digestive system of farm animals1



DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

The digestive system of a farm animal includes all the organs and tissues associated with the breaking down or digestion of food in the body. It includes the teeth or beak, tongue, the alimentary canal or digestive tract and all the associated gland, secretory enzymes and other body fluids.
Farm animals are grouped into two main classes based on the nature of their alimentary canal or digestive tract. These are:
(1)

Mono gastric or Non-ruminant Animals:

These are animals which possess only one stomach and they do not ruminate (i.e. they do not chew the cud). In other words, these animals have simple stomach and cannot digest cellulose and fibres properly. Examples are the pig, rabbit and poultry birds like the domestic fowl.
(2)

Polygastric or Ruminant Animals

: These are farm animals which possess four stomach compartments (complex stomach) and hence, they can ruminate or chew the cud. The four stomach compartments are rumen (the largest). Reticulum, omasun and abomasun (true stomach).
The rumen (pouch): It has several tongue-like protections called papillac. It also has a soft towel-like appearance. It is the largest and the first compartment of the stomach.
Reticulum (hone comb): This is lined with a mucosal layer which is formed into hexagonal chamber that looks like honeycomb. It is the second compartment.
Omasun (manypiles) The omasun is the third and smallest compartment. It has several “leaves” or laminae/layers.
Abomasun: This is the only glandular stomach. It is synonymous with simple stomach of monogastric animals. The abomasun is the fourth and last compartment of the stomach.








FUNCTIONS OF THE FIRST COMPARTMENT (THE RUMEN) OF THE STOMACH OF A RUMINANT ARE:

(i) Fermentation brought about by micro-organisms takes place in the rumen
(ii) It is used for temporary storage of feed before regurgitation for proper re-chewing
(iii) Volatile fatty acids and other gases are produced in the rumen as a result of fermentation
(iv) Absorption of volatile fatty acids takes place through the walls of the rumen
(v) Some vitamins, e.g vitamin B, are produced in the rumen
(vi) Breakdown of cellulose takes place in the rumen
(vii) Examples are the cattle, sheep and goat. They are all herbivores.

DIGESTION IN RUMINANTS

Ruminant animals like cattle, sheep and goat feed mainly on grasses and they can ruminate or chew the cud because of the complex nature of their stomach.
When a ruminant animal like a cow wants to feed, it cuts the grass and swallows it with minimal chewing. The grass passes from the mouth through the oesophagus to the rumen where the grass it stored. In the rumen, the grass is acted upon by micro-organisms like bacteria and protozoa which digest the cellulose and synthesize some amino acids needed by the animal from non-protein nitrogenous substances.
When the cow has finished filling the rumen, it finds a cool place and lies down quietly. By anti-peristaltic movement of the stomach, the undigested grass passes from the rumen to the reticulum from where it re-enters the oesophagus (regurgitate) back to the mouth. The food is now chewed properly by using the molar and premolar teeth (chewing the cud) into a semi-liquid cud which is re-swallowed. This liquid cud now moves into the omasun from where it passes to the abomasun (the true stomach). The whole process is called rumination.
In the abomasun, enzymes are secreted which act on the food. Further digestion and absorption of the food take place progressively along the digestive tract. The digested food is then absorbed into the blood through the villi in the small intestine while the undigested food passes to the large intestine where they are removed through the anus as dung or faeces.











DIGESTION IN NON-RUMINANT (PIG)

