MENDELIAN LAWS OF SEGREGATION, INHERITANCE AND GENETICS AND ITS APPLICATION



MENDELIAN LAWS OF INHERITANCE


In order to understand the Mendelian Laws and its usefulness in plant breeding, it is important to know some technical words which we shall come across in crop improvement.

Definition of Some Genetic Terms

(i) Genes: Genes are hereditary units or basic units of inheritance. They are located in chromosomes and responsible for the transmission characters from parents to offspring





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(ii) Chromosomes: Chromosomes am rod or thread-like bodies found n the nucleus of a cell. The chromosomes house or contain the genes.

(iii) Characters or traits: These are the inheritable attributes or features possessed by an organism, e.g. colour, seed size, plant height, plants.

(iv) Gamete: Gamete is a matured sex cell which takes part in sexual reproduction. There are two types of male gamete or spermatozoon (animals) and pollen grains (in plants) and female gamete, egg or ovum (in animals) and ovules (in plants). Gametes are usually haploid.

(v) Zygote: Zygote is a single cell formed as a result of the union of a male gamete with a female gamete. Gamete is usually diploid.

(vi) Allelomorphs: Allelomorphs are pairs of genes on the position of a chromosome (i.e. locus) that control contrasting characters. A pair allelornorphs are called allelic pa while each member of the pair is t allele of the other.

(vii) Phenotype: Phenotype is the sum total of all observable features of an organism, i.e. the physical, physiological and behavioural traits, e.g. height, weight and skin colour.
(viii) Genotype: This term is used to describe those traits or sum total of the genes inherited from both parents. In other words, the genotype of an individual is his genetic make-up or constitution. Genotype includes both the dominant and the recessive traits that form the genetic make-up of an individual.

(i) Dominant character: This is a trait or character that is expressed in an offspring when two individuals with contrasting characters or traits are crossed. Dominant genes on the other hand are genes which control dominant characters. For instance, in a very tall plant, there may be the gene for shortness but the gene has no influence on the gene for tallness.

(ii) Recessive character: This is the character or strait from one parent which is masked or does not produce the effect in the presence of dominant character. From the illustration above, shortness is the recessive character while tallness is the dominant character. Recessive genes on the other hand are genes which control recessive characters.






(iii) Homozygous: An individual is said to be homozygous if it has two similar genes for the same character, i.e., it has two identical alleles at the same position on a pair of chromosomes; the pair of genes controlling a given pair of contrasting characteristics are identical, e.g. (TT) for tallness or (tt) for shortness.

(xi) Heterozygous: An individual is said to be heterozygous if the two members of a pair of genes controlling a pair of contrasting characters are different, i.e., it has two different or contrasting alleles located on the same position on a pair of chromosomes, e.g. (Tt) for tallness or a plant with Regenetic composition has a heterozygous red flower plant.

(xii) Filial generation: The offspring of parents make up the filial generation. The first, second and third generations of offspring are known as the first, second and third filial generation respectively, and are denoted by the symbols F1, F2 and F3 respectively, too. F1 generation gives rise to F2 generation.

(xiv) Hybrid: Hybrid is an offspring from a cross between parents that are genetically different but of the same species.

(xv) Hybridization: Hybridization is the crossing of plants with contrasting characters. Monohybridization involves the crossing of two pure traits while Dihybridization involves the crossing of plants with two pairs of contrasting characters.

(xvi) Locus: Locus is the site for location of a gene in a chromosome.

(xvii) Haploid: Haploid is when an organism has one set of chromosomes in the gamete. Gametes at certain stages in the life cycle of plants are haploid. It is represented by small letter n.

(i) Diploid: Diploid is when an organism has two sets of chromosomes in the body cell. The bodies of animals and plants are diploids. Diploid number is double the haploid number of chromosomes and is represented by 2n.

(ii) Mutation: Mutation is a change in the genetic make-up of an organism resulting in a new characteristic that is inheritable.

(iii) Back cross: Back cross is the crossing of an organism with the homozygous recessive organisms from the original parental generation.

(xxi) Test cross: Test cross is the crossing of an organism with the homozygous recessive organism. Back cross and test cross are used to determine the genotype of organisms showing dominant phenotype.

