Homogamy and cleistogamy as a condition necessary for self pollination to take place

Homogamy pollination process

Definition of homogamy
Homogamy refers to the ripening of the anthers and stigma of a bisexual flower at the same time
This is actually a process in pollination where the flower anthers of a bisexual flower and the stigmas of a bisexual flower and ripe at the same time for pollination.

Under this condition of pollination known as homogamy, self-pollination may occur in the following ways

How set pollination takes place due to homogamy

1. A gentle breeze my blow mature pollen grains which may be shed on mature stigma that are situated below it and the result will be a self pollination which is caused by homogmy

2.. self-pollination may occur through homogamy visiting insect transfer the pollen grain from the stigma of the same flower

3. Self-pollination may also occur as a result of homogamy when matured stigmas pushed their way out of the Corolla tube during which they are brushed against the anthers and the process pollen grain are collected

4. In a situation where the filament are longer than the stigma, the filament Meri cal the filament may recoil to touch the matured stigma which is the result of homogamy

5. In the same way self pollination may occur where the Styles are longer than the filament; in this way the stigma may also bend or recoil to make the stigma to touch the anther




So in a nutshell homogamy is a condition which can trigger self pollination in plant.
it is a situation where the ripening of anthers and stigmas of a bisexual flower do occur at the same time
under this condition self pollinatio will definitely take place


another condition which self pollination can take place in plant is known as cleistogamy

What is cleistogamy?
Cleistogamy is defined as a condition in which ripe pollen grains are deposited on the stigma which becomes ripped at the same time

Cleistogamy usually occurs among Close flowers. That is to say bisexual flowers which never open at all

What this means is that for self pollination to take place that certain conditions that will be met and one of those condition is homogamy the second one is cleistogamy



what are the agent of pollination and their characteristics

Agent of pollination and their characteristics

There are two major types of pollination sometimes we say that they are sometimes we say that their self pollination and cross pollinatio sometimes we say that they are self pollination and cross-pollination but at this very moment we want to look at the agent of pollination and this to major agent of pollination and this two major agent of pollination are insect pollination and wind pollination


Insect are major agent of pollination and some of the insect that causes pollination in plant are butterfly bees and Moth,

an insect caused pollination is a pollination process that is carried out by insect that goes about sucking the nectar of flowers

So what are the major characteristics of insect pollination
Here are some of the characteristics of pollination caused by insect

Insect-pollinated flowers are also calle insect pollinated flowers are also called entomophilous flowers and they have the following characteristics

1. Any flower that is pollinated by insects have large conspicuous petals and sepals

2. The flowers are usually brightly coloured that usually attract insects to it

3. For a flower to be pollinated by insects it must possess nectar

4. The pollen grain of insect pollinated flowers are usually sticky and relatively few

5. The stigma of an insec the stigma of an insect-pollinated flower is flat with sticky surface to enable it receive pollen grain

6. Petals are shaped and arrange to enable insect become dusted with pollen grain durin pollination


Typical examples of insect pollinated flowers are hibiscus flower and pride of Barbados


The process of pollination by insect
The insect that normally pollinate pride of Barbados are the swallowtail butterfly and bees


When they lands on the standard petal it uncoils the proboscis and insert it into the furrow that leads into the nectar

During this process the hairy body or the wings of the butterfly rubs off on the pollen grain which are transferred to the stigma of e plant

Characeristics of wind-pollinated flowers

Wind-pollinated flowers ee also called anemophilous flowers and they have the following characteristics

1. The flowers of a wind-pollinated flower is small inconspicuous petals and sepals

2. The colours of a wind pollinated flower are always dull

3. Most flowers that are pollinated by wind don't have scent. They don't have smell
4. Large quantities of pollen grains are produced
5. Pollen grains are small, smooth, light and they are not sticky to enable wind to be able to transport them to the next flower available

6. The stigma of a wind-pollinated flower is elongated and sticky with large surface area
7. The anthers of these flowers are attached in such a way that they readily swing in the air and released the pollen grain whenever the wind is blowing

Typical examples of wind-pollinated flowers are maize, Guinea grass, rice, millet and wheat

The process of pollination by wind
the Male flower ripen before the female flowers on the same plant.

This favour cross pollination so they wind the carries it pollen grain of one maize to another plant with ripe female flowers

If the pollen grain falls on stigma if the pollen grain then cross pollinatio takes place

what is pollination and the different types of pollination

Definition of pollination Pollinatio is defined as the transfer of mature pollen grains from the Anther of one flower to the mature stigma of the same flower or another flower of the same plant or closely related species


Pollination is the first step which leads to the eventual coming together of the male and female gamete for the sake of fertilization in plant

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List types of pollination in plants
So what are the two types of pollination
There are two major types of pollination in plant there are two major types of pollination in plant and these are saf there are two major types of pollination in plant and these are self pollination and cros there are two major types of pollination in plant and these are self pollination and cross pollination


What is self pollination

Definition of self pollination
Self pollination is the transfer of mature pollen grain from another plant.
self pollination is the transfer of mature pollen grain from the anther of a flower to the stigma of the same flower or to that of another flower of the same plant. Examples of self pollination occur in pea, tomato and cotton.



tomato

Insect pollination only one parent plant is involved. Which means during self pollination the stigma and the answer that will be used in the pollination of the flower are all under one plant so it is not that the pollen grain will be brought from another plant standing somewhere to fertilize the other plant of the same species in the place but the pollen grain of a particular tree that will be used for that same tree is called self pollination.
it is not that the pollen grain will be brought from another plant standing somewhere to fertilize another plant of the same species in the place but the pollen grain of a particular tree that will be used for that same tree is called self-pollination




What is cross pollination
definition of cross pollination

Cross pollination simply means the transfer of pollen grain from the Anther of another flower to the stigma of a flower on another plant of the same species or closely related species of plant


Examples of plant where cross pollination examples of plant where cross pollination takes place

1. Hibiscus flower exhibits cross pollination

2. Pride of Barbados

For cross pollination to take place two parent plants are involved


List the various agents of pollination
First what are agent of pollination
Agent of pollination also call pollinators are organisms or other means by which pollen grains are transferred from the anther to the stigma of flowers

Common agent of pollination are as follows
1. Insect wind, snail, birds, bats and man

Some common insect which are involved in formulation process are butterfly, moth and bees

What are the advantages of self pollination
1. One of the advantages of self pollination in plant is that it is a sure way of ensuring pollination takes place especially in bisexual flowers

2. One of the advantages of self pollination is that it may not waste pollen grains


Disadvantages of self pollination

1. Self pollination may lead to the production of weak offspring as a result of continuous and repeated self pollination

2. The Offspring or individuals produced during self pollination are less adapted to the environment


The advantages of cross pollination

1 Cross pollination leads to the production of hair the Offspring

2. another very important advantage of cross pollination is that it produces viable seeds for planting and consumption

3. The Offspring or individuals produced during cross-pollination are more adapted to the environmental conditions

4. It also lead to the formation of new varieties with good characteristics


Major disadvantages of cross pollination in plants

1. Cross pollination relies on external agent such as wind and insect whose presence at the right time cannot be guaguaranteed

2. one major disadvantage of cross-pollination is that it leads to which stage of pollen grain especially pollination by wind



What are the major differences between cross pollination and self pollination

Here are a few examples of the characteristics difference of self pollination and cross pollination

1. Self pollination takes place only in bisexual plan self pollination takes place only in bisexual plants while self pollination takes place only in bisexual plant while cross pollination takes place both in bisexual and unisexual plants

2. Insect pollination only one parent is involved but in Cross pollinatio insect pollination only one parent is involved but in cross-pollination to parents are involved in the pollination process


3. Insect pollination may occur without an external agent while cross-pollination requires external agent like insect and wind for it to take place