Pig has only one stomach. It does not chew the cud neither does it utilize roughages properly. The digestion in pig can be understood properly.
The pig feeds mainly on basal feeds like maize, cassava and other mashed food. Digestion of food takes place in four area of the tract:
(i) Mouth: In the mouth, the food is chewed and mixed with saliva which contains an enzyme called ptyalin. The ptyalin converts starch to maltose. The food is now swallowed and moves by peristaltic movement to the stomach.
(ii) Stomach: In the stomach, two enzymes, rennin and pepsin, are present. Rennin acts on milk or it helps to curdle milk while pepsin converts proteins to peptones under the influence of an acid medium. The thick liquid called chime now passes to the duodenum.
(iii) Duodenum: Digestion also takes place here. Three enzymes are present and they act on different food stuffs
(a) Amylase: this enzyme converts starch to maltose
(b) Lipase: converts fats and oil to fatty acids and glycerol
(c) Typsinogen: converts protein and peptones to polypeptides. These enzymes are secreted by the pancreas. The digestion of fats and oil is aided by bile which is secreted by the liver and stored in the gall bladder. The bile helps in the emulificaton of fats. At the end of the digestion in the duodenum, the food (now in liquid form) called chyle passes to the ileum or small intestine.
(iv) Small intestine: The wall of the small intestine secretes many enzymes which complete the process of digestion.
The enzymes are:
(a) Lipase: which converts fats and oil to fatty acids and glycerol
(b) Erepsin converts polypeptides to amino acids
(c) Maltose converts sucrose to glucose.
(d) Sucrose converts sucrose to glucose and fructose
(e) Lactose converts to glucose and galactose.
The end product in the digestion include the conversion of:
(i) Protein to amino
(ii) Starch to glucose
(iii) Fats and oil in amino acids
These end products (amino acids, glucose and fatty acid and glycerol) are absorbed in the small intestine by a structure called the villi. The undigested food materials are passed to the large intestine from where they are ejected through the anus as faeces or dung.
The digestion of food in rabbit (a non-ruminant) is just like the pig except that rabbit can feed properly on grasses which are digested in the large caecum which contains mirco-organisms like bacteria and protozoa.

DIGESTION IN DOMESTIC FOWL

The domestic fowl is a monogastric animal and has a simple stomach. Digestion in fowl can be explained properly.
The fowl has no teeth but the food is picked up by the beak. This food then passes on to the crop through the oesophagus. This food is stored temporarily in the crop where it is moistened and fermented by some bacteria. The food now passes on to the proventriculus where digestive enzymes are secreted on the food.
The preventriculus is often regarded as the glandular stomach because it secretes digestive enzymes on the food like pepsin and amylase.
From the preventriculus, the food moves to the gizzard where grinding takes place. With the aid of small stones or grits, the food is ground by the gizzard. From the gizzard, the food now moves to the duodenum and small intestine where further digestion and absorption take place while the undigested food materials are removed from the tract as faeces.


IMPORTANCE OF DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

(i) It aids the ingestion of feed
(ii) It promotes the digestion of feed
(iii) It ensures the absorption of digested feed
(iv) It helps in ejection of undigested feed
(v) It aids the secretion of productive hormones and digestive enzymes

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY











AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AND ITS IMPORTANCE



DEFINITION OF PRODUCTION

Production refers to all economic activities which result in the creation of goods and services. In other words, production is the process of making or manufacturing goods as well as the process of providing services. For goods and services to be created during the process of production, certain factors have to come together. These resources or factors that are combined for goods and services to be produced are known as factors of production. There are four factors of production. These are Land, Labour, Capital and Entrepreneur or Management.

FACTORS OF PRODUCTION

LAND AS A FACTOR OF PRODUCTION
Definition: Land refers to where productive activities such as growing of crops, rearing of animals and establishment of farmstead are carried out.






FEATURES OR CHARACTERISTICS OF LAND IN PRODUCTION

(i) Land is a natural gift
(ii) Land can appreciate or depreciate in value
(iii) It is geographically immobile
(iv) It is abundant in some areas and scarce in other areas
(v) It is heterogenous in quality differing from one place to another in topography, soil texture and structure and soil fertility
(vi) Because of its limited supply, land is also subject to the law of diminishing returns
(vii) Reward for land is rent
(viii) Availability is subject to land use Act/Law
(ix) Its suitability influences output
(x) Its value is determined by its location
(xi) It can be used as collateral for loan


IMPORTANCE OF LAND IN AN AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISE

(i) Land is used for the cultivation of food crops such as maize, rice and cowpea
(ii) It is also used for the cultivation of cash crops, e.g. cocoa, rubber and oil palm
(iii) It is used for the rearing of animals
(iv) It is used for forest development
(v) It is also used for fish pond development
(vi) It is used for wildlife conservation
(vii) Land is used as collateral for securing loans from banks


NON-AGRICULTURAL USES OF LAND IN PRODUCTION

(i) Land is used for construction purposes, e.g roads and airports
(ii) It can be used for social or recreational purpose e.g stadia, schools, markets and cemeteries
(iii) Land is used for residential building
(iv) Land can also be used for industrial buildings
(v) Land can also be used for mining purposes e.g extraction of petroleum and gold


