pacificus)
39. Brown pasture looper (Ciampa arietaria)
40. Brown shield bug (Dictyotus caenosus)
41. Brown wheat mite (Petrobia latens)
42. Bruchid, Cowpea (Callosobruchus maculatus)
43. Cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae)
44. Cabbage moth (Plutella xylostella)
45. Castor oil looper (Achaea janata)
46. Click beetle (Agrypnus spp.)
47. Clover springtail (Sminthurus viridis)
47. Cluster caterpillar (Spodoptera litura)
48. Cockroach, Wingless (Calolampra spp.)
49. Common armyworm (Leucania convecta)
50. Common grass blue butterfly (Zizina labradus)
52. Corn aphid (Rhopalosiphum maidis)
53. Corn earworm (Helicoverpa armigera)
54. Cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii)
55. Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera)
56. Cotton harlequin bug (Tectocoris diophthalmus)
57. Cotton leafhopper (Amrasca terraereginae)
58. Cotton leafperforator (Bucculatrix gossypii)
59. Cotton looper (Anomis flava)
60. Cottonseed bug (Oxycarenus luctuosus)
61. Cotton seedling thrip (Thrips tabaci)
62. Cotton tipworm (Crocidosema plebejana)
63. Cotton webspinner (Achyra affinitalis)
64. Cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora)

SCROLL DOWN AND GET MORE OF THIS LIST




Classification of crop insect pest into main feeding groups

what is pest







A pest is an organism which causes damage to crops.

Insect pest are those insects that cause physical damage to crops. Insects belong to the group arthropods.
Generally pests reduce crop yield both in quality and quantity.
what is pest
1.

Biting and chewing insect pest

The mouth parts of pests in this group are especially adapted to biting and chewing of various plant parts.
The mouth parts are made up of two hard biting jaws (mandibles).

In addition to these,
they also have two jaws (maxillae).
They have two lips – flat upper lip (larum) and lower lip (labium) while the maxillae are used to push the crop parts into the mouth, the mandibles are used for the biting and chewing since they are very strong. These insects can feed on any part of the plant including leaves, fruits, stems, flowers and even roots.
what is pest
Some common biting and chewing insect pests are beetles, grasshoppers, termites, crickets, caterpillars of moths and butter flies, locust, army worms and so on.

They feed on many crops such as okro, maize, rice, vegetables, cassava and fruit trees.
DIAGRAM Figure 2.8.1a: Cricket DIAGRAM Figure 2.8.1B: Beetle DIAGRAM Figure 2.8.1c: Grasshopper DIAGRAM Figure 2.8.Id: Caterpillar

2. Piercing and Sucking Insect what is pest
The mouth parts of these insects are shaped like injection needles and are thus adapted to piercing (that is penetrating into the plant part) and sucking (that is removing plant fluid).
what is pest? These piercing and sucking habits of the insects lead to] destruction of plant tissues, development of holes through which disease organisms can enter into the plant system and transfer or harmful germs from diseased plants to healthy ones. All these leads to weakening and eventual death of the plants affected.

what is pest?
Good examples of piercing and sucking insect pests are
aphids (plant lice), cotton stainer, mealy bugs, capsid bugs, and scali insects DIAGRAM Figure 2.8.2A: Cotton Stainer

3.

Boring insect Pests

These are insects that bore into plant tissues and seeds, examples are stem borers of cereals and weevils such as beans, rice M maize weevils.
Other insects pests which may not fall into the above groups have been found to affect crops.

An example is the weaving insect which causes the folding of the leaves of crops particularly vegetables.

1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE

44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE





49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES

56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION

what is pest and their names

NAME OF PEST, CROPS AFFECTED, NATURE OF DAMAGE TO CROPS, PREVENTION AND CONTROL MEASURES



1 Stem borer (Sesamia spp) Cereals e.g. rice, maize sorghum Pest eats up the juicy centres of stems thus causing the crop to collapse and die Burn all crop remains in the farm after harvest, uproot and burn affected crops. Spray with gammaling 20 or DDT.

2 Army worms - Grain crops e.g. Rice, Maize, Sorghum They eat up the leaves and stems of the crops leading to mechanical damage of crops. Plant early. Spray with an insecticide such as gammalin 20.

3 Earth worms--M0aize These larvae bore into the cobs or ears of maize thereby eating up the fresh grains Early planting spray with gammalin 20

4 Aphids- Cocoa, groundnut, cowpea They bite and pierce through the outer texture of growing plants. Sucking out the sap leading to stunting, distortion and defoliation in affected plants Spray affected crops with insecticides

5 Pod Borers (Maruca tesulalis) Legumes e.g. Cowpea They cause damage to the tender parts of the plants, by eating up the flower buds and pods. This leads to reduction in yield. Plant with resistant varieties. Spray with gammalin 20 or diagram.

6 Variegated Grasshopper (Zonocerus variegates) Yam, vegetables, rice, cassava, etc. Eats up leaves of plants. Growing point and stem may be eaten too. Spray with gammalin 20 or vetox 85

7 Yam Beetle (Heteroligus meles) Yam Feeds on tubers of yams in the soil causing holes on them Dust yam planting materials with aldrin dust before planting.