(xxii) Test cross: Test cross is the crossing of an organism with the homozygous recessive organism. Back cross and test cross are used to determine the genotype of organisms showing dominant phenotype







MENDEL’S WORK IN GENETICS

Gregor Mendel (1822 – 1884) was a monk in an Augustinian monastery in Brunn, Austria. He often regarded as the father of genetics because his work formed the foundation for scientific study of heredity and variation. MENDELIAN LAWS OF SEGREGATION, INHERITANCE AND GENETICS

MENDEL’S EXPERIMENTS

Gregor Mendel carried out several experiments on how hereditary characters are transmitted from generation to generation. He worked with garden pea (Pisum sativum). His major aim was to find out the pattern of inheritance of different characteristics on the pea plant.

METHODS USED GREGOR MENDEL IN HIS EXPERIMENT

Gregor Mendel used two major methods in conducting his experiments. These methods were grouped into monohybrid inheritance and dihybrid inheritance. MENDELIAN LAWS OF SEGREGATION, INHERITANCE AND GENETICS


REASONS FOR MENDEL’S CHOICE OF PEA PLANT

Gregor Mendel decided to use the pea plant for his experiment because of the following reasons: (1) peas are usually self-pollinating and he could pollinate them by himself.
(1) They have a very short life span because they are annual plants
(2) The pea plant was known to have several unique characteristics which exist in contrasting pairs such as:
(i) Some seeds were round while others were wrinkled
(ii) Some plants were tall while others were short
(iii) Some weed were yellow while others were green
(iv) Some flowers were axial while others were terminal
(v) Some pods were green while some were yellow
(vi) Some flowers were white while some were red
(vii) Some pods were smooth while some were constricted
MENDELIAN LAWS OF SEGREGATION, INHERITANCE AND GENETICS

METHOD USED BY MENDEL IN HIS EXPERIMENT

Gregor Mendel used two major methods in conducting his experiments. These methods were grouped into monohybrid inheritance and dihybrid inheritance.

MONOHYBRID INHERITANCE

Mendel used artificial method to cross two different plants at a time, which differed in one pair of contrasting characters, e.g tall and short plants. This procedure was called a monohybrid inheritance and it was an example of complete dominance.
He carried out the experiment in the following order.
(i) He planted tall plants for several generations and discovered that the plants produced were all tall plants. In the same way, he planted short plants for several generations and discovered that the plants produced were all short.
(ii) He proceeded to plant tall plants and short plants. By the time the flowers were produced, he collected the pollen grains of the tall plants tagged the male and pollinated the stigma of the short plant tagged the female. He also collected the pollen grains of the short plant and place them on the stigma-plant of the tall plant. Mendel then covered the artificially pollinated flowers with small paper bags to prevent the chance of natural pollination by insects.MENDELIAN LAWS OF SEGREGATION, INHERITANCE AND GENETICS
(iii) Mendel once again picked the seeds formed after the cross. When he planted the seeds, the plants obtained were all tall plants. These he referred to as the first filial generation or F.
(iv) Mendel then crossed the F, plants, collected their seeds and sowed them. The plants he got from these were tall and short plants in a ratio of 3:1 respectively. He then called this stage the second filial generation or F.


Mendel’s First Law of Inheritance

Law of segregation of genes/MENDELIAN LAWS OF SEGREGATION, INHERITANCE AND GENETICS
This first law is also called the

law of segregation of genes

. The law states that genes are responsible for the development the individual and that they are independently transmitted from one generation to another without undergoing alteration. law of segregation of genes
From Mendel’s first law of segregation of genes, the actual segregation occurs in the F, generation. The phenotypic and genotypic ratios in F, generation can be summarised as follows:
(i) Phenotypic ratio = 3:1 (i.e., 3 tall and 1 short)
(ii) Genotypic ratio = 1:2:1 (i.e., 1 TT, 2Tt, Itt)

