POULTRY LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT




POULTRY

Meaning
Poultry refers to group of birds reared for food and other purposes. These include domestic fowl, turkey, goose, guinea fowl and duck. These birds are reared mainly for meat, egg and manure. They are non-ruminants.

Terms used in Poultry

Cock Male fowl above one year of age
Cockerel Male fowl below one year of age
Hen Female fowl above one year of age
Pullet Female fowl below one year of age
Chick A young fowl (0 – 6 weeks old)
Capon A castrated male fowl
Carponization Process of castration in fowl
Treading Act of mating in fowl
Grower Fowl between 7 – 19 weeks of age
Layer Female fowl over 20 weeks of age that can lay eggs
Broiler Fowl reared for mean
Clutch A group of young chicks
Flock A group of fowls
Chicken Meat of fowl







Breeds of Domestic Fowl

The various species of fowls may have had a common ancestor, the primitive fowl called Gallus. The various breeds of fowls can be classified into three main groups:
(a) Egg producers e.g. white leghorn, brown leghorn.
(b) The meat producers (broilers), e.g. Sussex, Cornish, and Cochin.
(c) The dual purpose ones (i.e. both meat and egg producers), e.g., Rhode Island Red, Plymouth Rock, and New Hampshire.


Summary of Breed of Fowl

(i) White leghorn – best egg producer
(ii) Brown leghorn – egg producer
(iii) Barred Plymouth rock – egg and meat producer
(iv) A straw – egg and meat producer
(v) Rhode Island Red – egg and meat producer
(vi) Plymouth rock – egg and meat producer
(vii) New Hampshire – egg and meat producer
(viii) Sussex – good meat producer
(ix) Cornish – good meat producer
(x) Cochin – good meat producer


POULTRY EQUIPMENT AND THEIR MAIN USES

Equipment Main use
Folus For housing poultry birds
Battery cage Housing of mainly layers
Debeakers Reducing beak lengths
Incubator Hatching fertile eggs
Andler Detecting unfertile eggs
Buckets Fetching water
Feeders/hoppers Feeding birds
Drinkers Provision of water
Hypodermic syringe/needle Injecting birds
Nesting box For egg laying
Creep feed coop and run Housing a brooding hen
Brooder chicks Provision of warmth for
Mash box feeding young chicken
Egg trays/crates/storing eggs Collection of eggs
Roost/perch For resting and sleeping upon by birds
Broom To sweep off waste
Shovel To remove poultry waste
Wheel barrow Carrying feed or waste


System of Poultry Management:

The system of management defines the extent to which birds are exposed to sunshine, pasture and also housing pattern. There are three systems of poultry management. These are extensive, semi-intensive and intensive systems.

Extensive System:

Under this system, the domestic fowls are allowed to roam about in search of food and water. There are no proper housing, care and feeding for these birds. Unlimited grassland is available to the birds. The capital investment is small and the bird’s population per hectare of land minimal and production is usually very low. The use of technology is also limited. Example of the extensive system of rearing poultry is the Free range system.


Free Range System:

Under the free range system, birds are allowed free access to a range of grassland. The birds are allowed to run freely over a large fenced area where they experience nearly natural conditions. The birds are confined in a hut or a shed at night and are allowed to roam within the fenced area during the day. During unfavourable weather conditions, the birds find shelter under trees, bushes or hedges within the range while some run to the range shed or hut to take cover.


ADVANTAGES OF THE FREE RANGE/EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

(i) Initial capital requirement is small
(ii) The labour involved is also very small
(iii) It is most suitable for the management of breeding stock
(iv) It minimizes the incidence of ecto-parasites
(v) Fowls get vitamins and minerals from the grasses they feed on, thereby promoting resistance to disease

DISADVANTAGES OF THE FREE RANGE/EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

(i) There is lack of land because it requires large area and therefore not good for commercial purposes.
(ii) It also requires large labour force to collect eggs
(iii) It exposes the birds to extreme weather conditions
(iv) Economic losses through predators, thieves and laying of eggs in the bush
(v) When badly managed, it may result in the accumulation of germs and parasites.