8 Cassava mealy bug (phenacoccus Manihoti) Cassava Affected plants become stunted since the internodes are reduced. The tip begins to develop bunchy tops, the leaves die off finally, the whole plant looks like a candle stick. Plant early. Dip cassava cuttings in 0.1% Rogor or ultracide solution for 1 minute before planting

9 Capsids Cocoa The insects attack young shoots of cocoa and introduce toxic saliva into the plant. This kills the plant Spraying with gammalin 20

10 Cotton stainer (dysdercus superstitious) Cotton Attacks opening cotton bolls thus staining the lint Spray with insecticide

11 Weevils Rice, maize, beans Eat up the cotyledons of stored products Spray with insecticide

12 Fruits worm The larva eats up the fruits Spray with vetox 85

13 Termites Oil palm, cassava, sugar cane, yam, etc They destroy roots and seedlings of plants especially when young Spray with aldrex 40. Water crops regularly in the dry season.

14 Boll worms Cotton They eat up succulent boll. Bolls drop off prematurely Pick and burn affected bolls. Spray with insecticides

8.3 Other Pests of Crops

what is pest? a pest can be a bird as long as it is destroying farm produce
1. Bird

These attack mainly grain crops such as maize, rice, sorghum and barley. They also attack fruits in the field.

Examples of these birds are Weaver birds
(Quela), parrots, etc. DIAGRAM Figure 2.8.4: A Bird.

what is pest

(a) Nature of Damage: They peck out planted seeds, eat up grains on the field and destroy leaves of some plants such as oil palm. They also eat ripe fruits such as pawpaw, mango, and cashew.

(b)

how to Control crop pests in the farm and storage

:
1. Use of scare crows
2. Spraying chemicals such as furadan with aircraft,
3. Shooting with catapult or gun.
Scare Crow for birds and mammalian pest in farms.

what is pest? a pest can be a rodent, as long as it is destroying farm produce
2. Rodents
These include rats, grass-cutters, African rabbits and hare. DIAGRAM Figure 2.8.6: A Rodent
(Grass-cutter)

(a)

Nature of Damage of from rodent pests

:
They cut down and eat various parts of the crop especially cereal and tuber crops. Grass-cutters eat up rice, young palm seedlings and maize plants. Rats eat up stored produce like tubers and grains. Hare eat up planted grains.

(b)

how to Control rodent pests of crops

:

(i) Use of poison baits
(ii) Use of traps
(iii) By shooting with guns,
(iv) Use of rat gums.


what is pest? a pest can be a mammal, as long as it is destroying farm produce
3. Other Mammalian Pests
These include monkey, deer, antelopes and bush pig.
They do a lot of damage to crops in the farm by uprooting eating them up.

For example, monkey eat up plantains, banana maize and cocoa pods.

Control:
(i) Trapping (ii) Shooting with gun.


what is pest? a pest can be a bird as long as it is destroying farm produce
4. Classify the following into biting and chewing, piercing and sucking, and boring insect pests:- Beetles, Aphids. stem borers, caps ids, weevils, locusts, mealybugs, crickets, cotton stainer, 5. Itemise >>>>> you would use for rodents attack on your farm.
for the purpose of this subject, here is a few lists of pests of crops,
African black beetle (Heteronychus arator)
Amnemus weevil (Amnemus sp.)
Ants, Seed harvesting (Pheidole)
Aphids (various)
Aphid, Soybean (Aphis glycine)
Aphid, Spotted alfalfa (Therioaphis trifolii)
Aphid, Turnip (Lipaphis erysimi)
Aphid, Wheat (Rhopalosiphum padi)
Armyworms (various)
Armyworm, Common (Leucania convecta)
Armyworm, Dayfeeding (Spodoptera exempta)
Armyworm, Lawn (Spodoptera mauritia)
Armyworm, Lesser (Spodoptera exigua)
Armyworm, Northern (Mythimna separata)
Armyworm, Sugarcane (Leucania stenographa)
Australian plague locust (Chortoicetes terminifera)
Bean fly (Ophiomyia phaseoli)
Bean leafroller (Omiodes diemenalis)
Bean looper or Mocis (Mocis alterna)
Bean podborer (Maruca vitrata)
Bean spider mite (Tetranychus ludeni)
Beet webworm (Spoladea recurvalis)
Black field cricket (Teleogryllus commodus, T. oceanicus, Lepidogryllus parvulus)
Black field earwig (Nala lividipes)
Black leaf beetle (Rhyparida nitida)
Black sunflower scarab (Pseudoheteronyx sp.)
Bluegreen aphid (Acyrthosiphon kondoi)
Blue oat mite (Penthaleus major)
Brown bean bug, Large (Riptortus serripes)
Brown bean bug, Small (Melanacanthus scutellaris)
Brown flea beetle (Chaetocnema sp.)
Brown mirid (Creontiades pacificus)
Brown pasture looper (Ciampa arietaria)
Brown shield bug (Dictyotus caenosus)
Brown wheat mite (Petrobia latens)
Bruchid, Cowpea (Callosobruchus maculatus)
Cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae)
Cabbage moth (Plutella xylostella)
Castor oil looper (Achaea janata)
Click beetle (Agrypnus spp.)
Clover springtail (Sminthurus viridis)
Cluster caterpillar (Spodoptera litura)
Cockroach, Wingless (Calolampra spp.)
Common armyworm (Leucania convecta)
Common grass blue butterfly (Zizina labradus)
Corn aphid (Rhopalosiphum maidis)
Corn earworm (Helicoverpa armigera)
Cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii)
Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera)
Cotton harlequin bug (Tectocoris diophthalmus)
Cotton leafhopper (Amrasca terraereginae)
Cotton leafperforator (Bucculatrix gossypii)
Cotton looper (Anomis flava)
Cottonseed bug (Oxycarenus luctuosus)
Cotton seedling thrip (Thrips tabaci)
Cotton tipworm (Crocidosema plebejana)
Cotton webspinner (Achyra affinitalis)
Cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora)