APPRECIATION OF LAND IN PRODUCTION

Land can appreciate (increase) in its value through the following ways:
(i) Fallowing – allowing farmlands to rest thereby regaining its lost nutrients
(ii) Addition or use of fertilizers or manure to increase its fertility
(iii) Use of clean uninfected inputs, e.g planting materials like seeds
(iv) Weeding/clearing to remove weeds that compete with crops for nutrients and space
(v) Good or appropriate soil tillage that can prevent soil erosion
(vi) Irrigation the artificial application of water to soil to supplement insufficient rain
(vii) Good access road – to ensure proper usage of land
(viii) Good drainage – the artificial removal of excess water from soil to promote crop growth
(ix) Increase in population density – which makes land expensive to buy








DEPRECIATION OF LAND IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

Land can depreciate or decrease in its use or value through the following ways:
(i) Erosion menace – this removes the top soil
(ii) Infestation by weeds – these remove nutrients from soil
(iii) Infestation by pests – these pests reduce the yield of crop if present in the soil
(iv) Infestation by diseases – this also reduces the yield of crops
(v) Continuous cultivation without the use of fertilizers or manure
(vi) Abuse on land, e.g overgrazing, indiscriminate bush burning
(vii) Dumping of toxic materials at it tends to reduce soil fertility
(viii) Water logging – this also reduces soil fertility and land for farming


LABOUR AS A FACTOR OF PRODUCTION

Definition: Labour includes all forms of productive human efforts put into or utilized in production. It also refers to man’s mental and physical exertions generated in the process of production

FEATURES OR CHARACTERISTICS OF LABOUR

(i) Labour is also one of the factors of production
(ii) Human effort can be intellectual or mental, manual or physical, provided it is directed towards the production of goods and services
(iii) Labour is mobile and had feelings and cannot be used anyhow
(iv) Labour exist in three kinds. These are:
(a) Skilled Labour (White Collar Jobs): Highly educated and technical to provide the expertise for farm operations
(b) Semi-skilled Labour: Averagely educated to perform simple farm operations
(c) Unskilled Labour: (Brown Collar Jobs): These are illiterates that provide manual labour for farm operations
(v) The unit of labour is man-hours or man-days
(vi) The reward of labour is wages and salaries
(vii) It converts natural resources into usable products
(viii) It is a variable asset
(ix) Its size and quality influence production or output
(x) Its output can be improved by training


FORMS OF LABOUR AVAILABLE TO THE FARMER

(a) Family Labour
(i) This refers to the labour provided by the man, his wife and children, i.e. the farmer’s family)
(ii) It involves the head of the family as the operator/manager
(iii) He organizes the family labour by himself
(iv) He assigns job to each member of the family
(v) This is the major source of labour available to the farmer and it is very cheap
(b) Personal Labour


This is the labour provided by the owner of the farm
(c) Communal Labour: This is the kind of labour provided by neigbours and the community
(d) Hired or Paid Labour
(i) This is the kind of labour that is paid either daily or they receive salary at the end of the month
(ii) It is common where a farmer has large farm size
(iii) Hired labour is engage either in a permanent or time-rated basis
(iv) The farmer pays for each labour
(v) It is not readily available; hence, expensive







IMPROTANCE OF LABOUR IN AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISE

Agricultural Enterprise
(i) It uses other factors for production
(ii) Intellectual labour ensures high agricultural production
(iii) Skilled labour provides the expertise required for major farm operations
(iv) Labour ensures the success of any agricultural enterprise
(v) It provides the services required to achieve the various stages of agricultural production
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE


CAPITAL AS A FACTOR OF PRODUCTION

Definition: Capital includes all man-made productive assets which are used in production. In other words, these are assets made by man to enable him to produce goods and services.

