cattle rearing methods



Systems of Rearing Cattle:

There three systems of rearing cattle. These extensive, semi-intensive and intensive systems.

(1)

Extensive system

: Extensive system of rearing ruminants, e. cattle, sheep and goat is the same involves the following:
Cattle are allowed to move freely from one place to another in search of pastures for grazing or browsing. The cattle fend for themselves and graze on a wide range of pastures.

There is no special housing unit provided. In most cases, animals are not provided with medication. It is a very cheap system of rearing livestock. No supplementary feed is usually provided. Animals are exposed to weather hazards such as excessive heat, heavy rainfall and strong windstorm. Disease outbreak cannot be easily controlled. Animals can be stolen or killed by wild animals. There is also indiscriminate mating and the cow deliver their young ones in the field. Cattle and other ruminants generally destroy cultivated crops; thereby causing community disputes.







(2)

Semi-Intensive System

: Under this system, housing is provided for the cattle and they are also allowed to move out and graze on pasture. The animals spend more time outside their pens. Houses are built with suitable materials that can permit free circulation of air. The houses are not completely walled, and rails are preferred to solid walls which should be about2m high.
The grasses or pasture must be managed properly to provide the necessary food for the cattle. The system needs less capital investment but large labour requirements, disease and parasite incidence are slightly high.


(3)

Intensive system:

In this system, the cattle are confined within a building with limited access to grazing. Grasses (by zero grazing), water, medications are supplied daily to the cattle.






ADVANTAGES OF THE INTENSIVE SYSTEM OF REARING RUMINANTS

(i) It gives animals protection against environmental hazards and exposure to adverse weather conditions
(ii) There is proper supervision of animals
(iii) Record keeping is made easier
(iv) It allows for automation e.g. use of automatic feeders and drinkers
(v) Protection against theft
(vi) Protection against predators
(vii) Indiscriminate mating is reduced
(viii) Sick animals are easily identified
(ix) Reduces incidence of disease infection
(x) Reduces incidence of pest infestation
(xi) Ensures adequate and balance feeding
(xii) Ensures provision of better health care
(xiii) Animals do not destroy farmer’s crops
(xiv) Allows efficient use of labour
(xv) High stocking density for all species of animals
(xvi) It gives animals protection against physical hazards
(xvii) It enhances performance of the animals

CATTLE HOUSING

(i) In West Africa, cattle are reared by peasant farmers especially the nomadic Fulanis who roam about with their cattle
(ii) Under the system, there are no formal houses erected for the cattle. The animals are kept in a kraal at night to prevent wandering about
(iii) Open shed with a thatched roof made of strong timber posts and railings is provided as house for the cattle in some areas.
(iv) In modern animal husbandry, houses are built with suitable materials that can permit free circulation of air.
(v) The houses should not be completely walled. Rails are preferred to solid walls.
(vi) The floor should be made of concrete to enhance easy cleaning.
(vii) The roof should be constructed with galvanized roofing sheets for durability.
(viii) The house should be partitioned into breeding house or pen, calving pen, weaner’s pen and rearing pen.
(ix) Houses for dairy cattle may be slightly different in design from that of the beef cattle because of their differences in the type of production.

CATTLE FEEDING

(i) The feed for cattle must be a balanced diet, i.e. it should contain all the nutrients required for growth and production
(ii) Cattle, being ruminants, feed mainly on roughages (grasses and legumes) because of the nature of their stomach
(iii) Common grasses that can be fed on by cattle are elephant grass, guinea grass, giant star grass, etc. and also leguminous plants which include Centrosema spp, calopogonium spp, etc.
(iv) Cattle can be fed on concentrate feed to provide the required nutrients in their diet
(v) Cattle may be involved in pastoral nomadism in which the cattle rearers (Fulanis) move about with their cattle in search of pasture and water.
(vi) In some cases, zero-grazing (foliage) is practiced whereby grasses are cut and taken to the cattle in their pens.
(vii) In some cases, rational grazing is practiced whereby cattle are moved about in paddocks they graze on the pasture.
(viii) Other preserved feeds like hay silage and straw can be fed on cattle especially during the season, when green pastures are not available.
(ix) Diary cattle should be given more concentrates than beef because, the former require concentrates milk production.

HEALTH CARE AND SANITATION FOR CATTLE

(i) Good housing and feeding tend to reduce the rate of disease attack on cattle
(ii) The houses should be cleaned regularly
(iii) Sick animals should be isolated and treated
(iv) Cattle should be dewormed regularly to get rid of endo-parasites such as tape worms , round worms and liver flukes
(v) Cattle should be allowed to pass through water chemicals to eradicate ecto-parasites like ticks and mites
(vi) Regular vaccination should be carried out against certain known diseases of cattle at the right time
(vii) Cleaning of the pens, watering and feeding equipment should be done daily
(viii) Rotational grazing should be practiced to avoid the build-up of parasites.