Cowpea bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus)
Cricket, Black field (Teleogryllus commodus, T. oceanicus, Lepidogryllus parvulus)
Crop mirid (Sidnia kinbergi)
Cutworm (Agrotis spp.)
Dayfeeding armyworm (Spodoptera exempta)
Diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella)
Dried fruit beetle (Carpophilus spp.)
Locust, Yellow-winged (Gastrimargus musicus)
Locust, Spur-throated (Austracris (Noamdacris) guttulosa)
Loopers (various)
Looper, Bean or Mocis (Mocis alterna)
Looper, Brown pasture (Ciampa arietaria)
Looper, Castor oil (Achaea janata)
Eastern false wireworm (Pterohelaeus spp.)
Earwig, Black field (Nala lividipes)
Etiella moth (Etiella behrii)
False wireworm (Pterohelaeus and Gonocephalum spp.)
Flea beetles, Brown and Redheaded (Chaetocnema and Nisostra sp.)
Flower beetle (Carpophilus spp.)
Grasshoppers and locusts (various)
Grasshopper, Wingless (Phaulacridium vittatum)
)
Helicoverpa species (armigera, punctigera)
Jassids (leafhoppers) (various)
Lawn armyworm (Spodoptera mauritia)
Leafhoppers (jassids) (various)
Leafhopper, cotton (Amrasca terraereginae)
Leafhopper, lucerne (Austroasca alfalfae)
Leafhopper, maize (Cicadulina bimaculata
Leafhopper, vegetable (Austroasca viridigrisea)
Legume webspinner (Omiodes diemenalis)
Lesser armyworm (Spodoptera exigua)
Light brown apple moth (Epiphyas postvittana)
Locust, Australian plague (Chortoicetes terminifera)
Locust, Migratory (Locusta migratoria)
Looper, Cotton (Anomis flava)
Looper, Sugarcane (Mocis frugalis)
Looper, Soybean (Thysanoplusia orichalcea)
Looper, Tobacco (Chrysodeixis argentifera)
Looper, Vegetable (Chrysodeixis eriosoma)
Mocis trifasciata no common name
Pantydia spp .
Lucerne crownborer (Zygrita diva)
Lucerne flea (Sminthurus viridis)
Lucerne leafhopper (Austroasca alfalfae)
Lucerne leafroller (Merophyas divulsana)
Lucerne seed wasp (Bruchophagus roddi)
Lucerne seed web moth (Etiella behrii)
Maize leafhopper (Cicadulina bimaculata)
Maize thrips (Frankliniella williamsi)
Mealybug (Family Psuedococcidae)
Mealybug, solenopsis (Phenacoccus solenopsis)
Midge, Sorghum (Stenodiplosis sorghicola)
Migratory locust (Locusta migratoria)
Mirids (Creontiades and Sidnia spp.)
Mites (various)
Aphid, Bluegreen (Acyrthosiphon kondoi)
Aphid, Cabbage (Brevicoryne brassicae)
Aphid, Corn (Rhopalosiphum maidis)
Aphid, Cotton (Aphis gossypii)
Aphid, Cowpea (Aphis craccivora)
Aphid, Green peach (Myzus persicae)
Aphid, Oat (Rhopalosiphum padi)
Aphid, Pea (Acyrthosiphon pisum)
Aphid, Rice root (Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominalis)
Aphid, Rose grain (Metopolophium dirhodum)
Mite, Bean spider (Tetranychus ludeni)
Mite, Brown wheat (Petrobia latens)
Mite, Blue oat (Penthaleus major)
Mite, Peanut (Paraplonobia spp.)
Mite, Redlegged earth (Halotydeus destructor)
Mite, Strawberry spider (Tetranychus lambi) Greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum)
Green peach aphid (Myzus persicae)
Green mirid (Creontiades dilutus)
Green vegetable bug (Nezara viridula)
Green stink bug (Plautia affinis)
Grey cluster bug (Nysius clevelandensis

Mite, Two-spotted (Tetranychus urticae)
Mocis alterna (bean looper)
Mocis frugalis (sugarcane looper)
Mocis trifasciata
Monolepta (red-houldered leaf beetle) , (Monolepta australis)
for the comprehensive lists A-Z please read here my credit goes to them


classification of Pests of Crops

1. Bird
These attack mainly grain crops such as maize, rice, sorghum and barley. They also attack fruits in the field. Examples of these birds are Weaver birds (Quela), parrots, etc.


(a) Nature of Damage: They peck out planted seeds, eat up grains on the field and destroy leaves of some plants such as oil palm. They also eat ripe fruits such as pawpaw, mango, and cashew.
(b) Control

1. Use of scare crows
2. Spraying chemieals such as furadan with aircraft,
3. Shooting with catapult or gun.



2. Rodents
These include rats, grass-cutters, African rabbits and hare.








(a) Nature of Damage: They cut down and eat various parts of the crop especially cereal and tuber crops. Grass-cutters eat up rice, young palm seedlings and maize plants. Rats eat up stored produce like tubers and grains. Hare eat up planted grains.

