POULTRY MANAGEMENT PRACTICES


Rearing Poultry:

Rearing is the sum total of all the processes involved in bringing birds to maturity. Rearing of fowl includes: providing suitable housing, feeding and health care for the chicks, growers and adult stock.
Regardless of the economic situation, human beings must feed and since domestic birds are consumable; that makes poultry farming feasible.

Brooding

Brooding is the term used for the management or caring for the chicks from the first day till they are about six weeks old.
The device used in which the newly hatched chicks are tended by the provision of heat until they develop enough features is called a brooder. The brooder could be in form of a special house called the brooding house.







Preparations for receiving day-old Chicks for Rearing

(i) Clean and wash brooder house.
(ii) Repair broken or damaged floors, roofs and windows.
(iii) Disinfect brooder house.
(iv) Spread wood shavings to a depth of 6 – 8cm in brooder house
(i) Provide adequate floor space
(ii) Provide reliable heat source
(iii) Stock chick starter feed
(iv) Wash and dry feeders and drinkers
(v) Keep handy a supply of vital medicants e.g anti-stress
(vi) Net the windows to keep away fliers and rodents
(vii) Ensure a dry brooder house before chicks arrive
(viii) Warm up brooder house to 35oC - 39oC before chicks arrive.
(ix) Make a small shallow trench filled with water or engine oil around brooder house to deter soldier ants invasion.
(x) Place food dip with disinfectant at the entrance of brooder house.

MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR CHICKS

A good location is vital to the success and profitability of your poultry farm. An ideal poultry farm should be sited where there’s a large availability of cheap land and at the same time; should be close to areas with high population density. It’s not advisable to site your poultry farm within a residential area because of the offensive odour it produces.

While it is smart to start your poultry farm in a place where the odor and noise would not disturb other people, you should also consider the security factor. Lands in sparsely populated settlements are cheap and you would have fewer issues with community disturbance and zoning but it may be far from your market and buyers. You need to find a balance, look for a place that is favorable to you and would also be favorable to your customers at the same time.
The following are management practices involved in rearing chicks from day old to six weeks
(i) Clean and disinfect or fumigate the brooding house before the arrival of chicks
(ii) The floor of the brooder house should be made of concrete and with the walls which must be rat proof
(iii) Cover the floor with clean wood shavings before the arrival of chicks
(iv) Make available clean feeders, water troughs, source of heat (stove, lantern or electric bulbs), starter chick mash (feed) and some anti-stress drugs (vitamins and antibiotics)
(v) Provide warmth (heat energy) with charcoal pot, kerosene lamps and electric bulbs
(vi) Provide adequate ventilation water and feed regularly
(vii) Raise chicks in brooder houses where heat/warmth is regulated when necessary
(viii) Make consultations with the veterinary department to draw up programme of vaccination for the chicks
(ix) Clean the feeders and waterers regularly and replace with new feed and fresh water
(x) Ensure a temperature range of 32oC – 35oC, lowered by 0.2oC per day and a relative humidity of 50% to 70%
(xi) Ensure that day old chicks are allowed to rest very well, well fed and are given anti-stress vitamins on arrival
(xii) Medicate feed or water with coccido-stat or anti-coccidiosis at three weeks of age
(xiii) Change beddings/litter regularly (once in two weeks) to avoid the build-up of disease organisms or ammonia
(xiv) Debeak the chicks during the first four weeks if they are pullets
(xv) Deworm at six weeks (for broilers)
(xvi) Isolate or cull sick birds
(xvii) Ensure that post-mortems are carried out on dead chicks.







HOUSING

Reasons for Good Housing in Poultry

Poultry needs good home because of the following reasons:
(i) This is to protect birds against adverse weather conditions.
(ii) It is also to protect birds against disease attacks.
(iii) It assists to keep birds in age groups for proper management.
(iv) It protects birds from thieves.
(v) It protects birds from attack by wild animals and dangerous reptiles like snakes, and from hawks.
(vi) Housing enhances maximum productivity in birds.
(vii) Good housing helps to increase the efficiency of feeding and feed utilization.
(viii) It facilitates management and veterinary care.
The chicks, immediately after hatching, are sent to the brooder house where they receive extra heat, either from stove or electric bulb in order to maintain their body temperature because they do not have sufficient feathers to keep their body warm. As the feathers develop, the temperature is reduced from 39°C to 27°C. The chicks are broodly on littered floor with the house completely covered with rubber sheets which can also permit cross ventilation. Feeds, water and other medications are provided for the chicks up till the end of the 6th week, during which chicks are transferred to the growers’ house.
From the 7th-20th week, the birds, now called growers, are reared in the growers house. They are either raised in a deep litter house or in battery cage. The buildings are netted with concrete flooring and proper roofing to ensure the comfort of the birds. From the 21st week, the birds, now called layers, are reared in the layers’ house which is either the deep litter house or the battery cage system, just like the growers.

