ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF FARM ANIMALS



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF FARM ANIMALS

MEANING OF ANATOMY AND PHYSICOLOGY

Anatomy refers to the form and structure of the body while physiology refers to the functions of the forms and parts of the body. It is very important for the farmer to understand the anatomy and physiology of farm animals because it will enable him to know more about the nutrition, reproduction and management of his animals.
MAJOR PARTS OR DIVISIONS OF FARM ANIMALS
The body of farm animals is divided into four major groups: these are
(i) Head
(ii) Thoracic cavity







(iii) Abdominal cavity
(iv) The limbs
(i) Head: The head is the upper part of the body. The major organs found in the head region include the brain, eyes, ear, tongue and nose
(ii) Thoracic cavity: the thoracic cavity refers to the chest region of the body. The major organs in the thoracic cavity include heart, lungs and treachea.
(iii) Abdominal cavity: The abdominal cavity refers to the stomach region of the body. The major organs in the abdominal cavity include liver, uterus, stomach, oviduct or fallopian tube, kidney, ovary, spleen, intestine, gall bladder and pancreas.
(iv) Limbs: The limbs(details) include the fore limbs (hands) and hind limbs (legs). They are used by farm animals for walking.
Some of the systems which maintain the body are: (i)digestive system (ii)circulatory system (iii)respiratory system (iv)nervous system (d)reproductive system








66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
75. SOIL WATER
80. SANDY SOIL CLAY SOIL LOAMY SOIL
83. SOIL TEXTURE
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
soil improvement techniques

166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION









CULTIVATION OF GROUNDNUT (ARACHIS HYPOGEA)



GROUNDNUT (Arachis hypogea)

Groundnut is a dual-purpose crop. It can be cultivated as an oil crop as well as a protein or a pulse or leguminous crop. Although it is a leguminous crop, it is mainly grown for its oil.
The seed called nut contains about 40 - 55% oil, 30% protein and 18% carbohydrate. Industrial products of groundnut include:
(i) Groundnut cake.
(ii) Groundnut oil.
(iii) Groundnut butter.

Land Preparation for the planting of groundnut

The land is cleared, stumping i done and land can also be prepared mechanically by ploughing, harrowing and ridging.

Varieties/Cultivars of groundnut

Bunch or erect type, creeping type, Kano local, Kano 50 and castle carry.

Climatic requirement for the cultivation of groundnut

Groundnut requires a temperature of 25C – 30C, rainfall of 70 – 100cm per annum.






Maturity Period for groundnut

: It matures between four to six months.

process of Harvesting groundnut

: Harvesting is done when the lower leaves turn brown and begins to fall. Harvesting is done by using native hoes or by pulling the plants up by hand. The nuts are then picked from the plant root and stem. Harvest 102 – 150 days after planting, depending on the variety. Harvesting can be done manually or mechanically by uprooting the plant and allowing them to dry for easy removal of pods.

Processing and storage of groundnut

: Harvested nuts are dried properly. The seeds are removed from the shells by pounding them slightly in mortars or by beating them with sticks. Small shelling or decorticating machine can also be used to remove the seeds from the pod.
Storage: Dried groundnuts can be stored in clean rhumbus or silos. The unshelled pods are stored in sacks while the shelled nuts are stored in bags. The shelled nuts are treated with insecticides before storage.

Pests of Groundnut and control methods

(1) Rodents: These include rats which dig up and eat sown seeds.
Control: Fencing and trapping should be done.
(2) Groundnut Beetle: This sacks the nuts during storage.
Control: Fumigation with phostoxin tablets should be done. Other pests include aphids. caterpillar and grasshopper, bruchid or weevil or floor beetle.

Diseases of groundnut and control methods

(1) Groundnut rosette disease: It is caused by a virus which is transmitted by aphid and other piercing and sucking insects.
Symptoms: Symptoms include green leaves which become yellow with mosaic form of mottling. The plant becomes stunted and finally withers and dies.
Control: (i) Plant healthy seeds. (ii) Uproot and burn infected plants. (iii) Spray to kill the vector (aphids) with insecticide.