Semi-intensive System:

The semi-intensive system is mid-way between intensive and extensive system. The birds are housed in a fixed building but are allowed to move about within a fenced area during the day. Their buildings are made up of wood and are raised above the ground with wire netting on the floor to permit easy dropping of faeces. A good example of the, semi-extensive system is the fold unit system.









ADVANTAGES OF THE FOLD UNIT/SEMI EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

(i) The birds have access to natural vegetation which provides vitamins and minerals
(ii) There is protection against adverse weather conditions
(iii) Labour is not needed for locking up the birds at night
(iv) The birds are safe from the attack of wild animals
(v) The birds are kept in small groups and culling is made easier
(vi) The outbreak of any infectious disease is easier to isolate and handle.
(vii) The system is useful for all ages and all kinds of birds.

DISADVANTAGES OF THE FOLD UNIT/SEMI EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

(i) There is a high cost per house when compared with the range system
(ii) It leads to low egg production
(iii) It also leads to high cost of feeding the birds
(iv) Labour requirement is significant with the daily moving of the folds. More labour is required to water and feed small units of poultry.
(v) Vices such as feather picking, egg eating and cannibalism may occur.


Intensive System:

Under this system, the birds are confined within the building and are not allowed to move out. It prevents the birds from having access to pasture and sunshine. There is high stocking density which implies a closer contact among the birds. Feeds, water and all medications are provided for the birds.
Two examples of the intensive system of poultry management are: (i) Deep Litter System (ii) Battery Cage System


Livestock Management.

Definition: A program that focuses on the application of biological and chemical principles to the production and management of livestock animals and the production and handling of meat and other products. Includes instruction in animal sciences, range science, nutrition sciences, food science and technology, biochemistry, and related aspects of human and animal health and safety.










Abstract

Understanding the complex interactions between livestock and the environment is key in the current global context, although the wide diversity of these interactions in the different production systems needs a local approach. In ruminant production systems, ongoing research is focused on quantification of both negative and positive environmental impacts, developing adaptation and mitigation strategies to reduce the former, through increased efficiency and reduced inputs and emissions, and enhancing the later. In extensive conditions, both aims can be achieved by adapting livestock management to the provision of natural foraging resources throughout the year, yet fulfilling other societal demands like the provision of market-oriented products. In this framework, a series of studies will be presented concerning (1) the response of natural vegetation to extensive livestock grazing in different conditions; how farming systems can adapt to seasonal, spatial and nutritional quality of feed resources; and the effect of grazing on animal performance and product quality.
Keywords:
pastoral systems impacts on vegetation and landscape livestock performance and product quality



Farming has been practiced for thousand of years. Several management systems developed in many societies to better adapt to different needs and conditions.
Are we raising animals the right way?

We hear everyday in the news that there are production problems and that food security is not for everybody. Large, sometimes intangible, external factors such as climate changes, political instability, wars they all play a role, but inexperience and lack of knowledge also affects the work farmers do. How can we limit the damages and increase farming production?

Understanding the different livestock management systems is the first step to develop a good strategy. Management systems have a direct impact on production and diseases, this highlights their relevance.

According to FAO there are three main livestock management systems :

mixed production
intensive farming systems “landless”
extensive production system

Mixed production – it includes both agriculture and livestock and it can be either intensive or extensive. These systems are used for exploitation of both irrigated or non-irrigated land and they are common in some parts of America, Europe and Asia.

Intensive farming – it is mainly used for livestock. Intensive breeding farms look more like factories and they are mainly used to breed pigs, chickens, laying hens, cattle and even fish.These farms “landless” are common in north America, Europe and Asia and in heavy populated areas in general, where the demand for meat and proteins is very high.

Extensive farming – it is used on large non-cultivated land where animals can graze freely. Extensive farming is mainly chosen for cattle, to produce meat and milk, sheep and goats. It is more common in Central and South America (Mexico, Argentina, Brazil and Peru), some Southern Africa countries (South Africa, Namibia and Botswana), Australia, but even in Europe.