4. self pollination does not result in new varieties of crops or plant but cross-pollination eventually may result in the formation of new varieties soresistantare disease resistant

5. pollen grain are effectively utilised in self pollination but much of the pollen grain are wasted during cross pollination process


diseases caused by microorganisms in animals, like bacteria, virus, fungi and protozoa

there are so many types of diseases that are caused by microorganisms in animals these diseases are harmful to the well-being of every animal.

so at this point we are going to look at animal diseases that are caused by viruses

List of animal diseases caused by virus
The following are types of diseases that affect animals caused by virus
These diseases include the following
1 poliomyelitis
2. Infective hepatitis
3. Measles
4 common cold
5. German measles
6. Influenza
7. Chicken pox
8. Smallpox
9. Yellow fever
10. Rabies
11. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome AIDS
12. Rinderpest
13. Foot and mouth disease
14. Newcastle disease

Diseases of plant caused by viruses
the following are list of plant diseases that are caused by virus and which include
1. Rosette disease of plant
2. Cassava mosaic disease
3. Maize streak
4. Cowpea mosaic disease
5. Yam mosaic disease
6. Leaf curl
7. Tristeza
8. Bunchy top disease and
9.  swollen shoot diseases of plant
These Are some of the diseases of plant caused by virus as listed above


Animal diseases caused by bacteria
the list below are some of the animal diseases that are caused by bacteria. they include the following
1. Tuberculosis
2. Leprosy
3. Tetanus
4. Typhoid fever
5. Dysentery
6. Cholera
7. Pneumonia
8. Anthrax
9. Diphtheria
10. Gonorrhea
11. Syphilis
12. Meningitis
13. Yaws
14. Contagious abortion and 
15. Whooping cough
the listed above are some of the diseases that are caused by bacterial infection on animals in the farm animals or animals in the wild


List of plant diseas caused by bacteria infection
the following are some of the listed infections of diseases of plant caused by bacteria which include the following
 1.Leaf blight disease of cassava 
2. Black arm disease of cotton
3. Cassava wilt
4. Banana wilt disease
5. Tomato rot disease
6. Onion rot disease
7 galadima disease of crop
8. Bacterial fire blight disease
9.. yam tuber rot disease
the listed above are some of the diseases caused by bacteria on plant and farm crops

List of animal diseases caused by fungi
the following are some of the list of diseases that are caused by fungi on animals
1. Ringworm infection
2. Aspergillosis diseases
3. Athletic foot and thrush


Plant diseases caused by fungi
1. Maize smut disease
2. Blight disease of rice
3. Maize rust
4. Leaf spot disease
5 cocoa black pod diseases
6. Okra damping-off disease
7. Coffee leaf blight disease
8. Onion twister disease
9. Rice smut
10. Gummosis
11. Citrus scab disease of Orange
12. Panama disease
13. Sigatoka disease of crop
14. Black spot disease of cocoa
15. Blast disease of crop
16. Anthracnose disease
17. Freckle disease of crop


List of animal diseases caused by protozoa
The following are some animal diseases caused by protozoa which include the following
1. Malaria disease of Animal
2. Trypanosomiasis of poultry
3. Coccidiosis disease
4.  trichomoniasis
5. Red water diseases

I. Malaria fever or sickness is caused by plasmodium
ii. Trypanosomiasis is caused by trypanosome
iii. Coccidiosis is caused by Eimeria app
iv. Red water disease is caused by Babesia spp

Conclusion
many of the diseases of plant and animals caused by microorganisms that are listed above can be studied also in agricultural science.
you may equally find out that the names mentioned on this article may be a little different from what you heard during your study of agric science. these names of diseases that are different from each other from biology to a great day be as a result of botanical names being used in your previous lessons. 
therefore if you are confused of any of the names of diseases caused by protozoa, or the ones caused by fungi or viruses including bacteria, and you want to know more about them a free to reach me using my comment box below

general control measures of diseases of the crop plant

How to control diseases of crop plants

Diseases of crop plant can be controlled through cultural control methods, biological control and the chemical control method

Cultural method of control of crop plant disease involves the use of crop rotation,
 resistant varieties of crop,
 using the best tillage practices regular weeding of the farm practicing from fallowing
 timely planting 
best prunning processes
 uprooting any infected plant
 burning of infected crops to reduce the effect of crop diseases



Using chemical method to control disease effect of crops involves the use of chemicals such as fungicide, nematicides,
 insecticide to spray in places and where these insect pest hides


Biological control method of diseases of plant involves the use of natural enemies of a disease to reduce or totally eliminate it


Summary of general control measures of diseases of crops
1. The number one method of dealing with diseases of crops pathogens from being harbored in the farm is by regular weeding of the farm

2. Another effective way to checkmate the effect of diseases on crops on Farm is to always practice crop rotation system of farming

3. Remember to remove and burn off infected plant completely

4. Planting effective disease-resistant varieties of crops will also go a long way to checkmate the effect of diseases of crops if their resources to buy them are available

5. Make sure you use Healthy seed during planting operations

6. The practice of seed dressing using chemical before planting is important

7. Always spray your farm with plant protection chemicals such as fungicide  and insecticides

8. Make sure you plant your seeds in their right time and in their right season. meaning you must practice early planting where it matters most is
9. In a short always endeavour to spray with the right insecticide to kill all vectors that are capable of spreading the disease

10. Destruction of plant or crop residue after harvesting is important to avoid buildups of the pathogens that causes these diseases

11. Sterilization of the soil before planting is always useful as because it can destroy some of the pathogens that are in the soil that may invariably attack the crops after planting

12. Avoid Close planting that is practice real spacing of your crops to avoid the spread of diseases through wind, Water Splash and other method

13. Timely harvesting of crops is key in order to avoid the Seasons or period where the attacks diseases  on crops are prevalent

mould disease of stored produce

What is the mould disease?The
Mould disease is a disease of a fungus that attacks crops or produce that are stored in the storage facilities

It is a disease caused by a fungus
The mould disease of stored produce can distinctly destroyed a whole storage facility of goods under high humidity. 

Method of transmission of the mould disease
This disease works in a very cold environment,
 a place that is filled with much moisture and high humidity
The mos disease is transmitted through infected seed of fruit that are carried into the store for storage

Let's go on and look at the symptoms of the mould disease of stored produce

Symptoms of the mould disease of stored produce
1. You will notice black mould on seed and fruit stored in the storage facility if they are infected with black mould disease
2. Whenever the store of storage house is infected with black mould disease they will be pungent smell spreading around the warehouse or storage facility.
3. Any fruit or produce in the storehouse infected with the mood disease were turned sour when tasted
4. You will notice some level of Decay of seed and fruit in the store if the place is a high humidity and infected with the black mould disease


Prevention and control measures for The Spread and effect of the stored produce mould
The following are some of the ways to prevent and control the effect and damages caused by the stored produce mould disease
1. Proper drying of seed before storage is always advised
2. If you have access to facilities please you can always pray with the right fungicide even in the storage areas to kill off the fungus that causes black mould disease

3. Every storage facility built anywhere for storage of fruit and vegetables and seed should be prepared in a way that there will be low humidity

4. Check your produce most especially the seed and the fruit that you want to store and remove every contaminated seed before storage or else they in turn will contaminate other stored produce



onion Twister disease and its effect on onion production

What is onion twister disease?
The Onion twister disease is a disease of the fungus that attacks the Onion crop. This disease is deadly as it impact on the production of onion by twisting the onion and deforming it.

Symptoms of  onion  twister disease 
 This disease is known for curling, twisting, and chlorosis of the onion leaves.
Causes abnormal elongation of the necks, and forming of slim bulbs that decay during storage. 