Note: Letters are used to represent the genotypes of the traits. In the case of complete dominance, the capital letter form of the first letter of the dominant trait is used to denote the dominant gene. The small letter form of it is used to represent the recessive gene. MENDELIAN LAWS OF SEGREGATION, INHERITANCE AND GENETICS
Since tallness in the plant is dominant over shortness,
(i) T represents gene for tallness.
(ii) TT represents genotype of the pure breeding tall plants. Such a plant is described as homozygous for tallness.
(iii) t represents gene for shortness.
(iv) tt represents genotype of the pure breeding short plant, homo-zygous for shortness.
(v) A cross between two organisms is shown by a multiplication sign x.
(vi) Each gamete is represented by only one encircled letter, i.e. (T) or (t) depending on the trait being discussed. This is in compliance with Mendel’s law of segregation of germinal units.
(vii) A heterozygous individual is represented by one dominant gene and one recessive gene, i.e; Tt. Such individuals are called carriers of a trait. MENDELIAN LAWS OF SEGREGATION, INHERITANCE AND GENETICS

Dihybrid Inheritance

Gregor Mendel also carried out several experiments in which he crossed plants which differed in two pairs of contrasting characteristics such as seed shape (round and wrinkled seeds) and seed colour (yellow and green seeds). Mendel therefore called the whole set up as dihybrid inheritance because two pairs of contrasting characters are involved.
When Mendel crossed plants which had round and yellow seeds with those which had wrinkled and green seeds, all the F plants produced round and yellow seeds. However, when the F plants were self-pollinated-pollination, the F2 plants were of four types.
(i) Plant that produced round and yellow seeds
(ii) Wrinkled and yellow seeds
(iii) round and green
(iv) Wrinkled and green
All these were in the ratio of approximately 9:3:3:1 MENDELIAN LAWS OF SEGREGATION, INHERITANCE AND GENETICS
Mendel then concluded that this could result if the contrasting characteristics of round and wrinkled seeds and the contrasting characteristics of yellow and green seeds were inherited independent of each other.
The outcome of this experiment led to Mendel’s second law of inheritance.







Mendel’s Second Law of Inheritance

law of independent assortment of genes
This second law is also called the law of independent assortment of genes.
Mendel’s second law of independent assortment of genes states that each character behaves as a separate unit and is inherited independently of any other character. law of independent assortment of genes
Mendel’s work can be represented by letters and their explanations as below:
Parents round yellow x wrinkled green
The four phenotypes which appear in the ratio 9:3:3:1 are as follows:
(1) 9 round yellow r1m 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 13
(2) 3 round green r6, 8, 14
(3) 3 wrinkled yellow r 11, 12, 15
(4) 1 wrinkled green r 16
The genotypes which include 4 homozygous and 5 heterozygous conditions are:
(1) 1 is hormozygous for both round an yellow (1)
(2) 1 is homozygous for both round and green (6)
(3) 1 is homozygous for both wrinkled and green (16)
(4) 1 is homozygous for both wrinkled and yellow (11)
(5) 2 are homozygous for round an heterozygous for yellow (2, 5)
(6) 2 are homozygous for round and heterozygous for yellow (2, 5)
(7) 2 are heterozygous for round and hormozygous for green (8, 14)
(8) 2 are homozygous for wrinkled and heterozygous for yellow(12, 15)
MENDELIAN LAWS OF SEGREGATION, INHERITANCE AND GENETICS


HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE

types of breeding and importance of animal Breeding



Breeding of Hybridization

Hybridization is a method by which an offspring is produced through the crossing of two different plant varieties of the same species. In other words, it refers to the development of plants by combining inherited qualities of one plant with that of another through the fertilization of female with male gametes.







TYPES OF BREEDING

(i)

In-breeding

: This is the pollination and fertilization of closely related crop plants in order to retain certain desirable characteristics. This can lead to pure breed or pure line.
(ii)

Pure line

: A plant which has been self-fertilized or crossed continuously with closely related species (inbred) for many generations, so that the desirable qualities it possesses do not change from generation to generation, is called a pure line. Pure line will always reproduce itself with great precision.
(iii)

Cross breeding

: This is the pollination and fertilization of unrelated crop plants belonging to different breeds. This results in the production of an offspring which is superior to the average performance of the parents. This is called hybrid vigour “heterosis”.