FEATURES OR CHARACTERISTICS OF CAPITAL

(i) Capital is also a factor of production
(ii) Examples of capital are hoe, cutlass, tractor, farm building, cash in hand and plough
(iii) It can depreciate or appreciate
(iv) Sources of capital include personal savings, banks, government agencies and cooperative societies
(v) The reward for capital is interest
(vi) It is a stock of assets used in production
(vii) It is used to purchase farm inputs, e.g. seeds, agro-chemicals or used as working capital
(viii) It is used to acquire other factors, e.g. land and labour
(ix) It is obtained in form of loans or subsidies
(x) Capital is grouped into two classes:
(a) Fixed Capital: These are capital or assets purchased for continuous use in production. In other words, these are items or materials which are not used up during production. Examples of fixed capital include: farm building, motor vehicles, farm tools and implements, land furniture and fittings, incubators, ploughs, harrows, tractors, milking machine, feeders, drinkers, hoes and irrigation equipment
(b) Working or Variable Capital: These are capital or assets which are used up during the process of production. Examples are: water, feeds, drugs, cash in hand vaccines, litters, fertilizers, seeds and chemical


IMPORTANCE OF CAPITAL IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

(i) Working capital is used in the day-to-day running of the farm enterprise
(ii) Working capital is used for paying wages
(iii) Working capital is used for purchase of farm inputs, maintenance services on the farm, and feeding livestock, etc.
(iv) Fixed capital in form of immovable house and farmsteads provide shelter for farm operations.
(v) Fixed capital in form of machinery provides farm power for farm operations
(vi) Fixed capital is used to generate more funds and the success of farm enterprises usually depends on the maximum use of these capital assets
(vii) Working capital helps to facilitate farm expansion or increase in farm size
(viii) Capital is used to establish farm enterprise










Some of the important factors of production are: (i) Land (ii) Labour (iii) Capital (iv) Entrepreneur.

Whatever is used in producing a commodity is called its inputs. For example, for producing wheat, a farmer uses inputs like soil, tractor, tools, seeds, manure, water and his own services.

All the inputs are classified into two groups—primary inputs and secondary inputs. Primary inputs render services only whereas secondary inputs get merged in the commodity for which they are used.

ADVERTISEMENTS:

In the above example, soil, tractor, tools and farmer’s services are primary inputs because they render services only whereas seeds, manure, water and insecticides are secondary inputs because they get merged in the commodity for which they are used. It is primary inputs which are called factors of production.

Primary inputs are also called factor inputs and secondary inputs are known as non-factor inputs. Alternatively, production is undertaken with the help of resources which can be categorised into natural resources (land), human resources (labour and entrepreneur) and manufactured resources (capital).

All factors of production are traditionally classified in the following four groups:

Factors of Production
(i) Land:

It refers to all natural resources which are free gifts of nature. Land, therefore, includes all gifts of nature available to mankind—both on the surface and under the surface, e.g., soil, rivers, waters, forests, mountains, mines, deserts, seas, climate, rains, air, sun, etc.
(ii) Labour:






Human efforts done mentally or physically with the aim of earning income is known as labour. Thus, labour is a physical or mental effort of human being in the process of production. The compensation given to labourers in return for their productive work is called wages (or compensation of employees).

Land is a passive factor whereas labour is an active factor of production. Actually, it is labour which in cooperation with land makes production possible. Land and labour are also known as primary factors of production as their supplies are determined more or less outside the economic system itself.
(iii) Capital:

All man-made goods which are used for further production of wealth are included in capital. Thus, it is man-made material source of production. Alternatively, all man-made aids to production, which are not consumed/or their own sake, are termed as capital.

It is the produced means of production. Examples are—machines, tools, buildings, roads, bridges, raw material, trucks, factories, etc. An increase in the capital of an economy means an increase in the productive capacity of the economy. Logically and chronologically, capital is derived from land and labour and has therefore, been named as Stored-Up labour.
(iv) Entrepreneur:

An entrepreneur is a person who organises the other factors and undertakes the risks and uncertainties involved in the production. He hires the other three factors, brings them together, organises and coordinates them so as to earn maximum profit. For example, Mr. X who takes the risk of manufacturing television sets will be called an entrepreneur.

An entrepreneur acts as a boss and decides how the business shall run. He decides in what proportion factors should be combined. What and where he will produce and by what method. He is loosely identified with the owner, speculator, innovator or inventor and organiser of the business. Thus, entrepreneur ship is a trait or quality owned by the entrepreneur.

Some economists are of the opinion that basically there are only two factors of production—land and labour. Land they say is appropriated from gifts of nature by human labour and entrepreneur is only a special variety of labour. Land and labour are, therefore, primary factors whereas capital and entrepreneur are secondary factors.