(2) Tikka Disease: It is caused by a fungus (Cercospora personata), which can be spread by air or wind as in air-borne diseases and insect-borne disease







Symptoms: Symptoms include yellowing of leaves with dark brown spots on the under surface. Falling of the leaves soon will set in.
Control:
(i) Early planting. (ii) Practise crop rotation. (iii) Use resistant varieties. (iv) Maintain farm sanitation.
(3) Aspergillosis: It is caused by a fungus (Aspertilles Havus) which makes the seed become mouldy. Spores are transmitted through the soil. Pods become toxic because of the presence of aflatoxins which are poisonous. The hypocotyl of the geminating seeds will die.
Control: (i) Plant mould- free seeds.
(ii) Treat seeds with fungicides.

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.


88. PH SOIL TEST





89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
soil improvement techniques


AGRO-ALLIED INDUSTRIES


AGRO-ALLIED OR AGRO-BASED INDUSTRIES

MEANING OF AGRO ALLIED INDUSTRIES

WHAT IS AGRO ALLIED INDUSTRY?
Agro-allied industries also called Agro based industries are industries which depend on agriculture for their raw materials in order to operate successfully.
In other words, agro-based industries require the supply of agricultural raw materials in order to provide some finished products that are essential for human and animal consumption.

Agro Allied industries or Agro-based industries are industries whose primary raw materials are agricultural products. Agriculture provides vital resources and raw materials to the industrial sector

INTRODUCTION TO AGRO-ALLIED INDUSTRIES

Food is the third most essential need for human survival after oxygen and water. The first and second goals of the sustainable development goals (SDG’s) are centred on poverty eradication and food security. The Agro- allied industry is a collection of companies engaged in a high- scale production, processing, and packaging of food with the use of modern equipment and methods aimed at achieving these goals.It is also a vital integral part of any nation’s economic growth. A major objective of the macroeconomic policy is fostering economic growth thereby creating a suitable environment for agro-allied industries to thrive. However, it is almost impossible to speak about the agro- allied industry without taking into cognizance the availability of agricultural products, its productivity, quantity and quality. Transportation cost is minimised with proper sitting of industries close to the location of raw materials

SUMMARY OF AGRO-BASED INDUSTRIES AND RAW MATERIALS USED IN EACH INDUSTRY

Agro-based Industries Raw materials used
(i) Oil mill Oil seeds
(ii) Soap industry Oil seeds/oil
(iii) Cigarette/tobacco Tobacco leaves
(iv) Textile/Ginnery Cotton
(v) Breweries Cereals
(vi) Fruit canning Fruits
(vii) Paper industry Pulpwood
(viii) Sugar industry Sugar cane
(ix) Plywood/sawmill Wood
(x) Flour mill Cereal/grains
(xi) Starch Cassava, maize
(xii) Tyre Rubber latex
(xiii) Feed mill Groundnut, maize, etc
(xiv) Beverage coffee Cocoa, tea









RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AGRICULTURE AND INDUSTRIES

There is a positive and wide range of relationships between agriculture and industries. These relationships include the following:https://youtu.be/RfJGsaYSLb0
(1) Provision of Market: Agriculture provides market for industrial products such as farm machinery, chemicals and fertilizer.
(2) Provision of Food: Agriculture also provides food for industrial workers.
(3) Provision of Raw Materials: Agriculture provides raw materials such as cocoa, cotton, palm produce and groundnut for industries.
(4) Shifting of Factors of Production: Agricultural development allows for a shift of factors of production like land, labour and capital to industry.
(5) Competition for Labour: Both agriculture and industry compete for labour.
(6) Development of Industrial Sector: Rise in agricultural income due to efficient and economic factor combination brings about development of industrial sector of the economy.