ADVANTAGES OF BREEDING

(i) breeding can produce a superior offspring resulting in hybrid vigour or heterosis (cross breeding)
(ii) Progency grows more rapidly (cross breeding)
(iii) Production of pure line (in-breeding).
(iv) Offspring can withstand variations of environment (cross breeding)


DISADVANTAGES OF BREEDING

(i) breeding could lead to “inbreeding depression”, which is the depression or loss in vigour and performance of offspring (in-breeding)
(ii) There is a drop in production or yield of crops in terms of quantity and quality (in-breeding)
(iii) breeding may lead to poor or low resistance to disease attack (in-breeding)






Productivity of crops can be achieved through a combination of methods which include

:
(1) Crop Improvement Methods: As discussed earlier, crops can be improved through introduction, selection and hybridization.
(ii) Proper Timing of Planting: Crops should be grown at the right time to avoid high temperature, inadequate rainfall or abundance of pests and diseases during growth.
(iii) Adoption of Better Cultivation Methods: The adoption of better methods of cultivation like crop rotation which adds nutrients to soil, prevents erosion, pests and diseases outbreak and helps to increase yield.
(iv) Use of Manures and Fertilizers: The use of manure like farm yard compost and green manure in combination with the use of fertilizers helps to add nutrients to soil and promotes good growth of crops.
(v) Control of Pests of Crops: The control of pests of crops which I cause reduction in yield and growth can help in the improvement of crops.
(vi) Control of Diseases of Crops: Diseases also cause a reduction in growth and productivity of crops. Where they are adequately prevented, it will lead to improvement of such crops.
(vii) Use of Resistant Varieties: Some varieties of crops are capable of resisting disease’s attack and can mature early thereby increasing the yield of crops.
(viii) Use of good crop varieties: There are some varieties of crops which naturally will grow well in different environmental conditions. Such crops do help to increase the overall production of such crops







HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES







154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE

ANIMAL BY-PRODUCTS OF SKIN AND HIDES, FUR AND BONES AND USES


ANIMAL BY-PRODUCTS

By –products derived from farm animals include hides and skin, fur, wool, feathers, horns, milk, egg, meat, tail of animal, bone, blood and manure (dung)


HIDES AND SKIN

1. Hides and skin: hides and skin are derived from the skin of cattle, sheep, goat, pig and rabbit

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF HIDES AND SKIN

i. Hides and skin are processed into leather for the manufacture of bags, shoes, ropes and foot wears
ii. Hides and skin serve as source of income to farmers
iii. Hides and skin can be processed into meat
iv. They are used in clothing materials, such as jacket
v. They are also used as ornamentals and other decorative household materials
2. Wool and Fur: wool is the hair derived from sheep while fur is the hair derived from rabbit. These products are found on the body of these farm animals.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF WOOL AND FUR

i. Wool is used for the manufacture of brushes
ii. It is also used as clothing material like jacket
iii. It can be used in the manufacturing of blankets and rugs





HORNS, MILK AND EGG

3. Horns: Horns are derived from animals like cattle, sheep and goat. They are found in the head region of these animals

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF HORNS

i. Horns are used industrially as raw materials in knife handles and belt heads.
ii. They are used for decorative purposes and as ornamentals
iii. They can be used to make fertilizers because they are rich in calcium and phosphorus.
iv. They are also used as feed for livestock because of high level of calcium and phosphorus.
v. Some are used in music and other dance
vi. To the animals, they are used for fighting or defending themselves against enemies.

Milk

Milk is derived from farm animals like cow (cattle), ewe (sheep), sows (pigs) and doe (goat). The part which produces this milk is the mammary gland or udder. The milk can be extracted from the animals by milking manually (using hands) or mechanically (by the use of milking machines). The milk so derived from these animals can be made fir for consumption by man through a processes called pasteurization.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF HORNS

i. Milk is a source of protein in food
ii. It can be used in raising foster calves, lambs or children
iii. It is used in the preparation of baby food
iv. It supplies minerals to livestock.
v. It is used as extender in artificial insemination practices.
vi. It is used in the preparation of diary products such as butter, cheese and yoghurt.


1.