IMPORTANCE OF FARM MANAGERS AND EDUCATIONAL REQUIREMENTS


MANAGEMENT OR ENTREPRENEUR IN AGRICULTURE

Management refers to the person or group of persons who coordinate, organize and control the use of other factors of production. In other words, the person(s) who combine other factors of production (land, labour, and capital) to produce goods and services is called the entrepreneur or management. Management determines when to produce, what to produce, type of production, supervises work, recruits workers, and determines what to sell in order to make profit. The profitability of the farm depends on the management.







FEATURES OR CHARACTERISTICS OF MANAGEMENT

(i) It involves the management skills of an individual or group of person
(ii) Management influence the organization of other production factors
(iii) It coordinates and controls other factors of production
(iv) It is involved decision making
(v) It determines the level of pay or wages
(vi) Management reward is profit
(vii) The quality of management influences the output
(viii) The cost of management is determined by its quality
In agriculture, the farm manager is usually regarded as the entrepreneur whose duties include the organization, administration, production and marketing of produce from the farm. The reward for management is profit.








FARM MANAGERS EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS

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FARM MANAGERS EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS

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FARM MANAGERS EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS

PROBLEMS OF THE FARM MANAGERS

.

Edwin Mayland,
Minneapolis, Minn.


Thousands of men and women are ambitious with the desire to own
a farm of their own and thereon build a home and a profitable busi-
ness. In the days of homesteading and cheap land this desire could
be realized with very little capital provided one wished to cope with
the hardships and difficulties of frontier life. At present practically
all the available government land has been homesteaded, the frontier
has disappeared and practically all the available agricultural land is
held in private ownership and is increasing in value from the most
remote areas of production or, from the least productive land to the
centers of population and the most highly productive land associated
with the best social advantages.





FARM MANAGERS EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS
A normal increase in land values should not alarm the prospective
land owner because such increase is normally based on the added im-
provements to the farm and upon the public and private expenditures
for transportation, for telephones, for schools, for churches, and for
such other private and public improvements and utilities as will make
it possible to maintain a reasonable return per dollar invested coupled
with increasingly better social conditions.

The increased land values however have created at least one out-
standing problem for the one who intends to become a farm owner
and that is the necessity of accumulating a sufficient amount of capital
to meet the required initial payment on the land and to provide the
necessary working capital for the operation of the farm. In negotia-
ting a land deal it has been quite customary between the seller and the
buyer to come to certain so called terms with regard to the amount of
the first payment and subsequent payments and interest rates on the
indebtedness with the usual result that the buyer sinks from 80 per-
cent to 90 percent of his capital in the land and leaves from 10 percent
to 20 percent for working capital and improvements and is conse-
quently handicapped in the operation of his farm and must trust to
luck in making his subsequent payments, which amounts are stipu-
lated in the contract with the provision that if not paid such contract
3hall be null and void, time being the essence of the agreement, etc.

JOURNAL OF FARM ECONOMICS

.

This is a good beginning of a nightmare, for the buyer, which may
last for several years or may end abruptly as the case may be, and
to make the realization of this nightmare as vivid as possible, the
stipulated annual payments are often much larger than the farm can
reasonably be expected to return above the family cost of living, in-
terest on the investment, and the cost of operation*

This condition offers a field for study in farm economics which
should lead to certain standardizations for farm finance applicable to
the different agricultural regions of the United States. This leads up
to the problem which the M. Sigbert Awes Company, in its business
of land settlement in North Dakota, is attempting to solve and which
has created for the company problems in farm economics and farm
management.


importance of farm managers

FARM MANAGERS EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS
This company sells its land under what is known as a Crop Stock
and Insurance Contract. Under this contract the buyer makes a
small initial payment of about 20 percent of the purchase price of the
farm and he is allowed ten years in which to complete the remaining
payments by each year turning over to the company one half of the
proceeds from the sale of crops and livestock and livestock products
which is applied, first, in payment of the interest, and, second, in
re'duction of the principal until paid. The insurance feature provides
that the buyer must insure his life to the company as beneficiary dur-
ing the period of the contract for an amount equal to his indebtedness,
which means that in the event of death the debts on the farm will be
satisfied in full and the family will inherit the farm clear, of all
incumbrances.