Feeding:

All categories of poultry birds require balanced diet for proper growth and development. Their ration is enriched with proteins, carbonhydrates, vitamins and minerals. Cold and clean water is kept in the drinkers while the feeds are kept in the feeders for the birds.






Feeding of the Chicken:

The feed given to the chicks is called the chick’s mash which contains high protein of about 18% to promote the rapid growth of the chicks. The feeds are provided “Al-Libitum” which means: the feeds are always in the feeder for the chicks to eat.

Feeding of the Growers:

The feed given to the growers is called the grower’s mash. The feed is low in protein (13%) and is given to the birds from the 7th – 20th week (of age). The birds are placed on restricted feeding. This means that the feed given to the growers is not always in the feeders because it is regulated or calculated to prevent excessive growth and delay the maturity of the growers. Water is also provided regularly in the drinkers.

Feeding of the layers:

The feed given to the layers is called layer’s mash. This is also high in protein (16%) for proper growth and egg formation. In addition, the diet or mash is high in bone meal or oyster shell which provides calcium and phosphorus for the formation of the egg shell. Lack of these minerals results in cracking of the eggs or soft-shelled eggs.

Health care and sanitation of birds:

For proper growth and production of the birds, high level of health and sanitation must be maintained from day old chick till maturity of the birds. Administration of drugs, vaccination and sanitation must be carried out. The vaccination programme of the poultry includes:
Age of Birds Vaccination Disease
1 – 7 days
18 – 20days Introccular (NV1/0) through the eye Gumboro Vaccine IBDV through drinking water Against Newcastle disease






Againt gumboro disease
3 – 4 week NDV Lasota through drinking water Against Newcastle disease
3 – 4 weeks
6 weeks Fowl pox vaccine (FPV) stab in wing web
Komorov (NDVK) through intra-muscular injection Fowl pox disease
Newcastle disease
8 weeks Komorov Vaccine (NDVK) through intra-muscular injection Newcastle disease
Apart from these vaccinations, other drugs are given to the birds through water to either prevent or cure certain diseases. Cleanliness of the poultry farm is also necessary.

To ensure proper sanitation:

(i) Sick or dead birds must be removed from the building.
(ii) Visitors should not be allowed into poultry houses.
(iii) The buildings should be disinfected regularly.
(iv) Water bath containing chemicals should be provided where visitors and workers must dip their legs before entering into the poultry house.
(v) Drinkers should be washed thoroughly.
(vi) Wet litters and mouldy feeds should be detected quickly and removed. (vii) •External parasites like lice should be controlled by dipping birds in solutions containing chemicals to kill the parasites.
(viii) Internal parasites should also be controlled by regular deworming with certain chemicals to kill the parasites.







HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
75. SOIL WATER
80. SANDY SOIL CLAY SOIL LOAMY SOIL
83. SOIL TEXTURE
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
soil improvement techniques
90. MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112. THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING CLEARING
121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING FARM YARD MANURE
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149. PLOUGHS
142. FIELD MACHINES
157. PLANTERS
164. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION





breeds of pig for meat production


Breeds of pig

because pigs can move quickly! You will want to have that secure fencing ready to go before bringing the weanlings or feeder pigs. No matter which of the pig breeds you choose, infrastructure basically remains the same. Pigs require a clean shelter, plenty of fresh water, free range pasture or grain and a place to cool off.
The cooling off place can be a kiddie pool filled with water or a shallow mud hole they dig themselves. Pigs love to wallow but they really prefer a clean environment afterward.
Pigs are non-ruminant animals and they belong to the family called sud. There are two main species of pigs - sacrofa and sus vittatus.


(1) Large white
(2) Large black
(3) Duroc Jersey
(4) Poland China
(5) Tamworth
(6) West African Dwarf pig
(7) Hamphire
(8) American Landrace
(9) Chester White
(10) Belgium Pie Train







All the breed types are grouped into three classes:

(a) Meat type
(b) Land type
(c) The Bacon type
Pigs are reared mainly for meat, pig skin, bristle and manure

1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES






56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE

Terminologies used in Pig

Boar A mature male pig
Sow A mature female pig
Gilt A female pig that is matured to reproduce or has reproduced once
Piglet The young or baby pig
Weaners Young pigs just separated from the mother
Fatteners Old pigs reared for the market
Barrow A castrated male pig
Farrowing The act of parturition in pig
In sow Pregnant sow
Dry sow Sow that is not pregnant
Pork The meat of pig
Bacon Salted pig meat
Lard Pig meat with fat








CHARACTERISTICS OF PIG

(1) Pigs are very prolific animals. At 8 – 9months for age, a gilt is matured and can farrow twice a year, producing 8 – 10 piglets per litre.
(2) It has a short gestation period of 114days i.e. three months, three weeks and three days.
(3) The mature very early. A piglet gets to 60 – 90kg market weight in 6 – 9 months
(4) Pigs are good converters of feed into meat. They can easily convert industrial, agricultural and compounded feed into meat more cheaply and rapidly than most other domestic animals.
(5) Pigs have an excellent dressing percentage, i.e. the proportion of flesh to bone is high
(6) Pigs require a very little investment in terms of building and equipment
(7) Pigs are polyestrous animals. This means that pigs can be bred at any time of the year
(8) The salvage value of pig is high. That is, the price at which an old pig can be sold off is high
(9) The initial investment in getting into the enterprise is small and returns come very quickly.