Common Diseases of Cattle:


Common diseases of cattle include:
foot and mouth disease, rinderpest disease, anthrax, tuberculosis, trypanosomiasis and re water fever. These diseases should 1 prevented through the use of appropriate drugs and vaccines.



HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE

Ranching and Management of Cattle



Management of Cattle :

The management of cattle from breeding to market size can be grouped into three phases:
(a) From breeding to calving;
(b) From birth of calf to weaning
(c) from weaning to finishing (market size).
(a) Breeding to Calving or Birth:
Breeders (bulls and heifer or cow) are housed in the breeder houses made of railed walls, concrete floors and galvanized roofing sheets. Bulls and heifers should be at least 24 months old before they are bred. Prior to mating, the heifer or cow should be properly fed on concentrate as well as on roughages such as grasses. The bull is brought to mate or serve the cow when it is on heat. The gestation period for cattle is about 283 days. During the gestation period, the cow is allowed to feed in the ranch in order to take some exercises. About eight weeks to parturition (calving), the cow is put on a special (rich) diet to set all her organs in good order for milk production after birth. This special system is called steaming up.







Constipation should be avoided by giving the animal plenty of roughages and bran in the diet. The cow is separated from the rest of the herd and is taken to calving pen a week to calving. Adequate sanitation, comfortable beddings and clean water must be provided. At calving, the cow should not be disturbed. The cow normally stands while calving without any difficulty.

(b) Birth of Calf to Weaning: As soon as the calf is born, the mucus membrane should be wiped off from the nostril to facilitate normal breathing of the calf. The cord from the navel should be allowed to break on its own. The cow should also be allowed to lick up the mucus membrane on the calf body as the cow derives satisfaction from it. It also stimulates the cow’s circulatory system and milk letdown. A tincture of iodine solution should be applied to the navel stump to prevent infection. The calf should be helped to take milk from the teat of the cow. This milk called colostrum should be taken for the first three days because colostrum provides (antibodies) immunity to the calf. It is also rich in proteins, minerals and vitamins.


If the farmer’s aim is to produce beef cattle, the calf is allowed to follow the dam and suckle it without restriction. The calf is left with the dam until the weaning time (six months). During this period, the calf is vaccinated against diseases like foot and mouth disease, rinderpest, anthrax, etc. The calf is also dewormed at regular intervals.
Another calf management is castration of the bull calf that is not going to be used for breeding. This helps to control indiscriminate mating. The calf is finally weaned and is separated from its mother when it is about six months of age.






HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
75. SOIL WATER
80. SANDY SOIL CLAY SOIL LOAMY SOIL
83. SOIL TEXTURE
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
soil improvement techniques
90. MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112. THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING CLEARING
121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING FARM YARD MANURE
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149. PLOUGHS
142. FIELD MACHINES
157. PLANTERS
164. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION











(c) Weaning to Finishing or Market Size: The calf just separated from the dam can now feed on concentrate feed as well as roughages (grasses) on its own. The calf is ‘also housed separately from the older cattle but in different building of the same design. However, semi-intensive system is the best method of rearing the calf till market size.
One other operation that can be performed on the calf is dehorning or disbudding.

Disbudding is the removal of the horn. Its advantages include: easy management of the cattle when they grow up as it reduces the risk of damage which horns can cause to the hides of animal, It also makes it safer to handle animal when inoculating or deworming. This can be done either by using a hot iron to burn out the horn bud, by applying caustic soda to the horn bud, or use of saw to cut it off if it is allowed to fully grow and later treat with iodine solution.
Another operation on the calf is branding or tattooing. Branding is done for the identification of the calf. This can be done by using hot iron to mark numbers on the animal skin, especially on the cheek or on the forelegs below the shank.

Tattooing is a practice whereby numerals and letters are formed from metal pins which are then pressed onto the ears of the animals. Both branding and tattooing are different methods that can be used for the identification of the cattle. Ear notching (small cuttings) on the ear can also be used for identification.







In order to achieve early market weight or size, the calf can be fattened up by placing it on a special diet of high concentrates and low roughages with restricted movement within the building, and by maintaining a high level of sanitation and health care through regular vaccination, deworming and dipping to control diseases and parasites.


GOAT REARING AND MANAGEMENT



GOAT

Goat is a hollow horned small ruminant also belonging to the family Bovidea of the genus capra. Goat is reared for its meat, milk and hide and skin, e.g, morocco leather from Sokoto Red. Goat milk is the richest of all the milk produced by animals including man.