Summary of Agro-based Industries and Raw materials used in each Industry

.
Agro – based Industries – Raw materials Used
(1) Oil mill – Oil seeds
(2) Soap industry – Oil seeds/oil
(3) Cigarette/tobacco – Tobacco leaves
(4) Textile/Ginnery – Cotton
(5) Breweries – Cereals
(6) Fruit canning – Fruits
(7) Paper industry – Pulpwood
(8) Sugar industry – Sugar cane
(9) Plywood/saw mill – Wood
(10) Floor mill – Cereal/grains
(11) Starch – Cassava, maize
(12) Tyre – Rubber latex
(13) Feed mill – Groundnut, maize
(14) Beverage – Cocoa, tea, coffee

Agro-Allied or Agro-Based industries
Meaning: Agro-Allied industries also called Agro-Based industries are industries which depend on agriculture for their raw materials in order to operate successfully.
In other words, agro-based industries require the supply of agricultural raw materials in order to provide some finished products that are essential for human and animal consumption.



HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE

44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION

58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION

79. SOIL STRUCTURE





80. SANDY SOIL CLAY SOIL LOAMY SOIL
83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
166. THE CONCEPT OF
(7) Provision of Essential Goods: industries provide a large range of desirable goods that farmers want to buy.
(8) Provision of Agro-chemicals: Industries produce agro-chemicals for agricultural uses. Examples are: pesticides, fertilizers, vaccines and herbicides.
(9) Provision of Storage Facilities: Industries provide storage facilities for agricultural produce, e.g. milk, fruit, vegetables, meat, fish, etc.
(10) Provision of Processing Facilities: Industries also provide processing facilities such as grinders, millers, etc for agriculture.
(11) Provision of Agricultural Tools and Machinery: Industries produce machinery and equipment for agricultural uses. Examples include tractors, ploughs, cutlasses and hoes.









HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1.
DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT


57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION

FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS


FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS

What are holozoic organisms?

Holozoic organisms are organisms that feeds on other organisms or solid organic food substances synthesized by green plants.

There are five modifications and mechanisms of feeding associated with some organisms these feeding mechanisms include

Holozoic nutrition (Greek: holo-whole ; zoikos-of animals) is a type of heterotrophic nutrition that is characterized by the internalization (ingestion) and internal processing of gaseous, liquid or solid food particles.[1] Protozoa, such as amoebas, and most of the free living animals,such as animals, exhibit this type of nutrition.

Holozoic nutrition

the energy and organic building blocks are obtained by ingesting and then digesting other organisms or pieces of other organisms, including blood and decaying organic matter. This contrasts with holophytic nutrition, in which energy and organic building blocks are obtained through photosynthesis or chemosynthesis, and with saprozoic nutrition, in which digestive enzymes are released externally and the resulting monomers (small organic molecules) are absorbed directly from the environment.








There are

several stages of holozoic nutrition,

which often occur in separate compartments within an organism (such as the stomach and intestines):

Ingestion:

In animals, this is merely takes place by engulfing the food totally in the mouth. In protozoa, this most commonly occurs through phagocytosis.


1.

ABSORBING MECHANISMS:

TAPEWORM
A typical example of an organism possessing the sucking or absorbing mechanism is the tapeworm.
The tapeworm is an endoparasites which carries out parasitic feeding on its host like humans. The tapeworm has no mouth but can only absorb digested food nutrients from the intestine of its host.
The body of the tapeworm is modified and adapted for parasitic feeding as follows
i. The tapeworm has no elementary canal hence food is absorbed through its entire body surface.
ii. The tapeworm has hooks and suckers which are used to attach itself to the wall of the intestine of the host to avoid dislodgement.
iii. The body of a tapeworm has thick cuticle which resists digestive enzymes of the host
iv. The tapeworm’s flat body surface provides a large surface area for the absorption of already digested food.
v. The entire body surface of a tapeworm is used for the absorption of food