Eggs

:
eggs are mainly produced by poultry birds such as white leghorn, brown leghorn, and Rhode Island Red. Others are geese, turkey and guinea fowls






ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF EGG

i. Egg is a source of protein in human food or diet
ii. It is used in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals
iii. Egg is industrially processed and is used to make paints and vanishes or printer’s ink.
iv. Egg is used in the production of adhesives
v. Egg shells are used in making seouring powder.
vi. Egg shell is a source of calcium in poultry feed/animal feed.
vii. Egg is used for reproduction.
viii. It is also used for manufacturing of vaccines
ix. It is used in cosmetics



MEAT, MANURE AND BONE

MEAT

The major product of farm animal is the meat.
Meat: meat is derived from all farm animals. Meat has different times depending on the animal from which it is derived. For examples.
(i) Meat of cattle is called
(ii) Meat of pigs is called pork
(iii) Meat of sheep is called mutton
(iv) Meat of goat is called goat meat
(v) Meat of domestic fowl is called chicken.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF MEAT

i. Meat is a source of protein for man
ii. It is also a protein source for livestock feed e.g meat meal
iii. It is also used in the making of vaccines and drugs
iv. It provides minerals and vitamins for good health.
v. It is used in pharmaceuticals
vi. It is used in the production of hormones
vii. It is a source of income to farmers and the nation.


Animal dung or manure

: animal dung or manure is produced by farm animals. The quality of manure produced depends on the animal, age of animal, the nutrition of the animal and physiological state of the feed. The manure of poultry birds is richer than al other farm animals closely followed by the manure of rabbit.


ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF MANURE

i. Animal dung or manure returns nutrients to the soil
ii. It improves the texture and structure of the soil
iii. It encourages the activities of soil organisms.
iv. It improves water conservation in the soil
v. It regulates the temperature fluctuation in the soil.
vi. It prevents soil erosion.
vii. It has a buffering effect on the soil.





Bone

: bone is also derived from all farm animals. Reasonable quantity is however obtained from cattle, sheep and goat.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF BONE

i. Bone is crushed and processed as bone meal for livestock feed.
ii. It is rich in calcium and phosphorus which aid the development of bones and teeth in man.
iii. It can be used in the making of shoes, especially the lower part of the shoe.
iv. Vaccines and hormones are synthesized from bone marrow.
v. Bone is useful in the development of egg shell in poultry.







BLOOD, FEATHERS AND TAIL OF ANIMAL


9.

animal Blood

: Blood is also obtained from all farm animals, especially cattle, sheep, goat and pigs. Blood is derived from these animals during slaughtering.


ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF BLOOD

i. Blood is processed into blood meal used in livestock feed as a source of protein
ii. It is also rich in vitamins and minerals
iii. It can be used in pharmaceuticals industries.
iv. Certain hormones can be synthesized from blood.
10. Feathers: feathers are found on the body, wings and tail of poultry birds such as domestic fowl, turkey, geese and ducks.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF FEATHERS

(a) To the birds
(i) They serve as protection for body
(ii) They are used for flight
(iii) They keep birds warm.
(b) To man
(i) For making pillows
(ii) For making cushions
(iii) For making mattresses
(iv) For making dusters.

Tail of Animal With Hair (undressed)

The tail of animals is found in some farm animals especially cattle, sheep, goat, pig and rabbit. It is most prominent in cattle.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF TAIL

(a) To man
(i) It is a rich source of protein, e.g cow tail pepper soup
(ii) The tail can be used as a whip by man
(iii) It is used for some traditional outings in some societies.
(b) To the animals
(i) It is used for protection, e.g defense
(ii) It is used for driving away flies
(iii) It is used for communication (i.e. during stress they wag their tails)




HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY




37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS

AGRICULTURAL FINANCE AND CREDIT


MEANING OF AGRICULTURAL FINANCE AND CREDIT

Agricultural finance is defined as the act of acquisition and use of capital in agriculture. In other words, it deals with the supply of and demand for funds in the agricultural sector of the economy.

IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURAL FINANCE

(i) It enables farmers to meet seasonal and annual fluctuations in income and expenditure.
(ii) It enables farmers to adjust to changing economic conditions
(iii) It also increases the efficiency of the farmers.
(iv) It enables the farmers to increase the size of his farm.
(v) It helps to protect against adverse conditions on the farm
(vi) It enables farmers to acquire more farm inputs for increased production.