(b) Control:
(i) Use of poison baits
(ii) Use of traps
(iii) By shooting with guns,
(iv) Use of rat gums.

3. Other Mammalian Pests
These include monkey, deer, antelopes and bush pig.
They do a lot of damage to crops in the farm by uprooting eating them up. For example, monkey eat up plantains, banana maize and cocoa pods.

Control:
(i) Trapping

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TYPES OF FARM STRUCTURE AND MAINTAINANCE


Farm structures

Apart from concrete buildings, there are several other structures on the farm. These structures could he of temporary or permanent nature. depending on their uses.
The following are the structures commonly found on the farm:
(a)
Storage structure:
These are used for storing farm produce or different kinds.

They include:
(i)
Yam barn for storing yam tubers:
The yam barn is constructed by fitting vertical poles into the ground. Horizontal poles are tied to the vertical poles are fitted to the horizontal poles to which the yam tubers are tied singly in a horizontal position.
(ii)

Silos:

These are tower-like structures usually built of aluminium and are used for storing dried grains like maize and sorghum (guinea corn).







Cribs:
These are structures used for storing unshelled maizeon the farm.

Processing structures:

These are structures used for the processing of different kinds of produce on the farm. They include cassava mill, rice mill, abattoir (for slaughtering animals) milk pasteurizing shed (for sterilising fresh milk) fish/meal smoking or drying shed.

Fence:

This is a structure constructed round the farm. Fence could be any of the following types:
1. Barbed wire fence
2. Hedge or live fence
3. Post and rail fence
4. Wire netting fence
5. Wall fence
6. Electric fence.

Fence serves several purposes on the farm. These include:

1. To protect the crops and animals.
2. To demarcate boundaries.
3. To prevent thieves from gaining easy access to the farm.
4. To improve the grazing habit of animals such as in rotational grazing.
5. To control animal breeding habit.
6. To reduce the spread of pests and disease organisms
7. To add beauty to the farm.







Gates and porter’s lodge:these are attached to the fence at the entrance into the farm. The gate is controlled by the mate-man who stays in the porter's lodge. It is used to control movement In and out of the farm.


Gates are also found in animal pens and fenced paddocks. They are used to control the movement of the animals.
(c)

Other Structures include:

Roads, electricity generating plant. Bore- holes and dam for supplying water to the farm, spray races .mil dips for removing ecto or external parasites from animals crushes for restricting animal movement, manure pits and water tanks.

A11 these are collectively referred to as utility structures.

Maintenance of farm buildings and structures

Buildings and structures on the farm require adequate maintenance if they are to last for a long time and perform the functions they are meant for. Therefore, it is necessary
1.

Concreting


The floors of buildings should be made of concrete to avoid cracking and wearing away. Concreted floors do not provide hideouts for rodents and other pests of farm produce.
2.

Painting, Oiling or Greasing

The wooden parts of buildings and structures should be painted with anti-insects chemicals such as solignum to prevent them from being damaged
by termites and other insects.
Also, metal parts should be painted with anti-rust paint especially tanks and other materials used in storing water. Other metal materials that arc likely to become rusty after sometime should be painted with oil paint, oiled, or greased.
3.

Seasoning

Wooden materials used in building and construction of farm structures should be seasoned, that is properly dried before beinu used. This will help to protect the wood from insect=pest damage and the possibility of the structure becoming slacked after some¬time.

4.

Regular inspection and repairs

All farm structures should be checked frequently and age should be repaired without delay. The damaged parts of any building or structure should be-replaced new ones. Openings on the walls of building. should Be covered to prevent rodents from in them.

5.

Cleaning

It is important to keep buildings and structures clean as this helps to prolong their lifespan. Water tanks should be cleaned always, abattoirs, milking sheds, processing structures and others need cleaning. Storage structures should be cleaned after the odd consignment has been removed before bringing in new ones.
6.

Roofing

The tops of farm buildings, should be properly roofed to make them rat proof. Asbestos, iron, or aluminium sheets should be used instead of thatched roofs. This helps to protect the buildings against too much sun, rainstorm, and rats.

7.

Bracing of Walls

Wall and heavy roofs should be supported by pillars to make them strong and prevent them from collapsing.










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HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

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FEEDING REQUIREMENTS FOR GRAZING GOATS


FEEDING REQUIREMENTS FOR GRAZING GOATS

There are differences in the kind of feed prepared for different types of purpose goats reared by the farmer. Some goat are kept majorly for the flesh while some are kept for the sole. Purpose of the hide and skin


Vitamin requirements for a Grazing goat is as follows.

goats
1. Goats require vitamins and minerals for proper growth

2. They require vitamin A, B, E and Knowledge ( fat soluble) and the water soluble vitamins.

3. C & B COMPLEX
Grazing goats satisfy their vitamin A Need from the carotenoids in green plants.
5. They obtain vitamin B by activating the skin sterol through the ultra violet rays of the sun
6. Vitamin E & K can be supplied from the green forage which the goats consumes







7. Most farm animals can synthesize vitamin C from glucose of man and other primates cannot.

Rumen micro-organisms are capable of synthesizing B complex vitamins which the goats can absorb.