BITING AND CHEWING MECHANISM:

2.

biting and chewing

E.g. grasshoppers and cockroach

The grasshopper and cockroach has mouth parts that are adapted for biting and chewing.
These insect types have four different mouth parts which are modified or adapted for biting and chewing food. These mouth parts are
i. LABRUM OR UPPER LIP: THE GRASSHOPPER HAS UPPER LIP OR LABRUM WHICH PREVENTS FOOD FROM FALLING OUT
ii. MANDIBLES: the grasshopper or the cockroach has or possesses a pair of mandibles which are heavy, toothed and jaw-like structure used for cutting and chewing food materials
iii. MAXILAE: the grasshopper or cockroach has a pair of Maxillae which serves as biting blade. This breaks down the food which the mandibles have chewed into smaller particles
iv. LABIUM: the labium also known as the lower lip prevents the wastage of food from the mouth
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION






40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE



3.

SUCKING MECHANISMS


There are three popular organisms which exhibits sucking mechanism. These organisms are mosquito, butterfly and housefly. They insects have different modifications of mouth marts adapted for feeding on food through the mechanism of sucking.
So let’s treat them one after the other
THE MOSQUITO
i. Mosquito as an example of sucking insect: the mosquito possesses a piercing mouth part called the proboscis. The proboscis is used for sucking the blood of man and other animals
ii. The mouth parts altogether form a strong stylet capable of penetrating into the skin to suck
iii. The stylet except the labium is sharp and pointed to ease penetration into the skin
iv. The mouth of a typical mosquito can produce saliva to prevent clotting of blood while it is being sucked in
v. The mosquito has the ability to fold back the labium easily so as to allow the stylet to perform its work of penetration of the skin to suck blood

SUCKING MECHANISM OF THE BUTTERFLY
The butterfly feeds on liquid food like nectars of flowers. The butterfly has its mouth parts modified for sucking in the following ways
i. The butterfly possesses a long coiled proboscis used for sucking nectars of flowers
ii. The butterfly as an insect is capable of recoiling the long proboscis under its head when not in use.
iii. There is a nonfunctioning of the other mouth parts due to the type of food taken by the insect


SUCKING MECHANISM OF THE HOUSEFLY

The housefly mainly feds on liquid food materials. It has mouth parts modified for sucking in food in the following ways
i. The housefly possesses enlarged labella which are sucking structures for sucking liquid food
ii. The housefly has the ability to feed on solid food like SUGAR by pouring out its saliva to change the food to a liquid state.
iii. The housefly has a sucking mechanism called SPONGING in which the mouth is placed on the liquid food and it will start to rush into the mouth
iv. The labella of the housefly have fine channels which aid rapid absorption of liquid food into the mouth

4.

THE GRINDING MECHANISMS

Grinding mechanism is common among mammals e.g. man, goat, sheep, lion etc. these animals are capable of grinding the food before swallowing. The grinding of food is aided by the presence of hard and strong teeth made of enamel and dentine.
The animals are adapted to the grinding mechanisms by the following
i. They possess different types or sets of teeth
ii. The teeth are strong and hard to withstand biting, chewing or grinding and cracking of solid food like bones
iii. The possess incisors which have sharp and flat edged used for biting off bits of food
iv. Animals have pointed canine teeth used for tearing solid food
v. There is the presence of pre-molars and molars with undulating and wide surface to enable grinding of food
vi. The absence of front teeth or incisors in herbivores like sheep is a special adaptation as it helps to grip the grasses during feeding by the animal.


5.