You will also notice the  Grey patches on leaves of the Onion which also lead to reduction in the crop yield


Prevention and control measures of the Onion Twister disease
1. First method to prevent the spread of this disease to practice crop rotation system of farming
2. Always plant your farm using disease-resistant varieties of the Onion crop
3. Make sure you spray your farm with fungicide whenever you discovered the presence of onion twister disease

4. Uproot and destroy infected plants as soon as symptoms are observed to minimize spread of disease.

 5. Avoid prolonged moisture to minimize the level of damages caused.

6.  Avoid wounding the onion plant as this may present plants to infection.

what is damping off disease of okra

What is damping off disease of okra?
Damping off disease of okra is a fungus attacked or caused disease that affect the okra plant on the farm.

The damping-off disease effects of okra
it is caused by the fungi Pythium spp. and Rhizoctonia solani, which severely disrupt the early stage of the crop germination process by causing poor emergence of the seeds and death of the emerging seedlings and the cotyledons, which results in poor stands in seedbeds and fields.

The damping off also causes stunted growth in okra which is the result of the cells absorbing too much water



Possible causes of damping off disease of okra
Damping-off is caused by a number of seed- and soil-borne and fungus like oomacete, including Rhizoctonia solaniAphanomyces cochlioides, and species of pythium, Phytophthora, Botrytis, Fusarium,Cylindrocladium, Diplodia, Phoma, and Alternaria. 


Prevention and control measures of damping off disease of okra
The following are some of the ways we can control the effect and spread of damping off disease of okra

1. One easy way to prevent the spread of damping off disease of okra is to spray with copper fungicide
2. It is always advised to plant our farm with the use of disease resistant varieties of okra
3. First and foremost before planting of the feed the soil where we want to use for the production of crop should be sterilized to kill off the infections in the ground
4. Keep the environment within the pot clean.
5. Use powdered kitchen spices on the soil surface.
Water with hydrogen peroxide solution.
Let the plant's root system grow so it can protect itself before transplanting.


Conclusion
Damping off can be reduced by planting fungicide-treated seed directly into without using nursery. Other preventative measures include cultivating on a well-drained soil and avoiding overcrowding of crops during planting process. Also, clean and wash all  tools used before reuse and discard contaminated implement


what is root knot of tomato and okra disease? prevention method of tomato root knot disease

What is the root knot of tomato and okra disease?
The root knot of tomato and okra disease is a disease of the tomato crop and okra caused by a nematode
This nematode that attack the tomato roots and it's knot lives in the ground and eat up the root of the tomato or okra thereby causing the plant to die.
Root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne spp. Is one of the three most economically damaging of plant-parasitic nematodes on vegetables and field crops

What are the general symptoms of the attack of the nematodes causing root knot disease?
The root knot disease of tomato causes knotting or galling of roots
The disease is one of the mostly end widely distributed disease of the tomato and okra and causes a lot of damage to tomato production all over the world

This disease causes retarded growth of the tomato crop
The attack of the root knot disease of tomato and okra result in reduction in the production capacity

What are the prevention and control measures of the root knot disease of okra and tomato?
The following underlisted are some of the ways to prevent and control the spread of the root knot disease of tomato and okra
1. Make sure to sterilize the soil of your farm before planting can begin
2. The use of crop rotation
3. Always plan to farm using resistant varieties of tomato and okra for effective checkmating of the disease known as root knot of tomato and okra
4. If detected early please uproot and burn infected plants
5. Make sure to avoid late planting of your crops. plant early


Conclusion
Root knot nematodes are small  eelworms' like earthworm that live in soil and become plant parasites when they use tomato roots as their source of food.
Infected plants are stunted meaning that growth is retarded, the tomato plant then appear yellow or pale green in color, and wilt easily, even when soil moisture is adequate.



what is black arm bacterial Blight of cotton, its effects on cotton production, transmission processes, symptoms of the attack and prevention method?

What is black arm bacterial Blight of cotton?

 black arm bacterial Blight of cotton is a bacterium caused infection of the cotton crop. 
The attack of the black arm disease occurs through the leaves and stems near the ground
causes seedling blight, leaf spot, blackarm on stem and petioles, black vein and boll rot. On cotyledons small, green, water-soaked rounded or irregular spots form which turn brown.  

 the black arm bacteria blight disease of cotton is one of the most devastating and dangerous disease that can affect cotton production all over the world

 it is so deadly that almost 40% of production capacity of cotton the world over are lost yearly to the disease

The transmission process of the black arm bacterial blight disease of cotton

Bacterial blight of cotton is a disease affecting the cotton plant resulting from infection by Xanthomonas axonopodis pathovar malvacearum a Gram negative, motile rod-shaped, non spore-forming bacterium with a single polar flagellum. This disease is transmitted through the leaves of cotton stems near the ground base of the cotton crop


What are the symptoms of the attack of the black arm bacterial disease of cotton
The attack of this disease can be identified through Angular spot-on leaves and the stems of cotton

Whenever the blight disease attacks the cotton you will discover that the bolls of the cotton will begin to rot

As a result of the attack of the black arm bacterial Blight of cotton you will discover exudate from affected leaves

Above all is that the black arm black disease causes retarded growth of the cotton crop and reduce Yield



What are the prevention and control measures of the black arm bacterial Blight of cotton?

The following are some of the ways in which we can prevent and control the effect and spread of the black bacteria arm Blight of cotton

1. Important to always practice crop rotation

2. You should uproot and burn infected of Cotton

3. When planting your cotton Farm or cotton plantation please use resistant varieties of cotton seed

4. Remove weeded vegetative debris in the farm.
 
5. do not plant new crops where previous infected plants were once growing. 



There are no recognized chemical treatments for black arm bacteria disease. Your best proven prevention and mechanical control of the bacteria blight is at the first sign of symptoms of bacterial infected leaf 

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what is coffee leaf rust, it causes, the symptoms of coffee leaf rust, prevention methods and control

What is leaf rust of coffee disease?
The coca leaf rust is a fungal type of disease. The leaf rust of coffee can also be known as coffee leaf blight disease. The disease is one of the most devastating disease that can wipe out a whole coffee plantation a matter of days.

The disease was first discovered around Eastern Africa in the 1960s

A transmitting method of the coffee leaf rust
The leaf rust of coffee can be transmitted through the following methods

1. Coffee leaf rust is transmitted through wind and by Rainsplash


General symptoms of the effect of coffee leaf rust
the following underlisted are some of the ways we can recognise the presence and effect of the coffee leaf disease
1. You can easily see the leaf of the coffee tree turning yellow or brown spot

2. you will definitely notice the presence of orange powdery mass on the leaves of coffee. that is a sign of the infection of coffee leaf rust

3. you will notice the rapid dropping off of the leaves of coffee 



How to prevent the spread of coffee leaf rust
the underlisted are some of the following ways we can prevent the spread and attack of the coffee leaf rust

1. the former to prevent the infections and devastating effect of coffee leaf rust please plant seed from healthy plants that are not affected by this disease

2. don't also forget to use disease resistant varieties of the coffee plant to sow farm.

3. Spray your Cocoa plantation with the proper copper fungicide since the coffee leaf rust is a fungal disease

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cocoa black pod disease, its effect on cocoa production, transmission process and prevention method

What is cocoa black pod disease?
The cocoa black pod is a disease of the cocoa tree which affect the cocoa pod by putting black black spot around it.
 it is a fungal disease of the cocoa tree which is caused by a rain splash and insect

The cocoa black pod disease is caused by a fungus called phytophthora Palmivora.

The major symptoms of the attack or effect or infection of the cocoa black pod disease as follow, although it is very clear when you see a cocoa pod and spots around it but does it mean that every spot on the cocoa pod is the result of the Cocoa black pods disease? 
So here are some of the symptoms of the effect of the cocoa black pod disease

The cultivation of cocoa is a major cash crop in in some west African countries and South America but I am going to dwell on the cocoa  cultivated in Nigeria in ondo state precisely where cocoa is planted in large scale.