The success of a project of this kind from a business standpoint
depends entirely on whether the farmers who have bought land under
this contract will make good and the more rapidly they. will make good
the greater the success of the business.
FARM MANAGERS EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS
We therefore recognize that this business venture aside from its
economic aspects is a problem in farm management and that the suc-
cess of it is very largely contingent upon a knowledge and administra-
tion of sound principles of farm management applied to every farm
from the time that the new owner takes possession until the farm is
paid for, and it is therefore essential and important that the new
owner receive the proper advice with regard to the best methods of
farming and farm management and that proper direction be given
in the organization of each farm into an efficient business unit as
rapidly as is consistent with the various conditions that may affect
every individual farm. In this connection it should be said that the



FARM MANAGERS EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS
question of the proper organization of the farm does not depend on
the means of the new owner. The company keeps enough capital in
reserve to provide the necessary working capital to begin with and to
put in the necessary improvements to adequately shelter the livestock.
This of course is added to the buyer's indebtedness subject to the
terms of the contract as stated heretofore, or if he is able,to make a
fairly large initial payment on the farm, arrangement is made with
him so that enough of this payment is reserved to provide him with
the necessary working capital. This, then, does not leave any handi-
cap to the immediate procedure with such a program as may seem
the most profitable to pursue in the proper organization of every farm
and naturally brings into prominence a number of problems in farm
management.
FARM MANAGERS EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS
Our

major problems in farm management

have presented them-
selves as follows :

1. The Selection of the Farm.

2. The Distribution of the Investment.

3. The Farm Layout.

4. The Selection of Enterprises.

5. The Distribution and the Adjustment of Enterprises.

6. The Labor Schedule.

The importance of Selection of the Farm

.
FARM MANAGERS EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS
Under this scheme of land settlement as well as for the individual
farmer, the selection of the land is very important, for the inherent
productivity of every farm bears a direct relation to the success and
expansion of the business, so when selecting a farm careful consideration is given to the following factors :

1. The soil, its type, fertility condition, drainage condition.

2. Amount of waste land which cannot be reclaimed.

3. Distance from market.

4. Distance from school and church.

5. Condition of roads and distance from state and national highways.

6. Condition of improvements.

7. Condition of water supply.

8. Amount of land which can be used for permanent pasture.

9. Approximate amount of capital required for the investment in

working capital and improvements to affect a proper organization

of such a type of farming as would be best adapted to the farm.

Sometimes the price asked for the farm is such as to prohibit the








FARM MANAGERS EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS

addition of more capital for improvements and proper equipment
without over-capitalizing the business.

The selection of the farm is a primary and determining step in
farm management for the prospective farmer or for the one who
wishes to change location. This phase of farm management there-
fore must be highly emphasized and the problem analyzed in detail
into its various factors so that the value of a given farm can be pretty
well established and the type of farm organization best adapted to it
can be determined.

The Distribution of farm Investment

.

In farm organization the proper distribution of the capital is funda-
mental and the solution of this problem naturally follows the question
of the selection of the farm. In this respect the farmer as well as the
manufacturer is dealing with the three fundamental factors of pro-
duction, namely, land, labor, and capital and it is the proper adjust-
ment of these factors that is sought in an ideal distribution of the
factors of production.

The adjustment of the factors of production in a farm business
however is affected by various conditions which change from time to
time' so that a mathematically accurate distribution of the investment
is probably impossible to obtain, and if obtained it would not remain
so very long because of the changes in land values, in labor costs, and
in the cost of equipment that are continually taking place. The effi-
cient farm manager, however, will see. that the distribution of the in-
vestment is correct within certain reasonable limits and he will also
make adjustments in accordance with changing economic conditions.

The factors of production of any farm business

may be analyzed
as follows:

The Factors of Production.

I, Land.
II, Labor.

1. Man Labor.

2. Horse Labor.
III. Capital.

1. Fixed Capital.

a. Buildings.

b. Fences.

c. Wells and Water Works:

d. Tile Drains.

e. Irrigation Ditches.



mayland:

problems of the farm managers


2. Working Capital.

a. Work Horses.

b. Farm Implements and Machinery.

c. Productive Livestock.

d. Feeds, and Seeds.

e. Cash.