It can be said that for Grazing goats,  very little, if any vitamin supplements are required


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HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION






60. LIVING ORGANISM

80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES

89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING


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ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION


ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION

Farm Farm mechanization Farm mechanization Farm mechanization is Farm mechanization is the Farm mechanization is the use Farm mechanization is the use of Farm mechanization is the use of large farm implement. Farm mechanization is the use of large farm implements like tractors heavy machinery disc Harrows and Ploughing vehicles to telegram to ensure that the land is cultivated in large quantity for the purpose of producing the crops for commercial services farm mechanization ensures that all farm operation are done and completed within a given period of time.
Mechanization at the system level is one of the most important aspects required to reform Indian agriculture. India has made significant progress in field preparation by using tractors with matching implements for plowing and puddling


ADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZED AGRICULTURE

Farm mechanization has the following advantages
1.
TIMELINESS OF OPERATION
farm mechanization ensures that all farm operation are done and completed within a given period of time
2.
MECHANIZATION SAVES TIME
in farm mechanization, all most human efforts are substituted with machines. Hence labour saved could be employed somewhere else
3.
MECHANIZATION REDUCES HEALTH HAZARDS
farm mechanization reduces health hazards including those posed by the use of cutlass, hoe, digger, knives, stumps and pests

4.
MECHANIZATION REDUCES DRUDGERY
farm mechanization makes it easy to avoid unpleasant manual jobs
5.
MECHANIZATION INCREASES FARM YIELD
as a result of mechanization, farmers become richer due to increased yield
6.
IT ENCOURAGES LARGE SCALE FARMING
with the use of machine which reduces labour and thereby making the work faster and easier, farmers tends to go into large scale farming activities
7.
INCREASE IN OUTPUT
mechanization makes it possible for farmers to have increase in output






8.
IT MAKES SPECIALIZATION OF LABOUR POSSIBLE
farm mechanization enables people to become specialized in certain operations within the farm.
9.
CO-OPERATION AMONG FARMERS
mechanization enables many farmers to come together and pool their resources together, thereby promoting or encouraging co-operation among farmers.
10.
IT SAVES TIME:
mechanization translates quickly the products of man’s brain into reality.
11.
REDUCTION IN COST OF OPERATION we cannot actually finished the topic of Farm mechanization mentioning that farm mechanization helps in creating job opportunities:
mechanization leads to reduction in the cost of agricultural operations per unit output.
12.
IMPROVEMENT IN QUALITY OF PRODUCE:
mechanization usually improves the quality of some farm produce, e.g., rice processing.
13.
AVAILABILITY OF LABOUR FOR OTHER SECTORS:
mechanization also helps to release labour to other sectors of the economy.
14.
USE OF LESS HUMAN LABOUR:
mechanization helps to accomplish lots of work with less human labour.


Advantages of farm mechanization


(a) It removes the difficulty in farming. Farm work is considered by people to be very hard. The use of machines therefore makes farming enjoyable.
1. Mechanization also results in better utilization of agricultural land
2. The use of machine energy, therefore, leads to good agricultural production.
(Citation needed)


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read more about mechanization in agriculture

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Mechanization raises the efficiency of labor and enhances the farm production per worker. By its nature it reduces the quantum of labor needed to produce a unit of output. In the U.S.A., “the amount of human input and labor used to produce at most 100 bushels of wheat dropped from 320 hours in the year 1830 to 108 hours in 1900 (citation needed)

(b) Large areas of farm Ind can be prepared within very short time. This means that mechanization saves time.
(c) It allows the farmer to perform some difficult jobs easily; for example, the felling of trees is easily done with the motor-saw instead of the axe and cutlass
(d) Mechanization saves labour. Very few labourers are required when machines are employed on the farm.
(e) It increases farm productivity because of large co operation. Increased productivity leads to higher farm income and standard of living.
(f) The cost of using machines on the farm is cheaper in the long run compared with the cost of farm-labour that is always rising. read about farm machines here






(g) It prevents bad agricultural practices such as complete burning all vegetation on new farmland. In addition, large are of farm land can still be cultivated by the farmer during one cropping season
(h) It enables the farmers to use surplus farm products profitably, For example, the crop dryer allows quick and easy drying of crop product such as rice, maize, sorghum and wheat. Crop product can be processed into different products, more acceptable to consumers. In addition, surplus perishable products such as tomatoes
, vegetables, milk and meat can be stored for a long time using the refrigerator and cold storage.
(i) The use of machines in farming may attract young and educated persons to take up farming as- an- occupation.
(j) The mechanisation of farming may release some workers formerly engaged in farming to take up jobs in Agro-allied industries in urban centres.

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DISADVANTAGES OF AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION

Farm mechanization has the following disadvantages
1.HIGH COST OF RUNNING:
farm mechanization, due to the high cost and numerous machines involved, is very expensive to operate

2.DISPLACEMENT OF WORKERS :
in farm mechanization, very few workers are required. Hence many people will be out of job when mechanization is introduced

3. COMPACTION OF SOIL:
mechanization lead to compaction of soil due to the movement of heavy machines

4.

mechanization CAUSES ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

:
mechanization causes environmental pollution due to smokes emanating from engines of these machines, chemicals and the use of fertilizer

5.

MECHANIZATION LEADS TO DEGRADATION OF LANDSCAPE

:
mechanization leads to degradation of landscape due to or as a result of continuous excavation

6.

LAND TENURE SYSTEM CAUSES PROBLEM FOR FARM MECHANIZATION

:
land tenure system may hinder efficient use machines like tractors, bulldozer due to small holdings of farmland

7.