The recognition of the presence of cocoa pod black disease is very easy when you are approaching a tree of cocoa that is infected by the disease
So here are some of the ways we can recognise the attack of this disease

1. You will observe that any pod of cocoa that is infected by the disease will have brown spot on the pod which eventually turns black and causes  rot on the pod

2. In most cases this Attack of cocoa pod disease will cause the pod and entirely to turn black

3. Since the attack of this cocoa pod disease causes the pod to dry off and this eventually will lead to low cocoa production

The cocoa pod disease is one of the most dangerous disease that can affect any cocoa plantation because when it does affect the plantation, the Farmer is sure of losing at least half of his production capacity for that year except if properly checkmated using  some of my methods that I am going to list under this article


How to prevent and control the spread of cocoa pod disease

To effectively checkmate and prevent the spread of cocoa pod disease then the following measures should be adhered to

1. Regular weeding of the cocoa Farm can go a long way in preventing the spread of the disease

2. Always remember to spray your plantation with fungicides like the Bordeaux mixture for effective checkmating of the spread

3 . Avoid overcrowding of cocoa plant during planting process. give normal spaces  planting operations


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leaf Blight of cassava disease, effects, symptoms and prevention methods

What is cassava leaf blight and its causes
The leaf Blight of cassava disease  is the disease of the cassava caused by a bacterium known as xanthomonas manibotis.
 Unlike the cassava mosaic disease the leaf Blight of cassava is caused by a bacteria which affect the cuttings through rain splashing etc.

manihotis is the pathogen that causes bacterial blight of cassava.  discovered in Brazil in 1912,
 the disease has spread through cultivation of cassava across the world. Among diseases which affects cassava all over world, bacterial blight causes the largest damages in terms of yield and production.

How the leaf blight disease of cassava is transmitted

The cassava Leaf blight disease is transmitted through infected cuttings, leaves of wilting plant, Rain splashing,  insects and the use of tools like simple Farm tools during weeding

If one cassava plant is infected, the whole crop is put at risk of infection through rainsplash, contaminated cultivation tools, and foot movement. These are effective methods of transmission because they cause bruises to healthy cassava crops, and the bacteria uses these wounds as an entry point.


General symptoms of the effect of the blight bacterial disease of cassava

1. The first thing to recognise when a cassava plant has been affected by the blight leaf disease is that the blighting of leaves do occur

2. The effect of the black cassava disease is the falling off of leaves predominantly which causes the crop to lose its capacity to carry out photosynthesis

3. You can easily recognise the effect of leaf blight disease of cassava through the die-bark of the Stem


Ways to prevent and control the spread of leaf blight disease of cassava
There are several ways to control the spread of this disease but here in this article I am going to list at least four five ways to control and checkmate the spread

1. First and foremost before cropping your farm, you must make sure you use disease-resistant varieties of cassava

2. Early planting of cassava is very important to eliminating the attack of leaf blight disease

3. You can also practice crop rotation system of Farming to call the effect of the cassava blight disease attack


4. Remember that proper weeding procedures and keeping of the farm clean from weed is important to the prevention of the leaf blight attack on crops


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cassava mosaic virus disease

What is cassava mosaic virus disease?
Cassava mosaic disease as the name implies is a disease of the cassava specie. The Mosaic disease of cassava is an important disease that affect the overall cassava production in sub-saharan Africa and South America

The cassava mosaic is caused by virus been carried out about by a vector known as whiteflies
The whitefly that causes the cassava mosaic disease is a piercing and sucking insect pest of crop
Apart from affecting the leaves of cassava this disease can also affect plant cuttings.

The cassava mosaic is transmitted from one plant to another through Piercing and sucking mouthpart of the whitefly known as bemisia-  nigerensis

Symptoms and the economic importance or effect of the attack of the cassava mosaic disease

When the attack of the cassava mosaic disease occurs on plant like cassava it leaves a lot of untold characters behind and one of such characteristics of the effect of the cassava mosaic is the yellow leaves of the cassava that start mottling

Another way to recognise the presence of this disease is that you will see the Mosaic pattern drawn on leaves

the Stem and the leaf will begin to be distorted which eventually will lead to stunted growth. At this stage of infection of the Mosaic disease on cassava tree there will be lost of greenish and the stomata of the leaf  this then lead to inability of the cassava plant to carry out photosynthesis in the right capacity

Eventually the affected cassava will then die off and the Farmer will lose his investment for the year due to low yield of the crop


How to prevent and control the spread of the cassava mosaic disease
Knowing fully well that this disease is caused by a virus carried about by the whitefly which has a piercing and sucking mouthparts, it is important to follow the following requirement and procedures in trying to curb the infection of the Mosaic disease
So I am going to underlist several ways to stop the spread of the Mosaic virus disease of cassava

Follow these method to stop the spread of cassava virus mosaic disease
1. To effectively stop the spread of this disease is advice that you use resistant varieties of cassava to plant your farm

2. At any time you discover a corn plant or cassava having the symptoms of cassava mosaic disease please or put that plant and burn the affected specially

3. . Do remember that in most cases where the spread is prevalent in an area, it is advised that we spray with insecticides to kill the vector which carry the disease and to quickly seek the assistance of extension workers around the farming community

4. This aspect of prevention and control method is probably a pre-planting operation which should be carried out by neutralizing any stem of cassava before planting with the use of chemicals to kill of the disease

5. Consistent weeding of the farm is always very important to checkmate the spread of the cassava mosaic disease caused by a virus carried about by vector known as whitefly

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The rosette disease of groundnut, it's affect, symptoms and prevention methods

What is the rosette disease of groundnut?

  rosette disease of groundnut is a disease caused by a virus.
Groundnut rosette virus is a peanut pathogenic virus found in some parts of Africa. It is transmitted between plants by insect pests, such as the groundnut aphid (Aphis craccivora)


What are the transmission method of the rosette disease of groundnut
This disease is transmitted through piercing and sucking insects like the aphid
THE important part played by insects in the transmission of the virus diseases of the groundnut plants is now evident, and experimental proof of transmission by particular insects has been found

Aphis craccivora, the known vector, transmits the virus by feeding on germinating groundnut seed



What are the economic effect of the rosette disease of groundnut on crop production
You will always find out that the yellow leaves with mosaic mottling is the effect of this disease

Another symptom of the attack of this disease of groundnut in stunted plant with curled leaves

Eventually through the attack of the rosette disease of groundnut, wilting and death of plant will occur

Another proof of the rosette disease of groundnut is the shortening of the internodes
These examples are some of the effect and how to recognise the presence of the rosette disease in groundnut plant and other leguminous crops in the farm



How to control the spread and attack of the rosette disease of groundnut
These attacks on the  groundnut or any other Legumes of crops can be dealt with through the following ways

1.  the early planting of crops can go a long way in curbing the disease of groundnut

2. It is always advised to use crop rotation in most cases where attacks of pest of crops are common on crops

3. Uproot and burn off any infected plants to avoid further transmission of the disease

4. One of the best ways to curb The Spread and prevent the effect of the rosette disease of groundnut is to always endeavour to plant your farm with the use of resistant varieties of the groundnut seed


5. Irrigate once to avoid prolonged mid season drought to prevent pre-harvest attacks


6. Irrigate plants frequently to reduce wilting of infected plants and allow them to reach maturity


7. eliminate weeds from the plantation 

These are some of the ways where we can stop the spread of the rosette disease of groundnut.

this disease is so deadly that it can it can adversely impact all the groundnut production and yearly return
It is very important to note that the rosette disease of groundnut is so prevalent in the sub-saharan African region where groundnut is widely cultivated