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE

methods of rearing pig



SYSTEMS OF REARING PIGS

There are three systems of rearing pigs. These are Extensive, Semi-intensive and Intensive systems.
(1) Extensive system: In this system, pigs are allowed to roam about and fend themselves. This system has little or no capital investment and the cost of production is low. However disease incidence of worm infestations are very high. The animals are exposed to adverse weather conditions.







2) Semi-intensive system: In this system, housing is provided for the animals and they are allowed to move out to feed on natural vegetation. Paddocks are provided around the house which is fenced. Wallows and shades are also provided. The animals are allowed to move about, thereby exercising themselves to prevent fat built-up in the body. The system needs less capital investment but the labour requirement, disease incidence and parasite infestations are slightly high. Concentrate feeds are also provided.


(3) Intensive system: All the pigs are confined within a building and are not allowed to move out. The pigs are raised inside the pens on either concrete or iron slated floor.
Feeds, water and medications are supplied daily in adequate quantity and good sanitation is maintained. The system saves labour, provides conditions for good management standards and easy control of internal parasites. There is also protection from extremes of climate, predators and thieves. The feed efficiency is high, thus the growth rate is also very high. The system requires high capital investment in terms of building and feeding.


PIG HOUSING

(i) Pig houses are sheds which provide shelter against harsh weather as well as provide proper hygiene conditions required to maintain healthy growth of the animals.
(ii) Pig house should be constructed along the direction of the wind but should be far from residential areas.
(iii) Pig house should have low walls made with bricks, stones or concrete cement with low walls to allow free flow of air.
(iv) The floor should be hard, impervious to water but easy to clean. It should be cement concrete, iron on concrete slabs.
(v) The floor should slope towards the drains with a gradient of 1:40, to ease cleaning. The surface of the floor should be slightly rough to prevent pigs from slipping.
(vi) The roof should be made from either asbestos, galvanized iron or aluminum sheets
(vii) All pens, except farrowing pens, are constructed the same way, with the provision of feeders and drinkers.
(viii) Farrowing pens in addition to the feeders and drinkers should have rail guards so as to prevent the sow from lying over the piglets.
(ix) The farrowing pens should also have creep area where the food of the piglets are kept. Such partition prevents the sow from eating up the nutritious food for the piglets.






PIG FEEDING

(i) Feed cost represents 70-80% of total cost of producing swine.
(ii) Feeds given to all categories of pigs should be balanced in nutrients, i.e. it should contain all nutrients required for growth and production.
(iii) Breeder’s mash (15% protein) should be fed to breeders to prevent body fat deposition but keep them thrifty.
(iv) Flushing of the breeder should be done 7 to 10 days before breeding and maintained until the animals are bred. Flushing is the process by which the feed intake of the gilt or sow is increased so that it can produce more eggs or ova and consequently more number of fertilized eggs or ova and large litters or piglets.
(v) Pregnant or in-sows should not be overfed during gestation period to prevent fat deposition which leads to small litter sixe and difficulty in parturition
(vi) Laxatic diet, rich in high fibres (grasses) should be given to in-sows to aid easy parturition and lactation
(vii) The young piglets should be given creep feed (22%) protein as from two weeks of age to promote rapid growth of the piglets.
(viii) As soon as the piglets are weaned, they should be given weaners’ mash which contains about 18% protein for about 14weeks at an average rate of 1kg for a pig per day
(ix) The pigs are also fed on fattener’s mash (14% protein) during the fattening stage when pigs do not require high proteinous feed. The pigs are fed at an average rate of 2kg per pig in a day till they reach market weight of 6- 90kg at seven months of age
(x) Pigs being omnivorous animals can feed on kitchen wastes, grasses, remains of hotel food and other by-products of brewery and dry wastes.






PIG HEALTH/HYGIENE

Common sanitary measures to be adopted in pig farm include:
(i) Clean pig pens regularly by scrubbing the floors
(ii) Disinfect the pig house at regular intervals to make it germ-free
(iii) Clean the feeders and watering troughs to prevent contamination
(iv) Isolate any sick animal for treatment
(v) Remove and bury dead animals
(vi) Deworm the pigs with drugs and vaccinate them against diseases

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE

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