MECHANIZATION LEADS TO DESTRUCTION OF SOIL STRUCTURES

:
the soil structure can easily be destroyed due to continuous use of heavy machines

8.

MECHANIZATION LEADS TO REDUNDANCY OF FARM LABOUR

with farm machines working on the farms, the work can easily be completed and this situation can create redundancy in farm labour

9.
FEW CROPS CAN BE MECHANIZED
very few crops like maize, rice, millet and guinea corn that easily be mechanized






10.
INADEQUATE TECHNICAL KNOW-HOW
there is always inadequate technical know-how in handling the farm machines and equipment in most developing countries of the world

11.

MECHANIZATION CAUSES DAMAGE TO CROPS

most crops are easily damaged during mechanize farm operation

12.

INADEQUATE SPARE PARTS IS A MAJOR PROBLEM TO MECHANIZED FARMING

most of the spare parts or replacement parts for most of these machines are not readily available

13.

HIGH COST OF MAINTENANCE OF MACHINES IS A PROBLEM OF MECHANIZATION

there is usually high cost of maintenance of machines involved in mechanized agriculture especially for the heavy duty machines

14.

MECHANIZATION CAUSES SPREAD OF PEST AND DISEASES

mechanization help to spread diseases through contaminated machineries

15.
HUMAN CONTROL
mechanization needs human labour to control it

16.
UNSTABLE FUEL SUPPLY
unstable supply of fuel in the international market can easily affect the use of these machines in mechanized agriculture

Disadvantages of mechanization

(a) Many of the farm- workers will be jobless. With the use of machines in farming, the work that can be done by many workers be carried out by very few. farm hands. The others need to be retained before they can fit into new jobs.

(b) The use of heavy machine. such as the bulldozers and- tractors destroys the soil structure. This may result in soil erosion caused by water.

(c) The environment is polluted because of the use of machines. The exhaust from motor-vehicles and scraps from machines and Blurriness result in environmental pollution.

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d) The use of heavy machines leads to soil compaction. The continuous use of tillage implements results in the development of hard soil layer below the soil surface. This reduces water inhlliation in the soil as well as crops roots penetration.

(e) Mechanization has directed production to those crops that are mechanized such as rice, maize, and few others

The production of crops such as coco-yam and yam that are not easily produced with the aid of machines is therefore declining yearly.

(f) Machinery requires large capital investment. Only farmers that have enough money will be able to acquire machines.

(g) The use of machines in farming requires adequate and continuous supply of energy from fuel and electricity. Problems will arise if the supply is not enough, or is lacking.



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1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION

18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING

61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88.






104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES








154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)

158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE

TYPES OF TILLAGE SYSTEMS AND PRACTICES




what is tillage

is the process of loosening the topmost soil before planting commences in other to expose the soil nutrients to the reach of plant roots
5. Tillage Practices
Land tillage is the operation that follows after the land area has been cleared, stumped and plotted. Tillage involves the opening up of the soil for seed planting. This could be done by means of simple farm implements like ploughs, harrows or ridgers could be used in tilling the land. This is used mostly under large scale farming. The purpose of tillage is the same whether hand tools or mechanized equipment are used.

Importance of land tillage practices

1. It provides good soil environment for germination and emergence of seeds.
2. It encourages aggregation of particles for better contact between seed roots and soil.
3. It helps to improve aeration of the soil







4. It assists the farmer in weed control.
5. Organic matter is incorporated into the soil during tillage operations, thereby increasing soil nutrients.
6. It improves the soil physical conditions such as infiltration rate of water in the soil and water holding capacity.
However, constant or constant or continous tillage makes the soil loose and easily eroded. Leaching of bases could occur, resulting in soil acidity.

(a) Ploughing:
This involves the tilling or turning of the soil upside down. It can be done with a hoe, a spade, or a tractor driven plough in the tropical regions or mould-board plough, used mostly in the temperate regions. Animals could be used to draf the plough during tilling. It is usually the first equipment to usf on cleared farmland. The plough cuts and inverts large lumps soil. Weed seeds are then buried below cultivated seeds. The disc plough is more suitable for use in heavy, stick) and dry tropical sails tlifin the mouldboard plough.
(b) Harrowing: The harrow is the next equipment used after land has beeif ploughed. It is used to further breakdown the lar| lumps of soil cut by the plough into smaller pieces. This called pulverisation of soil. The disc harrows are more suitabl for use in tropical environment. After harrowing it may possible to grow crops such as rice which do not require sei beds or ridges. However, it may be necessary to construct set beds or ridges for other crops such as yam, tomato and groundni after harrowing. This will necessitate the next operation which is ridging.
(c) Ridging: This is the last stage in land preparation for planting of seeds or seedlings. It can be done by means of Indian hoes tractor driven disc ridger or mouldboard ridger. Animals could be used to drag ridger for ridge making.

Ridging is done normally across the slope of the land to prevent it from being washed away by erosion. It is spaced 1m apart. This is measured from the top or crest of one ridge to the other. The length of the ridge depends on available land and choice the farmer. A standard ridge should should be 25m long. It has a conically shaped top or rrest or triangular shape. The trench between two ridges is called furrow. Tie-ridges can be constructed at intervals between two ridges especially in the school farms.They are also called cross-bars. They help to keep water in the furrow for plant use in the ridges and prevent water erosion.