So to get the best yield from your groundnut production, you must make sure that you take into cognisance the effect and damages this deadly disease call rosette of groundnut




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leaf spot disease of cowpea and its effect on cowpea production

what is a leaf spot disease of cowpea?
Cercospora leaf spot disease of cowpea is a fungal disease caused by fungus
It is widely distributed and occurs all over Africa where cowpea is cultivated. It causes reduction in the production of cowpea
 
 The disease does not only affect cowpea but of course occurs on other legumes, even in related plants,

The process of transmission of the cowpea leaf spot disease
This disease is transmitted through wind. Which means that the leaf spot disease of cowpea is widely distributed in areas with high wind, like the northern Nigeria, northern Ghana and other sub-saharan environment where the cowpea is cultivated in large scale


the symptoms and economic effect of the leaf spot disease of cowpea

’The disease attacks the leaves causing a serious yield loss because of severe defoliation. Yield loss up to 40% due to infection has been reported (Schneider et al. 1976). Crop diseases do not only reduce grain yield but can impair the fodder quality, and consequently undermine efforts to promote crop-livestock integration. Emphasis on cowpea improvement has centred on grain yield with little attention on the fodder quality. 

The major constraint to livestock production in Nigeria today is fodder deficiency especially during dry season when pasture vegetation is dry" follow the link up there to study more about the cowpea disease

1. you will discover reddish brown spots on leaves if the cowpea is infected by the leaf spot disease

2. Chlorosis is also found on the plant

3. any infected cowpea plant the league will be falling off and wilting


prevention and control measures of The spread and attack of the cowpea leaf spot disease

1. the first step you should take as a farmer when you discover the presence of cowpea leaf spot disease is to spray with fungicide

2. the practice of crop rotation is important in curbing the effect and spread of cowpea leaf disease

3. As a farmer and you want to minimise the effect and spread of leaf spot disease of cowpea then you must plant your farm with the use of disease resistant varieties





maize rust disease and its prevention method

What is maize rust disease?
The maize rust disease is a disease that affects corn or maize as it popularly known in some part of the world.  This disease causes dryness as if the leave of the Corn is Burnt Through Fire.
Most often the maize rust disease does not affect the yield of maize but it is also dangerous in some part of the country like Nigeria.



Causes of maize rust disease
There are two major causes of Frost on the Maize corn crop but the main common cause of this disease is caused by a fungus known as puccinia polysora

In general the sweet corn is most susceptible to the attack of this disease


Transmission method of maize rust
It is observed that the measure of disease of corn is mostly effective during the wet period of the year

Airborne spores are deposited on leaves of maize causing rust


The major symptoms of the presence of maize rust

1. In a farm where we have the presence of maize rust 
there will always be red spots on leaves causing the leaves to turn reddish brown

2. The presence of maize rust causes the leaves of the corn not to be able to carry out its normal photosynthesis and which may eventually lead to the death of the crop

3. In some cases this Maze rust spots is always found and seen around the farm throughout the whole planting season

4. These can be easily recognized and distinguished from other diseases by the development of dark, reddish-brown pustules


How to control the presence of maize rust
We can control the presence of maize Rust using the following methods

1. Early planting of maize and the proper use of treated seed. This is to make sure that the Maize is cultivated around the best period of the Year where we have maximum rainfall

2. The use of disease resistant variety. This can also mean treating the seed of maize before planting

3. The practice of crop rotation is another method of controlling maize rust
this is important in the effect that when you plant crops of different types around your farm in one planting season, at the next year you rotate, it means it will not be easy for the transmission of the maize rust


4. The cultivation of maize on a well-drained loamy soil is very important. The choice of land or soil in the cultivation of crops is very important as a well-drained loamy soil will be rich for the plant to be able to absorb nutrients and minerals from the soil that will enable it to fight off the disease of maize rust


In general, the maize rust disease of corn can be troublesome but may not affect crop yield if the crop is planted during the early planting season of the year. 
Spraying the corn field with the right herbicide or fungicide is also helpful


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damages caused by rice blight disease, the effects and prevention methods

What is rice blight disease?
The rice bacteria blight disease is a type of disease that attacks rice as a crop. it is a fungus type of attack 

the attack or disease known as rice Bacteria blight is caused by a fungus called piricularia  oryzae

"The genus Xanthomonas, which mostly comprises phytopathogenic bacteria, is a member of the family Xanthomonadaceae. Among xanthomonads, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae causes bacterial blight (BB) of rice which is one of the most important diseases of rice in most of the rice growing countries"

The transmission method or transmitting method of rice  blight disease

 rice blight disease is an airborne type of disease deposited on leaves.
What this means when we say airborne disease is a type of disease transmitted through the air. 
In areas of wet season where rice is planted in the swampy regions of the world 
the spread of bacterial Blight of rice can also take place when water washes down the disease from the leaf of an infected plant to the root whereby the nearest plant can also absorb it and infection spreads on
So the bacterial blight disease is also a waterborne

So what are the symptoms of the rice bacteria blight disease rice crop

We can recognise the presence of the bacteria rice blight disease through the following means

 the first method of recognition is that there will be a small longitudinal red spots which eventually will turn grey or brown

So if you are a rice farmer and you are keen on making profit from your crops, better be on the lookout for red spots that are small but longitudinal on leaves of rice on their stands


One of the major effect or damages caused by the rice blight is that it reduces crop yield
This disease will eventually reduce the capacity of the rice to carry out photosynthesis therefore weakening the crop
Rice Bacterial blight disease first shows up as water-soaked streaks which spread from the leaf tips and collums, becoming bigger and eventually releasing a milky liquid that dries into yellow droplets. 

Characteristic of bacteria blight of rice, is the grayish white which spread on the leaves, signaling the late stages of infection, when leaves dry out and die.


Ways farmers can use to prevent and control the spread of rice blight disease

Various ways of controlling rice bacterial blight are limited in effectiveness that is to say they are not very effective in curbing the spread of the bacteria disease.

The use of Chemical control methods has been grossly ineffective in reducing the effects of bacterial blight due to safety issues, and bacterial resistance capacity.

 Biological control methods, rely on the use of bacterial killer of pathogens -disease-causing organisms, which can reduce bacterial blight of rice.,

 most-common method of defending against rice bacterial blight is the cultivation of rice varieties. Which is the use of bacteria blight resistant varieties of rice

The use of clean seeds during planting of rice is very key





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maize smut disease of maize, method of transmission and prevention and control measures

What is maize smut disease?
They maize smut is a disease or fungal disease of the Maize crop. It
Is an airborne disease of maize. This means that the Maize smut is transmitted through the air.

What are airborne diseases?
This disease is known as airborne. They are spread through air, which  means It does not need human contact to be infected from one medium to another. they are spread through the air. they are contagious

This disease known as maize smut disease is caused by an organism call fungus also known as (ustilago maydis)

Transmission method of maize smut disease
1. Maize smut disease is transmitted through the air which means it is an airborne disease
 2. it is also transmitted using fungus spores deposited on fruits


How to identify the Maize smut disease
The following are some of the symptoms
1. It attacks the ears, leaves and tarsels, which letter turn black when you closely look at the leaves of Maize


How to control the spread of maize smut disease
We can instill the following measures to control the spread of Maize Smut disease
 take a look at them one after the other

1. The use of resistant variety of maize to plant on the farm is very key to controlling the effect and spread of Maize Smut disease. 
There are several varieties of maize which are very resistant to the attack of maize smut disease but from what i learnt as an agriculturist is that this seeds before planting are treated with chemicals that will not allow the Maize Smut disease to attack the crop after germination

2. Destroy diseased plant immediately you discovered it. This is simple whenever you discover the Maize smut disease on any maize crop on your farm, cut it down, take it to a very neat place and set fire on it or best dig a hole and bury it out of sight

3. Using treated seed for planting is important, 
 how do I mean by this? which means that before you plant maize on the Farm, treat the seed very well, if you don't know how to treat it before planting then seek the assistance of extension service workers within your area.
 they should be able to put you through what you should do



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general method of prevention and control of pest and diseases of crops

 generally speaking insect pest destroys crops in the field through their biting, chewing, boring, sucking and defoliation activities.
The attack of pest can also take place not just in the field but in the stored produce.
The attack of pest on crops on the farm may lead to reduction in viability of produce. Some of these pest are carriers of vectors of diseases

So at any time that pest attacks Farm it reduces the profit of farmers and then they also reduce the quality of product order in the store or in the field.
 they can also cause total death of crop plants

If they attack and damages caused by crop pest on the farm is this enormous and so let's go on and see some of the requirements, processes, prevention and control methods whereby a farmer can control the spread of pest on his farm.