SOURCES OF FARM FINANCE

Farmers can get credit or loan to finance their farming business through any of the following sources:
(1)

Agricultural bank

Agricultural bank such as the Nigeria Agricultural and Cooperative Bank (N.A.C.B) was established in 1973 to grant loans to all potential farmers. Only farmers can borrow money from the bank, hence it is called the “Farmers Bank”.



(2)

Commercial Bank

Commercial banks are major sources of lending to agriculture. Banks like First Bank, U.B.A, Union Bank have agricultural departments where farmers can get loan to carry out their farming activities.

(3)

Supervised agricultural credit scheme

This scheme was set up with the purpose of granting loans to farmers. The scheme is supervised by the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN).

(4)

Thrift and saving societies

Members contribute money either daily, weekly or monthly. At the end of an agreed period, the money is paid back to the members which they can use for their farming activities.

(5)

Money lenders

These are people who lend out their money to farmers to enable them to produce. However, the money lenders will charge high interest rate and demand security for such loans.
(6)
(7)

Cooperative societies

These are the people who come together to pull their resources (money) together to produce. Members can easily get loan from the societies. Apart from this, commercial banks prefer to give loans to cooperative societies than individual farmers.

(8)

Government agencies

Farmers can easily get loans from certain government agencies like the National Directorate for Employment (N.D.E) and Agricultural Development Projects (A.D.P) for their farming activities.



(9)

Self-finance

This refers to the money saved by an individual which can be used to finance his farming activities.

(10)

Individual

Farmers can also borrow money from individuals like friends and relatives to finance a project.

(11)

Insurance companies

(12) Insurance companies are important source of credit in Nigeria. They mostly give long-term and immediate loans for the purchase of equipment. They obtain financial resources from policy holders and use excess liquidity to provide credit to farmers.
(13)
(14)

Micro-finance banks

Micro-finance bank is about providing financial services to the poor who are traditionally not served by the conventional financial institutions. Three features distinguished micro-finance from other formal financial products, these are the smallness of loans advanced, the absence of asset-based collateral and simplicity of operation.

(15)

International Development Agencies (IDAs)

IDAs like World Bank, Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), United Nation Development Agricultural Development (IFAD) also give financial assistance to qualified farmers in Nigeria.








HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK

AGRICULTURAL CREDIT, AGRICULTURAL SUBSIDY AND INTEREST


MEANING OF AGRICULTURAL CREDIT, AGRICULTURAL SUBSIDY AND INTEREST

(a)

Agricultural credit

Agricultural credits are loans obtained by the farmers to start or to expand his farming business. It is repayable over a period of time with some interest as determined by the source of the credit.

(b)

Agricultural subsidy

Agricultural subsidy refers to a non-refundable aid granted to a farmer. Agricultural credits are loans. Examples include reduction in the prices of inputs such as fertilizers, imp roved seeds and chemicals, free information such as weather forecast, new technology and market sources.
(c)

Agricultural Interest

Interest is the amount paid on borrowed capital or an amount earned above the cost of goods. Interest is usually paid on borrowed capital which usually comes along with loans for example, if a farmer borrows N500,000.00 from a bank and the interest on the loan is 10%, it means the amount he will pay as interest is 350,000.00 per annum, i.e.
10/100 X 500,000/1 = N50,000.00
When the farmer is paying back the loan with the interest, the total amount he will pay to the bank is N550, 000








Agricultural credits are loans

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SUBSIDY AND CREDIT

Credit

Subsidy

Credit is a repayable loan It is a non-repayable loan
Credit is always in cash land It may be in cash or in
It includes bank loans, schemes and cooperative It includes reduction in prices of input credit like chemicals, seeds and fertilizers
It has a time period for its return It is given and never to be returned
Government does not bear part of the burden of a loan Government bears part of the burden of a subsidy


Agricultural credits are loans

PROBLEMS FARMERS MAY ENCOUNTER FROM SOME CREDIT SOURCES

(1) Commercial Banks
(i) They are usually biased in favour of large scale farmers only.
(ii) They demand collateral which farmers cannot provide.
(iii) There is the problem of relatively high interest rate.