Ridging increases the depth of surface soil for better crop growth. Manure is better provided for crop use during ridging.
Ridging provides fine tilts that makes it easier for roots to penetrate and get food for plants in the soil. Other forms of seed beds are:
(i) Heap: This is a built up small cone shaped hill usually less than 60 cm high. It is constructed with a hoe for growing tuber crops such as yam and cassava.
(j) Mound: This is a raised heap with circular base. It is made with hoes and used for growing root and tuber crops such as yam. Coco-yam, cassava, potatoes and others. More than one crop can be sown at one time on it. It is commonly used in Igbo farming communities of Nigeria.








(iii) Flat seed bed: This is used in low rainfall areas or periods or level and well drained land. There may be no other construction in this case, after farmland has been ploughed-and harrowed. It is used foreclose, growing crops such as rice.
(iv) A bed: This ronld be a SPP'H bed used for initial growing of crops before transplanting to the field or root bed us^ growing crops to maturity. A bed generally is a raised top soil with square or rectangular flat top. It is suitable for vegetable crop production, though, other crops such as tobacco, cocoa, and citrus could be raised first in a seed be< (nursery bed), that is usually 1.20 m wide and 25 m long for a standard bed. don't forget to use the comment box and leave a message or suggestion and we will get back to you within seconds. You can read some of most interesting topics below HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES. 1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE







79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES


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TILLAGE MECHINARIES, IMPLEMENTS AND THEIR USES

Tillage machinery

This refers to the tillage implements that are first used to open or loosen the soil w preparing it to receive seeds. This initial opening of the soil is called primary tillage. The primary tillage implement are the ploughs
There are two types of tillage machinery. These are:

Primary tillage machinery:
This refers to the tillage implements that are first used to open or loosen the soil w preparing it to receive seeds. This initial opening of the soil is called primary tillage. The primary tillage implement are the ploughs.


Ploughs:
The ploughs are primary tillage implements unlike simple farm tools that used initially to break and turn the soil-over in the course preparing it for planting. Ploughs break soil into large clods lumps.Tillageis the working of soils or loosening of soils before seeds are planted. The purpose of soil tillage is to provide:
(a) Suitable seed-bed for seed germination and emergence,
(b) Easy water infiltration,
(c) Better soil aeration or air movement,
(d) Control of weeds,







(e) Erosion control,
(f) To work organic matter into the soil, and
(g) Adverse environment for soil inhabiting pathogens and pests.

There are two types of tillage machinery. These are:


Primary tillage machinery:
This refers to the tillage implements that are first used to open or loosen the soil w preparing it to receive seeds. This initial opening of the soil is called primary tillage. The primary tillage implement are the ploughs.
(b)
Ploughs:
The ploughs are primary tillage implements that used initially to break and turn the soil-over in the course preparing it for planting. Ploughs break soil into large clods lumps.



The ploughs are of three types. These are the moldboard plough, chisel plough, and the disc plough.The mouldboard plough amongst other parts, has the caughter and share for cutting and mouldboard for inverting the soil. Most importantly,
The disc plough has discs or concave metal blades that cut into the and turn it over. The discs are mounted on frames called disc standards. The standards connect the discs to the beam or hols and cylindrical part of the plough. The disc plough can better and is more adapted to Nigerian soils than the mouldboard plough.

The ploughs are usually attached to be pulled by the tract Work animals such as bullocks can also be used to pull plough for land cultivation.



(B)

Secondary tillage machinery:

This refers to tillage implements used to cultivate the soil after the ploughs have initially been used.

The purposes of secondary tillage include:


1. To break down the large solid clods obtained from primary tillage.
2. Kill weeds further
3. Incorporate manure or fertilizers into the soil, and
4. Produce suitable tilt or soil structure for seeds


The secondary tillage machinery includes the harrows, ridgers, cultivators, rotavators and rollers.


Harrows
The harrows are secondary tillage implements used for breaking help to put the soil in good seed-bed condition for seed emergence. The use of harrows kills weeds not affected by the ploughs. The implement can also be used to cover seeds with soil after broadcast.
The harrows consist of disc, or tines that are fitted to a shaft. All the parts rotate as one unit. The implement is hitched or attached to the tractor during farm operation.
Different types of harrows are in existence. They include:
1. The disc harrow
2. Spike toothed harrow
3. Spring tine harrow and
4. Tandem disc harrow

(ii)

Ridgers:

The ridger is an implement that is used to turn the soil in one direction after ploughing to form ridges. Crops such asyam, cassava and potato can be sown thereafter.

There are two types of ridges. These are the disc ridger and mouldboard ridger.

The two ridgers work in the same way. However, the disc ridger 1 is better for use in Nigerian soils. This is because the soil contains obstacles such as stumps, roots and stones. At times the soils are sticky and disc ridger can effectively work in such conditions without frequent breakdown.
The disc ridger consists of opposed concave discs which actually make the ridges. The discs are fitted to mental frame called standard.This is bolted to a bigger frame called beam. The ridger is attached to the tractor during field operation. The mouldboard ridger has features common to the disc
ridger. It however has concave or convex blades used to turn the soil in order to form rid»es.


(iii)

Cultivator:

The cultivator is a secondary tillage implement. It is attached to the tractor during field operation. It consists of several tines used to stir the soil and breakdown soil clods. The cultivator is also used for weed combing, and dragging out stones and tree roots from the soil. The implement can be used for weeding and incorporating fertilizers into the soil after broadcast.
(iv)

Rotavator:

This is also a secondary tillage implement that has set of rotating blades. It breaks up soil clods and farm thrashes are chopped up in the process for easy decomposition.