How to control and prevent the spread of pest on the farm in general
There are so many ways to control the spread of pest, but in this article I am going to enumerate the general methods in controlling the spread of pest. So sit back and enjoy the ride with me

Pest of crops can be prevented or controlled through the following method, which are physical control method of pest. 
cultural control methods 
biological control method of pest and chemical control method

1. The physical control method of pest involves the physical removal of pest by hand-picking of insect and the lavae.
ii. By setting of trap on the farm to catch rodent pest
iii. We can also prevent the spread of pest physically by the use of gun
iv. Another critical method of physical control of pest on the farm is to fence around the farm with wire and net


2. The use of cultural methods to control the spread of pest involves the use of several Farm practices to prevent or control pest especially on the field. 
As a result of this, here's a few cultural method of controlling pest 

I. By practicing crop rotation we can control the spread of pest
ii. The use of pest resistant variety of crops to plant on the farm
iii. By applying the best tillage operations the spread of insect pest on the farm can be totally or at least dealt with in general
iv. By hand-picking and destruction of any insect pest found on the farm is an effective way to checkmate the spread of pest
V. The use of trap on the farm is a type of cultural method of pest control
vi. The Burning of residue of crops
vii. Timely planting of crops in season can also call the spread of pest
viii. Another typical cultural method of pest control is timely weeding of the farmfarm

So let's look into some of the biological method of pest control

1. Biological control method of pest and it spread is the introduction of the natural enemies of pest to control or keep the best population under
Such enemies that eat up or feed on this pest thereby reducing the population of the pest are widely advised to be used as a biological method of pest control



4. The use of chemical control method to control the spread of pest involve the use of chemicals called insecticide or pesticides to control pest of crop plants 

These chemicals are usually in the form of powder,
 liquid,
 granules and
 tablets which are used on the insect by various method like spraying or dustin seed or plant to check pest.

Examples of chemicals used to control pest are
1. Pesticides-  control of insect pest
2. insecticide - controlling insect
3. rodenticide - used in controlling rodent attack on crops
4. Avicides - chemicals used to control the spread of birds and  
5. nematicide- for controlling the spread of nematodes.


As a farmer or student of Agriculture, please keep in mind that the proper use and practice of the above-listed methods of pest control can go a long way in making sure that you maximise your crop production and profit margin



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the effect of the attack of rodents on crop production and their control method

What are rodents? 
Rodents are small animals pests of crops that attacks Farm produce stores. These rodents are very small and are of different sizes and types

Types of rodent that attack crops on the farm

1. Rabbit. The rabbit is a small rodent that attacks Farm crops like yam and cassava. In the African settings, the rabbit mostly operate in the night

2. The grasscutter. This type of rodent is a little similar to the rabbit but is bigger, has a sharp teeth for cutting down plant from the stand like cassava. The grass cutter operate during the day if the environment is quiet and come out also in the night to eat

3. Rats. The rat is a small farm rodent that attacks crops by digging out the tubers from the ground to eat. There are so many types of rat found all over the world ranging from small spaces to bigger ones

4. The ground squirrel. The squirrel is a type of rodent that is specialised in eating groundnut and digging cassava tubers. This type of rodent pest of crops is very cunning above all other types of rodent. It is very difficult to catch even when you set traps for it


Types of crops that are attacked by rodent pest
1. Rice

2. Groundnut

3. yam

4. Cassava

5. Beans

6. Melon

7. 🍅 Tomato and

8. Fruits


Nature of the damages caused by rodent on crops

The following are some of the types of Damages effect and nature and the extent to which damages are caused on crops production

1. Rodent feed on crops. most of the Essential parts of crop

2. They destroy whole plant by eating the tubers off

3. The attack of rodent increases cost of production because as a farmer you have to buy materials and spend money on other control measures

4. Rodent decreases the quantity of crop produced yearly across the world



How to control the attacks of rodent on Farm produce

The following are the ways in which we can try to disrupt or control their attacks and damages caused by rodents on Farm production
1. We can control the attack of rodent by using baits


2. the use of rodent chemicals known as rodenticides

3. For crops that are still in the farm before harvest we can use Predators like dog while and stalled produce we use cat to dispel or wade off rodent attacks


4. Weeding the farm on regular basis to keep it clean can also be a deterrent to the attack of rodent

5. The use of Pit traps or pit holes is also advised but at least you have to properly understand the channel whereby this animals come into your farm and then you'll try to dig holes and they can fall into will not be able to come out.

5. The use of fences


6. String wire net or traps are also advised to be used to catch a rodent that attacks crops on the farm



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effects and damages caused by bird on crop production like grains

Birds pest of crops are flying animals pest of crops that destroys crops on the farm in large quantities

A typical example of this bird that destroy rice on the farm or maize are the weaver bird species

Crops that are attacked by the weaver bird species on the farm are as follows

1.  Rice

2. Corn or maize

3. Millet

4. Sorghum

5. Unicorn

6. Guinea corn 🌽

7. Melon

8 . Pepper



Nature of Damages caused by the attack of birds on crop production

The attack of birds on crop production is very devastating mostly if you are in rice production and Maize. Nevertheless one of the most vicious birds that can wreak havoc on rice and corn production is the weaver bird. 

The weaver bird is one of the most common birds of pest. Within a week if left unchecked, this bird can destroy an acre of land fill with rice.
Another form in which this bird, the weaver bird attacks crop production as follows

1. The weaver bird feed grains in the farm. The bed obviously attacks the seed by eating them up perking them through

2. The attack of this birds reduces the quantity of production of rice and maize and other crops

3. As a result of this attacks by birds, income yield for the Farmer is also reduced


Preventive measures to tackle the attack of bird and their destructive intent on crop production
The following are some of the outlined measures and their preventive and capacity whereby we can prevent the attack of birds.
 since these birds come very early in the morning it is advised that the following measures will helpful to avoid destructive impact of this birds on our crop production

1. The use of scarecrow or bird scarer is very important in the prevention of the attack of birds on crops

2. You can also use cage baits to trap these birds. This baits can be set up in different strategic point within the farm

3. The use of catapult can also be enforced and driving away birds from distance of

4. Noise making or drumming within and around the farm is also advised

5. It is also important to use some little little explosive mechanism within intervals

6. The use or application of avicide is also advised. They avicides is a chemical mixture which is used to drive away birds when they smell the odor

7. Fencing the farm using net is very important during harvest, mostly if you are producing rice and maize or any other type grain



It is important to note that if the attack is coming from a weaver bird then you should be able to find time to stay in the farm for longer periods of the day because the Weaver bird hunt From Dusk to Dawn. This group of bird can also be very stubborn to scare away