In studying farm organization in North Dakota it appears that its
most outstanding weakness is that the land represents too large a per-
centage of the total investment. This is apparently due, first, to the
fact that among the earlier investors in farms there the tendency was
to buy large tracts of land presumably due to its cheapness. Second,
that the majority of North Dakota farmer immigrants have later and
up to the present time come to the state with grain farming pre-
dominantly in mind and have invested nearly all of their available
cash and credit in land and many of them have consequently been
handicapped for the want of working capital. When lands were
cheap the investment in large tracts did not necessarily mean at that
time that the distribution of the capital was much out of proportion.
However, the proper adjustment in the organization of the farm busi-
ness that should have conformed with the changing economic condi-
tions have failed to take place and this is probably the greatest weak-
ness to-day in North Dakota's scheme of farm management.

Farmers, whether they are operating small or large businesses, must
consider themselves in the role of managers, and their success will
depend upon how well they can combine their land, their labor and
their equipment into an efficient productive unit. This leads to a
number of questions and problems. Just what extent of labor and
tillage of soil will bring the highest efficiency ? Just what is the proper
proportion of machinery, work horses, productive livestock, improve-
ments, labor and land to combine to secure the greatest efficiency?
And if these factors are adjusted at one time they must be readjusted
to conform to new economic conditions. If labor costs rise, it pays
to add more machinery and to plan the whole system of management
so as to use the labor as efficiently as possible. This may also make it
profitable to reduce the cropping area and increase the number of
livestock units and thereby increase the practice of pasturing off crops.

Livestock and the quality of livestock and its relation to the most
efficient organization of the farm business is fundamental. In the
farming of virgin and practically new land in North Dakota livestock
has occupied no piace of importance as an enterprise but as the

JOURNAL OF FARM ECONOMICS.






process of farming goes on the manager begins to see the necessity of
summer tillage to clean the land and the raising of grass and legume
crops to restore the humus and in so doing he resorts to the raising of
corn and grasses, and in order to create a market for those crops he
resorts to livestock. This leads to the following premises :

•I. If practice is to form a basis for conclusions, the value of live-
stock as an enterprise in connection with tillage and farming of new
lands is doubtful.

2. When the cultivation of the soil has reached a point where the
presence of weeds and the reduction of humus and fertility necessi-
tate summer tillage and the production of grasses and legume crops
and the addition of manure, enough livestock should be secured to
consume the roughage so raised and further to utilize the straw and
other refuse so that the manure resulting from the same can be re-
turned to the land. This is the first step in the efficient utilization of
the labor, land and crops. At this stage of the business the quality
of the livestock and the investment which it represents should be in
accordance with the quality of the feeds raised and the value of the
land.

3. As the value of the land increases and labor and equipment costs
rise, the quality of the livestock should be raised accordingly, for to
use high-priced land and high-priced labor in the production of low
quality livestock is just as wasteful as it would be to use high-priced
labor and equipment in the tillage of land of known low productivity.

The Farm Layout.

The development of the farm layout naturally comes under three
divisions.

1. The layout of the farmstead.

2. The planning of the farm buildings.

a. Capacities of different buildings.

b. Interior arangement.

3. The layout of the fields.

The practical farm manager desires to develop a layout that will
give him the required building capacity, the most convenient and effi-
cient interior arrangement, and a layout of fields that will be easily
accessible from the farmstead and yet will conform in size and num-
ber to the size of the farm and the distribution of the crops desired.
Would it not be of great value to the farm manager to have definite
information bearing on the most economic and efficient building unit
for given types and sizes of farms for his particular region ?



mayland: problems of the farm manager. 161

The Selection of Enterprises.
In the selection of crop and livestock enterprises we are guided by
experimental data and the experience of successful farmers which I
believe gives us a very reliable basis for the solution of this problem.
However, much, could be done in working out a more definite group-
ing of the varieties of grains the kinds of pastures and forage crops
and the classes of livestock predominantly adapted to the different
regions of a given state.

The Distribution and Adjustment of Enterprises.
After the selection of enterprises comes the question of how much
of each to raise. The crop enterprises must be planned to meet the
following requirements :

1. To provide a good distribution of labor.

2. To provide an ample supply of the best feed crops that it is pos-

sible to raise under the prevailing conditions.

3. To provide for the conservation of soil fertility.

4. To provide for pastures.

5. To allow enough flexibility in the system of cropping so as to make

it possible to readily increase the acreage of such crops as can be
pastured off and to make such other changes as might be neces-
sary to meet new economic conditions.