BREEDS OF GOAT

(i) Sokoto Red (ii)Bornu Red (iii) West African long legged goat (iv)West African dwarf goat (v) Bantu (vi) Anglo-Nubian (vii) Aiphine (viii) Saanen (ix) Kano Brown (x)Bauchi type (xi)Togenburg (xii) Nubian (xiii)Boer (xiv) Anglo (xv)Nandi (xvi) East Africa Small Goat (xvii) Angora.

TERMINOLOGIES USED IN GOAT

Buck (Billy) Adult male goat
Doe (Nanny) Adult female goat
Kid A young or baby goat
Wether A castrated male goat
Kidding Act of giving birth (parturition) in goat
Chevon Meat of goat







Reasons for rearing Goats in West Africa: Reasons for rearing goats in W Africa are: for meat (food) production, I skin production, for milk production highly prolific; producing twins a triplets two times a year, hardy animals which are exceptionally healthy, easier keep, high economic value/feeding cos low, for festivals and sacrificial offerings, for prestige purposes, for income, employment, for educational purposes e teaching and research.

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GOAT

(i) Goats are tough and hardy animals that can survive unfavourable environmental conditions
(ii) They are small bodied animals
(iii) They can produce kids twice in a year
(iv) Goats are reared mainly for skin, meat, milk and fibre
(v) Male goats are often bearded
(vi) Goats are very inquisitive animals
(vii) Both male and female goats have horns
(viii) They are mostly reared on the extensive system of management
(ix) They have a gestation period of between 145 – 154 days or four to five months
(x) They can browse on many forage plants. Hence, the cost of producing gaots is cheap

SYSTEM OF REARING GOAT

There are three main systems of rearing goat. These are extensive, semi-intensive and intensive systems.
1.

Extensive System

: Under this system, the goat is allowed to roam about in search of pasture and water. A goat can thrive on any edible material and browses even in extreme condition of drought and rain. It can fend for itself under any condition. It requires very little care as no good housing, feeding and health care are provided. Although the system is cheap, the animals are exposed to adverse weather conditions and thieves.

ADVANTAGES OF THE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM OF REARING GOATS

(i) Low cost of labour
(ii) Low cost of feeding
(iii) Low capital investment e.g. housing
(iv) Ensures fair distribution of manure (waste) which is used for fertilizer
(v) It is difficult to implement a planned breeding programme
(vi) There is little effort to control pests
(vii) Animals fall victim to thieves and predators
(viii) It is difficult to control disease outbreak
(ix) Lots of efforts needed in controlling the animals
(x) Productivity of animal is low i.e. low growth in meat and milk production






2.

Semi-intensive System

: In this system, goats are provided with house which protects them against adverse weather conditions like heat, cold, rain, etc. However, they are allowed to come out and graze in the pasture which is fenced round the goat house. In some cases, feed is provided for the goats in the house which includes grass, household waste and other remnants. The system needs little initial capital outlay but large labour requirement. Disease and parasite incidence are slightly high.
3.

Intensive System

: In this system, the goats are confined within, the stall in a building with limited access to grazing. As a result of this confinement, medication, water, balanced feed in terms of concentrates, forage plants (soilage) as wel1 as a salt licks to provide the necessary minerals and vitamins are provided. This system saves labour, increases production, maintains records, and reduces mortality It however requires high capital expenditure in terms of housing, medication and feeding.
Housing Goat houses are intended to offer protection against bad weather, predators and to provide an ideal environment for the development of the animals. Common features of the goat house are:

(i) It must provide shade from the sun and protection against rain.
(ii) It must be well ventilated and kept dry.
(iii) The shape may vary from the circular type to rectangular structures with series of stalls.
(iv) Walls can be made of bricks, mud or wood.
(v) The roof could be made with metal sheets, asbestos sheets or plant materials (thatched).
(vi) Bedding materials could be straw, wood shavings, etc. The materials chosen must be very absorbent.
(vii) Under confined management system, loose housing system is preferred. Animals are not tied and can therefore move about freely within the building.
(viii) Each housing unit should be provided with a hay-rack or manger for feeding hay or silage.
(ix) Gates should be strong and the fence should be made with woven wires, barbed wires or chain link.


FEEDING REQUIREMENT FOR GOATS

(i) The feed for goat must be a balanced diet, i.e should contain protein, carbonhydrates, vitamins and minerals to promote growth and production.
(ii) A goat feeds mainly on roughages, i.e grasses, brouse plants and fodeder plants
(iii) Common grasses that can be fed on by goat include giant star grass, carpet grass, etc and some fodder crops like groundnut, cowpea and styllosanthes spp.
(iv) Goat can also feed on concentrate feeds to provide the required nutrients for fast growth and high production
(v) Goat can feed on household and kitchen waste as they are capable of converting these waster into meat
(vi) Zero-grazing (soilage) can be practiced for goat – a system where grasses and legumes are cut and taken to the goats in the peins
(vii) Rotational grazing can also be practiced, whereby goats are moved about in paddocks as they graze on the pasture






(viii) Feeds should be provided in accordance with production, e.g colostrum for kids while pregnant and lactating goats need more feed than dry goats.