4
Other farm machinery
(a)

Seed drills:

These machines can be operated by tractor or by hand. They drop or plant seeds and in some cases, discharge fertilizer at the same time. Most seed drills plant crops in row. They are set up to plant seeds at appropriate rate and distance. Crops such as maize, rice, wheat, barley, rye. oat and beans can br planted using the drills.





(b)
Planters:
These are machines designed to plant seeds. Some of them are built to plant one type of seed. Others can plant more than one type of crop. This is achieved by changing the plates.
The planter built to plant seeds in rows with enough distance between the stands is referred to as row planter. Some plant are able to plant seeds and distribute fertilizer at the same time
The planters can be mounted on a tractor or trailed.



(c)
Lathes:
The lathe is a machine that is used for holding and turning wood or metal into different shapes. Today, there many different lathes used for all types of shaping of mi materials.

The kinds of lathes developed from the centre lathe capstan lathes, turrel lathes, cropping lathes, automatic lat|j and special purpose- lathes. In the school workshop, la operations are turning, facing, drilling, boring, parting, knurl! and sometimes screw cutting.

(d)
Motor-saw or powered chain-saw:
This is a machine consists of a small petrol engine, steel blade and chain round the blade. The chain rotates during operation and is the cut edge of the machine. The motor-saw has two handles for ei handling and positioning during use. The machine is becoming popular among small-scale farmers because:
(i) It is used in cutting down (felling) trees during farming preparation.
(ii)It is used in felling and cutting timber trees into logs.
(iii)it Also used to split logs into planks.
(iv) It is used in trimming the big branches of trees.

(e)
Harvesters:
These are machines designed for the harvesting of ripe and mature crops from the field.

Common harvest machines are:


(i) Combine harvester,
(ii) Forage harvesters.
(iii)Corn pickers
(iv) Balers,
(v) Cotton scrippers-. and
(vi) Field mowers.


The combine harvester is commonly used in commercial farms for the harvesting of cereals such as rice, maize, wheat, barley As the name suggests, the combine cuts the standing crops, separates the seeds from the chaff, and collects the grains tank while tank while the crop residues are thrown Held. These activities are completed in one operation.

The forage harvesters are machines used in cutting forage crops (grasses and legumes) for making silage to be kept for feeding animals during the dry season.

The field mowers (weeders) are machines used to cut grasses for hay making. They are also used for clearing farms lawns and parks. Most field mowers are designed in rows. Examples are the blade mower and the drum mower

(f)
Sprayer
This is a machine consisting of tank where chemical is stored pump, spray booms and nozzles.

The sprayer is used for:


1. Applying herbicides, insecticides and fungicides.
2. Watering crops
3. Applying liquid fertilizers.
4. Applying hormones to increase fruit yield or prevent dropping of fruits.


There are three types of sprayer. These are:

1.
The simple knapsack sprayer:
This can take between nine and twenty-three litres of solution. It is usually mounted and tiped to the back of the operator during field operation.
2.
The tractor mounted sprayer:
This is attached to the tractor during field operation. The sprayer is operated by the power take-off or P.T.O.
3.
The knapsack engine operated:
This type is made of plastic tank for the liquid chemical and uses petrol as Its source power. As in the simple knapsack, the operator i the spray boom to the crops or objects to be sprayed.

Spraying with chemicals should not be done during bad weather. The chemicals left after spraying exercise must not be poured in places where they can contaminate vegetables, and drinking water

Protective covers should be used by the operator during field operation. Sprayers should be washed, cleaned after use, and a safe place until when needed.

5.
Accessory Tools
These are tools which are useful for the effective utilization of farm machines. They include:

(a)
Pliers:
This tool is like a pair of scissors. It is made with two handles having plastic coverings. The pliers holding things such as wires during electrical
(b)
Screw drivers:
These are made of round rods which are beaten flat at the tips. The handles are either made of wooden materials. The screw driver is used for tightening and re-tightening of screws, it is also used for loosening screw. There is also the star-screw driver with multiple or star-like grooves.
(c)
Nuts and bolts:
Nuts are small pieces of metal num screwed onto the end of a bolt. On the other hand, bolts are metal pins with heads. Nuts and bolts are together used for holding parts of machines together or in place.


(d)
Spanners:
The spanners are made of metal. Some have the two ends split into two teeth for holding nuts and bolts. the spanner is essentially used for:
( i) tightening and re-tightening of nuts and bolts: and
(ii) loosening nuts and bolts.

(e)
Hammers:
The hammer consists of a thick small metal head and a wooden or metal handle. It is used for knocking in nailing and also to beat metals into flat shapes.

(f)
Alien key:
This is a tool that is used in tightening, re tightening and loosening deep seated nuts or nuts that cannot be reached with the ordinary spanner or screw driver.

(g)
Oil applicator or can:
This contains oil which is applied to engine parts with the help of its pointed tip.

(h)
Grease gun:
This instrument is used to apply grease into engine parts. It consists of the tank and a long pipe with which the "tease is pumped into inner parts of engines.

don't forget to use the comment box and leave a message or suggestion and we will get back to you within seconds.

You can read some of most interesting topics below
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING

37. COCOA

39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION

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