The attack of birds on crop production can be control effectively since this birds do not reside inside the farm or do they sleep inside the farm. they come from other places,
 so their prevention can be effective if we employ some of the measures listed above


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Bean beetle and Grain Weevils pest of crops and their effect on crop production and their control methods

What is bean beetle and Grain Weevils pest of crops?
The grain beetle and weevils of cowpea are insect pests of crops that attack stored produce.
These two pest are examples of boring insects pest

The grain Weevils and bean beetle attack majorly rice, cowpea, maize and order stored produce in the storehouse



The nature of Damages and effect of the attack of Grain Weevils and bean beetle on crop production
The following are some of the ways in which the bean beetle or grain weevils attack and destroy Farm produce

1. These pests of crops bore holes into grains and eat them up

2. The attack of the grain weevils is that it bore holes and eat up the plumule and radical of the seed because it contains protein

3. When these pest of crops attacks stored produce, they end up reducing the quality of the produce. they disfigure the bean seed and also eat up the germinating part of it

4. If the attack of Grain Weevils and the Bean beetle reduces the quality of the stored produced by disfiguring and eating up the internal part of the seed, it means the Farmer will not be able to make good sales from his produce.
 therefore we can say that the attack of these pest of crops on stored produce reduces farmers income

5. It reduces the quality of stored beans and rice

6. It also reduces the viability of infested grains, that is when pest like Bean beetle or grain weevil attack stored produce


Preventive measures that can be used to curb the excesses of the attack of pest of crops like bean beetle and grain weevils

The following are the methods that a farmer can apply to reduce the attack and damages caused by Grain weevils and bean beetle
1. Farmers should practice early harvesting

2. At anytime crops are harvested and brought to the store, proper storage method should be applied

2. Cleaning and fumigation of store with phostoxin tablet is also needful

3. After harvesting grains, it should be stored over the fire or hot places. sometimes locally it can be stored using rafts


4. Proper drying of seeds to reduce moisture content and kill all the egg and lavae of pest is important before storage.


Most often reducing the attack of bean Beetles and grain weevils on stud produce is to be effective when better storage facilities are installed by the government



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leaf beetle pest of vegetables and its effect and damages caused to vegetable production

What is leaf beetle pest of vegetables
The leaf beetle pest of vegetable is an insect pest and typical example of a biting and chewing insect pest of crops. This tiny insect pest of crops can destroy a vast area of Farmland with their Maxillae and mandible types of mouthpart.

The life and life cycle of a typical leaf beetle is always understudied on the vegetable Farm




Crops that are attacked by the leaf beetle pest of crops

Because leaf beetle pest of crop processes maxilla and mandible, this crop pest is capable of attacking anything plant. But in regard to this article, we are looking at vegetables like pepper okra and 🍅 tomato


The nature of Damages and effect of the attack of leaf beetle pest of vegetables on crop production
Some of the effect of the attack of leaf beetle on vegetable production are outlined below.
 take a look

1. The leaf beetle pest attacks vegetables by eating up the leaves and stems of tomatoes and okra of

2
The efficiency of carrying out photosynthesis is reduced or destroyed after the beetle has eating up the leaves

3. This in whole reduces the yield and quality of tomato and pepper produced because of the attack of leaf beetle pest



How to control the spread of leaf beetle pest of vegetables
The attack and destruction caused by leaf beetle pest of vegetables can be controlled using the following methods. Let's take a look

1. It is advised that in order to curb the excesses and damages caused by the leaf beetle pest of vegetables please you as a farmer, spray with the right herbicide and insecticide like the vetox 85.



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Leaf Rollers pest of crops and its attack on vegetable production

What is Leaf rollers pest of crops?
The leaf roller is an insect pests of crops that attack vegetables like green vegetables

Crops that are majorly attacked by the leaf roller pest of vegetable

Most vegetables are susceptible to the attack of leaf rollers



The nature of Damages and effect of the attack of leaf rollers pest of crop

1. First and foremost as the name implies, Leaf rollers pest involves in rolling and twisting of leaves of vegetables


2. The leaf rollers pest of crops causes reduction in the rate of photosynthesis that are supposed to be carried out by the vegetable leaves


3. If the rate of photosynthesis of the vegetable crop is no longer viable, it then means that the power of the crop to produce more is also reduced.

 so we can say that attacks of leaf rollers pest of vegetables reduces crop yield and production



How to prevent the attack and spread of leaf rollers pest of vegetables

To prevent the attack and spread of leaf rollers best of crop farmer should place spray with the right insecticide or herbicide like vetox 85


Like I have been able to outline in this post, that every Attack of a crop pest on the farm reduces the yield and the efficiency of the Farmer to produce more.
 so it is important to always be vigilant as a farmer to understand when attacks are going on on your farm and avert the damages that would have been caused by this pest




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Thrips pest of crops and how it affect crop production

What are thrips pest of crops?
Thrips pest of crop in an insect pest of crop that is a typical examples of burrowing insects

The thrips pest of crops possesses  mouthparts adopted for boring into stems of crops and onions
This type of insect pest of crop is tiny darkish in colour and can destroy crops within days.
This tiny insect call thrips burrows inside the Onion bulb and lives in it causing the bulb to Decay of


Crops that are attacked by the thrips pest of crop

This type of crop pest attacks majorly onions and tomato plant

If the trip pest of crops attacks tomato and onions, so what are the possible effect of this attack on these crops? let us go on and look at the effect of thrips attack on crops


The nature of Damages caused by the attack of thrips pest of crops and its effect on crop production

1. This tiny insect pest attacks the Onion and the vegetables causing its leaves to Wilt

2. The attacks of thrips pest of crop causes the leaves of vegetables to turn brown

3. This pest of crop causes reduction in yield and production of onions

4. The attack of thrips pest of crop on onion bulb causes the bulb itself to rot and give off foul smell



Prevention measures and control method of the spread of thrips pest of crop
There are several method in controlling the spread of pest on the farm but on this article I am going to outline at least one specific method of how to curb the spread of thrips pest of crop

1. The best way to destroy the spread of trips pest of crop that attacks vegetables like onions and tomato is by spraying with the right insecticide or pesticide



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Cotton bollworm pest of crop and its effects on cotton production

What is cotton bollworm?
The cotton bollworm is an example of insect pest of crop. The cotton bollworm possesses a mouth part that enables it to eat through seeds of cotton


Crops that are attacked by cotton Bollworm

The major crop that is attacked by bollworm pest of cotton is the cotton


Nature of Damages caused by bollworm of cotton

The following are the nature of Damages caused by Cotton bollworm

1. The larva of cotton bollworm feed on the seed of cotton

2. The bull run destroys the lint of cotton and reduces it's quality


3. The cotton bollworm causes the premature fall off of cotton bolls



The control and prevention of cotton bollworm
The control and prevention of the spread of cotton bollworm can be achieved through the following method

1. The practice of crop rotation

2. Always spray with the right insecticide to kill the insect

3. At any time you discovered the presence of bollworm on any stand of cotton on your farm please cut off the cotton stand and burn it to Ashes


4. Make sure you burn every cotton plant and debris after harvesting to avoid the spread of cotton bollworm



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cotton Stainer pest of crop and its effect on cotton production

What is cotton Stainer pest of crop?
The cotton Stainer pest of crop is an insect pest of crop that attacks cotton crop in the farm
The cotton Stainer is a typical example of piercing and sucking insect pest of crop


Crops attacked by cotton Stainer
As the name implies, cotton Stainer majorly attacks cotton crop on the farm


The nature of damage and economic effect of the attack of cotton Stainer

1. Cotton Stainer majorly pierce and sucks up sap from plant

2. The cotton Stainer produces toxic saliva

3. They are often disease transmitter


4. The cotton Stainer reduces the quality of cotton balls

5. It often times courses leaves destruction
These are the various ways whereby cotton Stainer attacks crops like cotton


Preventive measures and control of the spread of cotton Stainer
Here is a little description of how to curb the spread of cotton Stainer on the farm