HEALTH CARE AND SANITATION

Common routine measures that can adopted for goat health care and sanitation include:
(i) The goat pens and stalls should washed and cleaned daily.
(ii) Sick animals should be isolated treated urgently.
(iii) Dead animals should be buried.
(iv) Goats should be dewormed on regular basis.
(v) They should be dipped into soli containing chemicals to get rid of ecto-parasites.
(vi) Rotational grazing should be practised to avoid parasites bi up
(vii) The environment ought to be c at all times.
Common diseases of goat are anthrax, brucellosis, tuberculosis rinderpest, red water fever, etc. Drugs vaccines should be administered at appropriate time to prevent the outbreak of these diseases.

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
75. SOIL WATER
80. SANDY SOIL CLAY SOIL LOAMY SOIL
83. SOIL TEXTURE
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
soil improvement techniques
90. MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112. THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING CLEARING
121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING FARM YARD MANURE
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149. PLOUGHS
142. FIELD MACHINES
157. PLANTERS
164. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION







METHODS OF GOAT MANAGEMENT



MANAGEMENT OF GOAT

The management of goat from breeding to market weight or size is grouped into three phases. These are:
(i) from breeding to kidding,
(ii) from kidding (birth of kid) to weaning
(iii) from weaning to finishing (market size).

BREEDING IN GOAT

Buck and doe meant for breeding are kept in a building which is well ventilated, railed and walled. The floors should be made with concrete and the roof with corrugated iron sheets
Buck and doe should be at least 12months of age before they are used for breeding. Seven to ten days of mating, the doe should be given a high plane of nutrition in order to increase the number of kids ovulated, and consequently, an increase in the number of kids to be given birth to. This process of increasing the feed intake of goat is called flushing.






Before flushing, it is advisable to deworm the goats to get rid of endo-parasites. The buck is brought to mate the doe (hand mating) during the heat period.
The gestation period of the doe is about 145 – 150days. During the gestation period, the doe days. During the gestation period, the doe should be allowed to graze in the pasture and supplementary feeds in form of concentrates should fed to the doe. Clean drinkable water should also be provided for the doe.
Few days to parturition, adequate sanitation, comfortable bedding and clean water should be provided. Signs of approaching parturition include mucus discharge from vulva, undue noise making, frequent urination and restlessness. At kidding, the doe should not be disturbed unless in case of difficult kidding during which the attendant can render some help to save the doe and the kid.

BIRTH OF KID TO WEANING

When the kid is born, mucus membrane is wiped from their nose to enhance normal breathing prevent suffocation. The navel cord which can break off on its own is dipped in iodine solution to prevent infection and to promote fast healing. The doe is allowed to lick up the mucus from the body of the kid because it derives satisfaction from it and it also promotes milk let-down. The placenta, which should come out few hours after birth should be disposed of and the pen cleaned. The udder should be washed and disinfected.


The feed intake of the doe should be increased to promote easy production of milk to feed the kid. At about two weeks of age, creep feed, which is rich in protein, carbohydrate, minerals and vitamins should be given to the kid. This promotes rapid growth of the kid and early weaning.
Kids not required for breeding are castrated to prevent indiscriminate mating. Identification marks, either by branding, tattooing or ear notching, should be given old. The kids should also be vaccinated against foot and mouth disease, rinderpest and anthrax diseases. During weaning, the kids should be introduced to roughages in order to promote the functioning of the rumen. Throughout this period, high level of sanitation has to be maintained to prevent diseases and parasitic infection.






Weaning to Finishing or Market Size

The kids are weaned and separated from the doe at about eight weeks of age. They are kept in the growing house from where they can go out to browse and graze on grasses and legumes.
The semi-intensive system is the best method of rearing goat in Nigeria. In addition to the roughages they feed on by rotational grazing, supplementary yam and banana peelings and other household wastes can be given to the goat to feed on. Salt licks, which is rich in minerals and vitamins as well as cool and clean water should be provided regularly.
In order to prevent parasitic infestation, good sanitary conditions has to be maintained through regular dipping of the animals in chemical solution, to eradicate ecto-parasites, and regular deworming with lead arsenate or phenothiazine using drenching gun to administer the dewormer which kills endo-parasites like tapeworm and ascaris. The vaccination programme on rinderpest, brucellosis, foot and mouth, and anthrax diseases should be repeated.
With good housing, feeding and healthcare, the goat will mature within four to six months


HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88.





89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE

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