BASIC LAWS AND REGULATION OF FISHING


BASIC LAWS AND REGULATION OF FISHING

MEANING
Fishery regulation is a set of rules and laws governing the exploitation and other practices of fishery resources, especially in open access water. In other words, fishery regulations are laws made by the government in order to control and protect fish harvesting so that they do not go into extinction and for them (fishes) to be in regular supply from time to time.
Fishery regulations or decree in Nigeria was promulgated in 1971 during General Yakubu Gowon’s regime.

The regulations are:

(1) Close season: This is a regulation in which no fishing is permitted to take place for a given period of time. This allows the smaller fishes to grow and mature.

(2) Catch quota: This is a form of control in which a fisherman is allowed to catch a specific quantity of fish or regulating the number of fishermen by issuing them fishing permits or licenses at a specific amount

(3) Mesh size regulation: This invo
lves the use of a particular inesh of net size that only the matured fishes are caught, Thus protecting the young ones
(4) Regular stocking: This involves the addition of compactable species of fish to increase the population of fishes in water







(5) Population control: This involves the use of other fish types like claries (catfish) to eat up tilapia or early harvesting to prevent over population

(6) Protection of territorial waters: No vessels (except canoes) shall fish within the first two nautical miles of the water of the Nigerian continental shelf.

(7) Ban on the use of explosives: The use of explosive substances for fishing is prohibited because it often results in the death of both the mature and the young fishes.
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER





88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES







154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE

(8) Ban on the use of chemicals or poisonous materials: The use of noxious or poisonous chemical is prohibited because it also results in the death of both matured and the young ones.

(9) Landing tax: Landing tax should be introduced such that total catch and sizes of fish should be taxed at the site of landing.

(10) Allocation of fishing areas: fishing areas are allocated to individual fisherman so as to curb indiscriminate interference within large fishing areas.

(11) Restriction on breeding section: The breeding section of water should be identified so as to restrict fishing in that section.
(12) Ban on discharge of pollutants or toxic substances: Pollutants or toxic materials should not be discharged into the Nigerian waters.

(13) Prohibition of dumping toxic materials: The dumping of toxic materials or industrial wastes should be prohibited in fishing areas or water.

(14) Certification for consumption: There should be certification that fishes to be sold to the public are safe for human consumption.

(15) Prohibition on killing of endangered species: The law that forbids the killing of endangered aquatic animals should be prohibited.
(16) Ban on electro-fishing: Electro-fishing is outlawed except for research purpose.


WAYS OF MAKING FISHERY REGULATIONS EFFECTIVE IN THE WORLD

There are several ways in which fishery regulations can be made effective in Nigeria. These are:
(1) Use of local or native languages: The fishery regulations should be written and made available in local or native languages.
(2) Simple presentation to fishermen: The regulations should be presented to the fishing community or fishermen in very simple ways.
(3) Wife publicity to create awareness: : The regulations should be given wide publicity, using radio, television, posters, leaflet/handbills in order to bring such to the awareness of the people.
(4) Use of law enforcement agents: Appropriate law enforcement agents should be used to enforce the regulations.
(5) Revocation of licences: There should be revocation or withdrawal of licences of defaulting fishermen.
(6) Prosecution of defaulters: There should be prosecution of defaulting fishermen.







HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT

THE CULTIVATION OF PERMANENT CROPS


WHAT ARE PERMANENT CROPS


Permanent crop is another name for perennial crops. These are crops mostly known tree crops or cash crops in some quarters. Good examples of these permanent crops are, Orange, mango, cocoa, guava, pea and plantain.
Planting these types of crop or permanent crop is done in a land that is solely dedicated to that purpose alone.
So permanent or perennial crops are crops that can be harvested more than twice before eventual death of the plant.
To understand it more, you can read my article on classification of crops here. Here are some of our







most articulate post that are closely related to this post

1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.





39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
COCCIDIOSIS





156.
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE


LARGE SCALE FARMING AND PRODUCTION


WHAT IS LARGE SCALE FARMING AND PRODUCTION

Large scale farming can be termed as the practice of commercial agriculture for the purpose of selling and generating income from there. Large scale farming is always capital intensive. Large scale farming involves the use of machineries and high end farm implements and tools.

CHARACTERISTICSW OF LARGE SCALE FARMING

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY







28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING





40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. BEAN BEETLE
87. RICE WEEVILS
88. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
89. CROP IMPROVEMENT
90. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
91. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
92. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
93. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
94. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
95. RUMINANT ANIMALS
96. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
97. THE NEURONS
98. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
99. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
100. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
102. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
103. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
104. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
105. THE HEART
106. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
107. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
108. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
109. MATING
110. PARTURITION
111. MAMMARY GLAND
112. LACTATION
113. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
114. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
115. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
116. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
117. POULTRY
118. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
119. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
120. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
121. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
122. POULTRY SANITATION

123. ANIMAL NUTRITION
124. RATION
125. CONCENTRATE
126. ROUGHAGE
127. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
128. CARBOHYDRATES
129. PROTEIN FATS
130. MINERALS
131. VITAMINS
132. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
133. TYPES OF DIETS
134. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
135. LAYER DIETS
136. BALANCED DIETS
137. LACTATION DIETS
138. MALNUTRITION
139. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
140. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
141. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
142. VIRAL DISEASES
143. RINDER PESTS
144. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
145. BACTERIA DISEASES
146. ANTHRAX
147. BRUCELLOSIS
148. TUBERCULOSIS
149. FUNGAL DISEASES


150. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
151. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
152. COCCIDIOSIS
153. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
154. ENDO PARASITES
155. TAPE WORM
156. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
157. LIVER FLUKE
158. ECTO PARASITES
159. TICK
160. LICE

PROBLEMS OF LARGE SCALE FARMING

1. Lack of access to good road.
2. Illiteracy
3. Poor or lack of access to quality and improved varieties of crops.
4. Lack access to competitive markets
5. Large scale farming can be affected by disease or epidemic break out.
6. Lack of access to cheap fertilizers.
7. Lack of access to the right inputs and professionals
8. Lack of access to funds, like loans, grants from government and bank credits
9. Large scale farming faces the problem of land tenure system


IMPORTANCE OF LARGE SCALE FARMING

1. Large scale farming helps to increase national foreign exchange.
2. Large farming creates employments for the teaming youths and graduates from around the world.
3. Large scale farming helps to generate income for the farmer and his household









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WHAT IS HIV/AIDS, SYMPTOMS, TRANSMISSION AND PREVENTION?


WHAT IS HIV/AIDS, SYMPTOMS, TRANSMISSION AND PREVENTION?

AIDS: This means Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.
It is caused by a virus known as
HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV).
It was first reported in Los Angeles, USA in the year 1981. Since then, the disease has spread to all other parts of the world.
HIV is a serious blood-infectious organism which attacks the immune (defense) system that combats diseases in the body. When this virus gets into the blood stream, the body becomes defenseless and loses its ability to fight infections. The victim therefore becomes HIV-positive and their system is exposed to diseases which eventually lead to death as a result of general breakdown of the body system.








Human immunodeficiency virus is called a microscopic virus

because it cannot be seen with the naked eye but with an instrument called electron microscope. This virus can be located in the blood and other body fluid.
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is incurable. It is contracted mainly through sex.

TRANSMISSION OF HIV/AIDS

HIV is spread (transmitted) through blood contact between a person who is HIV-positive and a normal person. This can happen in a number of ways; namely:
i. Through sexual intercourse.
ii. Through blood transfusion.
iii. Through breast-feeding.
iv. Through injection with an infected needle.
v. By using unsterilized sharp objects that has been infected e.g. razor, clippers, knives etc.
vi. Sharing toothbrush and chewing sticks.
vii. Practice of traditional surgery e.g. blood-letting procedures with unsterilized instruments.
viii. Artificial insemination i.e. an unnatural way of putting a male’s sperm into a female system.


WAYS BY WHICH HIV CANNOT BE SPREAD

1. Eating with an HIV-positive person (carrier)
2. Sharing a bed with the carrier
3. Sharing a bathroom or toilet with the carrier







4. Mosquito bite
5. Touching a carrier
6. Sitting with a carrier
7. Sharing writing materials with a carrier
8. Handshake with a carrier.

SYMPTOMS OF HIV/AIDS

When a person is contracted with AIDS virus, their immune system gradually breaks down and the following symptoms become noticeable.
1. Incurable fever
2. Fatigue that is not attributed to stress
3. Rapid loss of weight
4. Serious breath hazard that is not attributed to case history of lung problems.
5. Chronic diarrhea lasting for more than one month
6. Fast spreading itchy skin irritation and rashes.
7. Swollen or tender nodes over a period of three months
8. Herpes
If the above symptoms manifest in a person’s body, he should see a doctor.

EFFECTS OF HIV/AIDS

Effects of HIV/AIDS devastating and far-reaching

EFFECTS OF AIDS ON AN INDIVIDUAL

1. Complete breakdown of the victims health system
2. Suffering from serious agony and pains.
3. Self-pity, emotional depression, psychological trauma.
4. Inability to work.
5. Financial crisis
6. Marital problems
7. Regular high medical bill
8. Gradual reduction in life expectancy
9. Sudden, untimely death.

EFFECTS OF AIDS ON THE FAMILY

1. Increase in dependency ratio
2. Financial crisis
3. Rising number of children-headed households
4. Increase in number of AIDS orphans
5. Increase in number of AIDS-widow and widowers
6. Possibility of rising number of carriers in the family

EFFECTS ON THE COMMUNITY

1. Lowering of the productive work force
2. Hindrance to rapid growth and development

CONTROLLING THE SPREAD OF HIV/AIDS

At present,

there is no cure for the HIV/AIDS

but it seems the cure for HIV is available which i cannot verify right now. It can only be controlled from spreading through preventive measures in the following ways.
1. Sex education and public enlightenment campaigns against the spread of HIV/AIDS
2. Do HIV/AIDS screening before marriage.
3. Avoid sharing a blade, toothbrush, clippers etc.
4. Blood donors should be screened before their blood is donated.
5. HIV nursing mothers should be discouraged from breast feeding their babies.

COPING WITH HIV/AIDS

As said earlier on, at present, there is no cure for HIV/AIDS and no vaccine to prevent it. The only palliative measures are drugs and known herbal immune boosters that can weaken the virus. To cope with HIV/AIDS, the victim should:
1. Always eat an adequate diet.
2. Use the prescribed drugs regularly.
3. Visit the doctors regularly.
4. Be loved and cared for.








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5. Usefulness of science
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52. Major biomes of the world
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