6. To provide for a definite percentage of cash crops.

The selection of livestock enterprises is largely a problem of rela-
tions, that is, their selection must be largely determined by the kinds
of feed crops that can be raised., the inclinations of the farm owner,
the size of f arjn and the amount and quality of labor under control
of the manager.

The selection of enterprises, their distribution and adjustment,
therefore, is a problem which involves the most careful dovetailing
together of the enterprises in such a proportion as will produce from
every standpoint the most complete and efficient farm unit.

The Labor Schedule.
Is it possible for a farmer who is more or less at the mercy of the
weather to work in accordance with a labor schedule? Or putting
it a little differently, would a labor schedule make it possible for him
to use his labor more efficiently ? - Those who have studied this phase
of farm management will likely answer in the affirmative, and if it is
of much importance what are the determining factors that should be
used as a basis in working out such a schedule? First: A normal


1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE

IMPORTANCE OF CROP IMPROVEMENT PROCESS


CROP IMPROVEMENT

MEANING OF CROP IMPROVEMENT

Crop improvement is defined as the science that deals with the development of crop varieties with superior quality quantity. In other words, crop improvement refers to the ways of developing and breeding of crop varieties are better than the existing varieties member of characters.

As a result of the ever increasing population, modern scientific of crop improvement became necessary in order to increase productivity as maintain quality of food crops. Man has identified certain crop plants that useful to him, and learnt that if he could viable seeds for planting and adopt I cultural practices, he could obtain quantity and quality of food needed man and industrial purposes. This is the main purpose of crop improvement.






Aims of Crop Improvement


The plants breeders involved in improving usually have certain aims in mind doing their work. They try to lute the undesirable characters in plants with desirable ones so that higher yields will be produced with improved quality.

The aims of crop improvement therefore include:

(1)

Aims of Crop Improvement is To increase yield

: The varieties of crops so developed by breeders are capable of giving very high yield or quantity of crops per unit of land. This quantity is measured in kg/ha, e.g. high yield of tomato plant from 800kg/ha to 2000kg/ha.

(2)

Aims of Crop Improvement is To improve the quality of produce:

The quality of farm produce enhances its usefulness and value. Plant breeders can improve on the taste, colour, size, nutritive value and fibre content of crops.

(3)

Aims of Crop Improvement is To adapt to climatic conditions

: Plant breeders develop varieties of crops that are able to withstand extreme conditions of cold, drought and wind by adjusting the growth cycle of the variety better to suit the available growing season.

(4)

Aims of Crop Improvement is To increase resistance to diseases

: Plant breeders also develop varieties of crops which are not only resistant to diseases but produce high yield in the presence of diseases.






(5)

Aims of Crop Improvement is To increase resistance to pests

: It is also the aim of plant breeders to develop varieties of crops which are not only resistant to diseases but produce high yield in the presence of pests.

(6)

Aims of Crop Improvement is To meet the needs of growers

: Improvements in farming methods may make particular characteristics desirable to growers in their plants. For example, many growers would prefer short variety of maize which can be harvested by machine, instead of tall ones which can only be harvested by hand.

(7)

Aims of Crop Improvement is To produce crops with uniform agronomic characteristics

: One of the aims of plant breeders is to breed crops which can grow and mature uniformly to facilitate mechanization or ease of harvesting.

(8)

Aims of Crop Improvement is To breed crops with early maturity

: Plant breeders are involved in the production of crops which will mature early. This can allow for the production of that crop many times in a year, depending on the crop.

(9)

Aims of Crop Improvement is To improve harvesting qualities

: Breeders try to produce crops that can be harvested with ease and without damage to the seeds/fruits.

(10)

Aims of Crop Improvement is To improve the nutritional value of the produce

: It is the ultimate aim of plant breeders to develop crops that have nutritional value like high protein, mineral, vitamin, etc. which are useful to man.

(11)

Aims of Crop Improvement is To meet the needs of consumers (processors or industrialists)

: The demand by food processors as well as other consumers creates pressure for new quality of plants. For instance, improved quality in farm products, e.g. maize with high protein content will contribute to good health of the people.







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You can read some of most interesting topics below
Agricultural biology topics


HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS


1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE

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diseases caused by microorganisms in animals, like bacteria, virus, fungi and protozoa

there are so many types of diseases that are caused by microorganisms in animals these diseases are harmful to the well-being of every anima...