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
75. SOIL WATER
80. SANDY SOIL CLAY SOIL LOAMY SOIL
83. SOIL TEXTURE
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
soil improvement techniques
90. MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112. THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING CLEARING
121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING FARM YARD MANURE
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149. PLOUGHS
142. FIELD MACHINES
157. PLANTERS
164. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION





ORGANIC MANURE AND ITS APPLICATION TO REPLENISH THE SOIL



ORGANIC MANURE

Organic manure refers to the decayed plant and animal products which have been carefully prepared to supply nutrients to plants or crops. Organic manure is a form of natural nutrients or fertilizer that enriches crop yield. There are processes for making organic manure but let us look at the types or organic manure first.


Types of Organic manure

There are three types of organic manure. These are:
(a) Green manure
(b) Farm-yard manure
(c) Compost manure


These types of organic manures are treated below to a large extent
(a) Green Manure: Green manure is a type of organic manure formed from leguminous crops and other fresh plants which are ploughed into the soil while they are still growing. The plants have to be ploughed in when they are very young, i.e. before flowering stage so that they will decay rapidly to release the nutrients to the soil.
The crops which are suitable for green manure include legumes like mucuna, cowpea, Centrosema, calopogonium, pueraria and grasses.

(b)

Farm-Yard Manure:

Farm-yard manure is a type of organic manure that is a combination of animal wastes such as animal dung or feaces, urine and animal bedding which collectively undergo series of decomposition before the manure is applied to the soil. Poultry birds, generally, produce organic manure of a higher nutrient quality than larger animals. Large animals like cattle feed on grasses, which are high in fibre content which cannot be allowed to complete its decomposition before it can be applied to the soil, otherwise, the heat produced during

(c)

Compost Manure

: Compost manure is the type of organic manure formed as a result of the rottening down of plants and animal remains in heaps or pits before the residue is applied to the soil. This type of organic manure is difficult to produce due to scarcity of animal remains and droppings
There are two ways of preparing compost manure. These are:
(i) Pit Method: This is suitable for areas where rainfall is low such as in the savanna areas.
(ii) Stack Method: This is suitable for areas where rainfall is high such as in the south. Both methods require the same materials and duration.







The Pit Method of making compost manure

Size of the Pit: The size of the pit will depend on the quantity of compost needed, but a dimension of 180cm x 120cm x 60cm could be appropriate.
Materials Required: Three pits (A,B,C) are dug. Grasses and legumes - to form the compost, ash or urine - to remove traces of acidity, animal dung - to introduce bacteria of decomposition, and a little water - to provide a moist environment for the agent for decomposition.
Procedure: In pit A, a layer of grass and legume is put at the bottom. Then a layer of animal dung is added followed by a thin layer of ash. Water== waterborne diseases is further sprinkled on the materials to make it moist but not wet. The whole process is repeated. Layers are added in this manner until the pit is filled stick called a tester at the side.
Check If the operation is successful by feeling the tester. If the tester is hot, you can continue, but if cold, it means the operation is a failure and the whole process hula he repeated.
After two weeks, the materials are turned with a shovel and packed into pit B. This turning provides air for the compost so that the bacteria continue to work on the decaying materials. Pit A is filled with fresh materials. After another two weeks, pit B is turned Into C and A turned into


B. This process continues until the last pit is reached. Compost prepared in this manner can be applied directly to the soil but planting cannot be done; otherwise, the maybe burnt.



(3)

using Bush Fallowing to replenish the soil

: Bush fallowing is the practice in which farmlands are left to lie fallow after one or two years of cultivation. The purpose of this is to allow nutrients to revert to the soil. When a piece of land is placed on continuous cropping, year after year, the nutrients are completely used up from the soil without replacement.
Fallowing as a method of replenishing soil nutrients

(i) When land is allowed to fallow, plant food has time to form in the soil as a result of humus accumulation.