Agricultural credits are loans
(2) Community Banks
(i) The amount of credit is usually small and inadequate to meet the needs of farmers
(ii) They insist on a would be lender coming to open account with them before loans are given.

(3) Money Lenders
(i) They are usually biased towards enterprises that bring in quick return to repay the loan.
(ii) Their interest rates are too high to allow for an appreciable input from the farm business.

(4) Family Sources
(i) The use of loan is usually small and inadequate

(ii) They usually insist on short-term credit.








IMPLICATIONS OF FARM CREDITS OR PROBLEMS MILITATING AGAINST FARMERS IN SECURING LOANS

The procurement of loans or credits for farming activities is associated with some implications. In other words, farmers find it difficult to get loans from banks because of the following reasons: Agricultural credits are loans

(1)

Interest rates:

interest rate is the rate at which farmers can borrow money from bank, i.e the amount of interest a farmer will have to pay on the money borrowed. High interest rate discourages borrowing while low interest rate encourages borrowing. Therefore, a farmers cannot borrow when the interest rate is too high. Agricultural credits are loans
(2)

Collateral security:

This is what the banks and other financial institutions will want a borrower to present before a loan can be given. Such securities are landed property and buildings. Most farmers do not have these securities and therefore, cannot borrow money. Agricultural credits are loans

(3)

Long gestation period of some crops:

Some crops like rubber, cocoa and oil palm take a very long time to mature. Banks, therefore, find it very difficult to grant loan to farmers engaged in the cultivation of such crops. Agricultural credits are loans
(4)

Unpredictable climate which can lead to crop failure:

agricultural activities in Nigeria depend naturally on rainfall. A good rainfall encourages productivity but lack of rainfall is a doom to farming activities. Banks, therefore, are always afraid to lend money to farmers because unfavourable climate can lead to crop failure. Agricultural credits are loans

(5)

Lack of farm records:

Farmers lack good farm records of all their activities which can be used to assess their credit worthiness.

(6)

High level of loan defaulters:

Farmers may not be able to repay the principal, let alone the interest charged, in case of natural disaster.

(7)

Lack of insurance policy:

Farmers do not take insurance policy on their farms.

(8)

Lack of moratorium:

Banks do not give moratorium or deferent of payment of loans to farmers. Agricultural credits are loans.

(9)

Land tenure system:

The prevalent land tenure system works against procurement of agricultural loans.
Agricultural credits are loans

(10)

Small farm holdings:

Farm holdings are too small and uneconomical to operate for mechanization and profit.
(11)

Lack of awareness:

As a result of high level of illiteracy among farmers, they are hardly aware of the existence of loan facilities in banks. Agricultural credits are loans

(12)

Bureaucracy:

bureaucracy (red tapism) which is normally involved in the procurement of loan does lead to non-disbursement of loans to farmers.







PROBLEMS MILITATING AGAINST BANKS AND ORGANIZATIONS IN GRANTING LOANS TO FARMERS

i. Inadequate arm records and account: majority of the farmers do not keep accurate records and account of their farming business and this make it difficult for banks to ascertain the profitability of the farming business.
ii. Uncertainties in farming business: These are lots of uncertainties in the operation of agricultural business as profit may not be easily determine by the bankers.
iii. Unpredictable weather: The weather condition may be unpredictable as this may affect the outcome of harvest. Banks are always afraid to put their money in farming business.
iv. Problems of diseases and pests: Banks are always afraid to put their money in agriculture as pests and diseases may affect crops and livestock which may erode or reduce the harvest from such business.
v. Low level of education by farmers: Majority of the farmers are illiterate and this may result in farming failure due to the inability of the farmers to properly utilize the loan given to them by the bank.
vi. Diversion of loan for other purposes: Most farmers due divert their loans for other purposes because the banks may not be able to monitor the utilization of such loans.
vii. Inadequate technical know-how by the bankers: Majority of the bank of some farming business. The bank accountant for example know notting about poultry farming and may find it difficult to grant loan to farmers.
viii. Long gestation period of some crops: Some crops like cocoa and oil palm take a very long time to mature. Banks therefore find it very difficult to grant loan to farmers.


HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88.





89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE

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