1. The spread of the cotton Stainer can be dealt with using hand picking method

2. Whenever you notice the presence of cotton Stainer on top of any cutti Cotton or in your farm please pray with the right insecticide


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the variegated grasshopper and its damages caused to crops

What are variegated grasshoppers?
The variegated grasshopper is an insect pest of crop

Variegated grasshopper is an example of biting and chewing insects as a result it possesses maxilla and mandible biting parts of mouth


Crops attacked by the variegated grasshopper

The variegated grasshopper can attack most crop types on the farm but the major one we are going to look at this, is the cassava, the yam and Maize



Nature of the damages and economic effect of the variegated grasshopper attack on crop
The following are the ways and the nature of Damages caused by the variegated grasshopper on crops and the farm

1. The adult and the lavae of variegated grasshoppers eat up the leaves and stem of crops it attacks like the cassava

2. Most often their tax buy variegated grasshoppers reducing the rate of photosynthesis and food making of the crop

3. Variegated grasshoppers attack on cassava reduces growth and yield



How to control the spread and attack of the variegated grasshoppers pest of crop
Ways by which a farmer can control the spread of the variegated Grasshopper pest of cassava plant


1. The spread of cassava variegated grasshopper pest can be done through hand picking


2. The use of appropriate insecticide should be used to spray on the farm to curb the spread of variegated grasshoppersgrasshoppers





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green spider mite pest of cassava, it's effect and control method

What is green spidermite?
 spider mite is an insect pest of crop that attacks cassava. The green spider mite best of crop processes mandible and the maxillae. 

The green spidermite is an example of biting and chewing insect pest of crop


Crops that are attacked by green spider mite pest of crop

Cassava tubers is the major crop that is attacked by green spidermite of cassava


Nature of Damages and economic effect of green spider mite of cassava pest

The various ways whereby green spider mite of cassava attacks cassava crop are listed below

1. Since the cassava green spider mite pest is a biting and chewing insect, they basically feed on the leaves of cassava by eating them off


2. The attacks of green spider mite pest of cassava reduces the rate of photosynthesis thereby weakening the strength of the cassava for production


3. One of the effect of a green spider mite pest of cassava is that it reduces the ability or capacity of the crop plant cassava to produce in its maximum



Prevention and control measures of green spider mite pest of crop
The underlisted are some of the ways that we can curb or stop the spread of green spidermite pest of crops-cassava

1. the use of biological method of prevention is advised when dealing with the spread of green spider mite of cassava

2. Another practical method to curb the effect and spread of green spidermite pest of cassava is to spray with the appropriate insecticide or herbicide



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cassava mealybugs pest of crops and effects on crop production, and it's control method

What is cassava mealybugs?
Cassava mealybug is an insect pest of cassava which attacks cassava tubers
Cassava mealybugs is a type of boring insect pest of crop. 


Crops that are attacked by cassava mealybugs
The main crops that are attacked by cassava mealybugs is the cassava and cassava tuber.



Nature of Damages and the effect of cassava mealybugs attack

1. The cassava mealybugs attacks the cassava by twisting of stem and reduced internodes

2. Cassava mealybugs affect the cassava plant or crop by causing the stem or shoot system to swell

3. Another effect of cassava mealybugs is it causes stunted growth


4. Reduced yield




Prevention and control method of cassava mealybugs

1. To control the spread of cassava mealybugs, early planting should be observed by every farmer involved in cassava planting

2. The use of planting of pest resistant varieties of cassava should be encouraged by farmers


3. Cutting system of propagation should also be encouraged

4. Then the last of all is that to curb the excesses of cassava mealybugs, farmers should spray with the right insecticide or herbicide.


Interestingly every Attack of crop pest will always have a negative effect. they will certainly reduce the crop yield, reduce production rate and the May die off eventually



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yam beetle pest of crops and it's effect on yam production

What is yam beetle and how does it affect yam production

A typical yam beetle is an insect pest of crop that affect yam. The young beetle is an example of piercing and boring insect.
The yam beetle mostly affect yam that are already stored in the barn. These deadly pest of yam bore holes into the yam by eating the most important part and therefore creating black black spots inside the yam when cut open



Crops that are attacked by yam beetle
Yam beetle mostly attack tuber crops e.g. yam


Nature of damage and economic effect of yam beetle pest of crop on yam production
Yeah I am going to list a few things as in a few effects of the yam beetle pest as it affects yam production.
Some of these effects are as follows

1. The yam beetle have a boring and piercing mouthpart that is used to destroy the internal structure of a yam tuber

2. The yam tuber pest bore hole into the yam tuber and eat up The soft or the succulent part of the yam tuber

3. The attack of yam beetle pest of crops is it reduces yields of production

4. By the time the yam beetle pest was has eaten up the internal value and structure of the yam tuber, it automatically reduces the value and market quality of the yam itself



Prevention and control method of the spread of yam beetle

To control the spread of yam beetle and the harm they cause on the yams stored in the barn,
 The Following measures are advised

1. Every yam that is dug from the ground or harvested from the farm should be properly checked before storage

2. Before planting of yam sett, it must be dusted using Adrin dust before planting



This article is just a brief summary of the insect pest call yam beetle. the effect of this pest on yam production. nature and damages caused by this pest and then the prevention methods and how to control the spread of yam beetle



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Cocoa mirids {capsids} and damages caused to crops

What is Cocoa Mirids and it's damages caused to  cocoa production 
 mirid or capsids is an insect pest that attacks crop plant. The cocoa capsids is a typical example of piercing and sucking insect pest of crop


Crops attacked by cocoa mirids pest
The major crop that is attacked by Cocoa capsid is cocoa tree


Nature of damages and economic effect of coco Mirids or capsids as it concern production

1. The cocoa Mirids or capsids are capable of injecting saliva into plants.
 the saliva is poisonous or toxic to the crop plant

2. One major effect of cocoa capsid is that it is capable of transmitting fungal diseases

3. The effect of cocoa capsid is that it reduces crop yield

4. Any attack of cocoa capsids causes stunted growth of the cocoa tree


The prevention and control measures of cocoa capsids

1. In controlling cocoa capsid from spreading and affecting cocoa production, the Farmer should be able to spray with quality insecticide like gamalin 20

2. Regular weeding of the farm is very important in the controlling of the spread of cocoa capsid



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leaf beetle pest of crop and the damages caused to farm produce

What is leaf beetle pest of crop?
Leaf beetle pest of crops is an insect pest.
 an example of biting and chewing insect pest of crop. Leaf insect pest of crop processes mandible and maxilla

Crops attacked by leaf beetle pest of crop
List the two types of crops is a major pest that attacks legumes like cow pea and soya beans. 
It is easy for this pest of crop known as leaf beetle to attack legumes because the leguminous plant itself is succulent in nature and the leaves are fresh all season


Nature of damage and economic importance of leaf beetle pest of crop

1. Leaf beetle pest of crops is a type of pest that eat up the leaves of crops tremendously

2. This pest of crop known as leaf beetle pest stops each plant it attacks from carrying out photosynthesis by eating up the leaves

3. The attack of leaf beetle pest on crops reduces the yield of crop produce


4. Leaf beetle pest of crop causes stunt growth of plant crop


Prevention and control measures of leaf beetle pest of crops

1. To prevent the spread of leaf beetle pest on crops a farmer is to spray with quality insecticide and pesticide

2. Pest Resistant varieties of crop should be planted to avoid the attack of leaf beetle.



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 it is important to note that the attack of any pests on crop will totally reduce its capacity to produce,
 so care should be taken when we are going into farming practicespractices


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