(ii) The system helps to check some plant diseases because when farms are left to fallow for many years, disease organisms lose their hosts and die.

(iii) Fallowing helps to check erosion

(iv) Land becomes relatively cheap to replenish with lost nutrients as farmers may not need fertilizers.

(v) Fallowing helps to dislodge pest from farm plots due to the absence of hosts during fallowing.

(vi) Fallowing also improves soil physical properties like soil structure, texture, etc.

(vii) Fallowing improves the activities of soil flora and fauna.
The period of allowing the land to rest in order to re-grow back to bush and rebuild the used-up nutrients is called fallow period.







HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE

HOW TO USE ORGANIC MANURE TO REPLENISH SOIL NUTRIENTS



Organic Manuring as a method of replenishing soil nutrients

(i) It promotes the activities of soil living organisms such as earthworms, termites and microbes. These organism promote aeration of the soil, easy percolation of water, mixing organic materials with soil, form humus and fix nitrogen into the soil.
All these help to promote the fertility of the soil.

(ii) Organic manure helps to improve the structure of the soil by building the particles of coarse texture soil together.

(iii) Mineralization of humus adds nutrients to the soil.

(iv) It reduces rapid soil temperature fluctuations. As a result of its dark colour, humus easily absorbs heat during the day and loses it slowly at night

(v) Organic manure helps to conserve moisture and prevent, evaporation from the soil.



(vi) Organic manure (humus) has a buffering effect on the soil; i.e, it balances the acid-base condition of the soil or soil pH.

(vii) It prevents erosion because it improves the structure of the soil and reduces the speed of the run-off

(viii) Organic matter increases water-holding capacity of soil.

(ix) It increases the rate of water percolation through clay soil

(x) It increases the activities of soil micro-organism

(xi) It improves the aeration of the soil
All the advantages of organic manure help to maintain or even promote the availability of nutrients in the soil.








HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE

44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION





1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS

10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS

37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS

154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM OF FARM ANIMALS



RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

Respiratory system includes all the organs and tissues associated with the exchange of gases between an animal and its environment, leading to the release of energy in the ecosystem.


purpose of respiration

The purpose of respiration is to supply oxygen to the cells which oxidize or bum down the food to release energy.


most important organ of respiration

The most important organ of respiration in all land animals is the lung, while aquatic animals like fish use the gills to respire. Other organs associated with respiration are the nostril and diaphragm.


the lungs

The lung is located in the thoracic cavity of farm animals. The atmospheric oxygen .passes through the nostrils, the pharynx, larnyx or voice box bronchi and to the lungs
. The movement of oxygen through these organs finally terminates in the alveoli where exchange of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) takes place.










PROCESSES OF BREATHING

Breathing involves two processes:
(1) Inspiration (Inhalation): This involves the breathing in of air into the lungs. During the process, the following take place within and around the lungs.

(i) The diaphragm contracts and flattens out.
(ii) Intercostal muscles contract, ribs are thus raised.
(iii) Sternum moves forward.
(iv) Volume of thoracic cavity therefore increases and the pressure in the lungs is lowered.
(v) This therefore creates a high pressure in the lungs and oxygen is taken into the lungs.


(2) Expiration (Exhalation):This involves the breathing out of air from the lungs. During the process, the following take place within and around the lungs.
(i) The diaphragm relaxes and returns to its dome shape.
(ii) Intercostal muscles relax and the ribs are lowered.
(iii) The sternum moves backwards.
(iv) Volume of thoracic cavity therefore decreases; pressure in the lungs is increased and carbon dioxide is expelled from the lungs.



DIFFERENCES BETWEEN INHALED AIR AND EXHALED AIR

Gas Inhaled Air Exhaled Air
Oxygen 21% 16%
Carbon dioxide 0.03% 4%
Nitrogen 79% 79%
Water vapour Variable saturated

This oxygen is used to oxidize food substances in the mitochondria of the cells during tissue respiration to release energy used by farm animals for movement, growth, reproduction and other body metabolic activities.

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.









1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT

80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE








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