TRAPPING AND ABSORBING MECHANISM


The trapping and absorbing mechanism are common among insectivorous or carnivorous plants such as bladderwort and sundew.
The bladderwort and sundew have structures which enable them to adapt to this mode of feeding or nutrition
i. Sundew for example is capable of trapping insect by undergoing nastic movement in response to touch from the body of the insect
ii. The sundew leaf has long hairs which carry digestive glands
iii. Insect landing on these hairs causes other hairs to coil over it
iv. The sundew is capable of secreting a fluid rich in enzymes to digest the insect externally
v. The protein so synthesized is easily absorbed by the carnivorous plant into its body


Here are some related post on the subject of nutrition and modes of feeding in living organisms

1. Modes of nutrition in animals
2. Saprophytic nutrition
3. Parasitic nutrition
4. Forages and farm animal nutrition
5. Water as a food substance
6. Carnivorous nutrition in plants
7. Endoparasites and Ectoparasites feeding modes
8. Holozoic mode of nutrition
9. Heterotrophic mode of nutrition
10. Autotrophic nutrition
11. Chemosynthetic nutrition
12. Importance of balance diet
13. What is Kwashiokor?
14. How to test for food
15. Vitamin deficiency symptoms
16. Mineral deficiency symptoms
17. Types of carbohydrates
18. Food substances
19. Classification of food substances
20. Growth in living organisms
21. Types joints
22. The human skeleton
23. The skeletal system
24. The vertebrates and invertebrates
25. Exoskeleton
26. Appendicular skeleton
27. Topical index of all pages
28. Osmosis
29. Diffusion
30. Turgidity
31. The cell and its environment
32. Mitosis and meiosis


If you find our articles useful please share with people that care about and if you have any question or suggestion then you should the comment box below


SAPROPHYTIC NUTRITION



WHAT IS SAPROPHYTIC NUTRITION?

Saprophytic nutrition is a process of chemoheterotrophic extracellular digestion involved in the processing of decayed organic matter.
Explanation:
As organic matter decomposes within a medium in which a saprotroph is residing, the saprotroph breaks it into its composites.
Definitely you might have read in my previous post about parasitic nutrition, Autotrophic nutrition, heterotrophic nutrition. I had also written a post on endoparasites and Ectoparasites and their mode of nutrition. If you having read them please head straight down and choose any of the links.

So here let’s talk about Saprophytes.
What are Saprophytes?
Saprophytic nutrition is a type of nutrition in which certain organisms called, the Saprophytes feeds on dead and decaying organic materials. This type of nutrition is called the saprophytic nutrition and the association involving this type of nutrition is called saprophytism.
The saprophytes, generally, can secrete enzymes into the dead and decaying organic materials on which they grow. The enzymes so secreted, is able to digest some portions of the substrate outside the body of the saprophyte by a process called EXTRACELLULAR DIGESTION.






The digested food material on the substrate is then absorbed into its body through the rhizoids. Examples of organism which exhibits saprophytic mode of nutrition are the Fungi such as Rhizopus, mushroom, mucor, toad stool and penicillium

SAPROPHYTIC NUTRITION
Definitely you might have read in my previous post about parasitic nutrition, Autotrophic nutrition, heterotrophic nutrition. I had also written a post on endoparasites and Ectoparasites and their mode of nutrition. If you having read them please head straight down and choose any of the links.

So here let’s talk about Saprophytes.
What are Saprophytes?
Saprophytic nutrition is a type of nutrition in which certain organisms called, the Saprophytes feeds on dead and decaying organic materials. This type of nutrition is called the saprophytic nutrition and the association involving this type of nutrition is called saprophytism.
The saprophytes, generally, can secrete enzymes into the dead and decaying organic materials on which they grow. The enzymes so secreted, is able to digest some portions of the substrate outside the body of the saprophyte by a process called EXTRACELLULAR DIGESTION.

The digested food material on the substrate is then absorbed into its body through the rhizoids. Examples of organism which exhibits saprophytic mode of nutrition are the Fungi such as Rhizopus, mushroom, mucor, toad stool and penicillium

The following are related link and posts to this topic

1. Modes of nutrition in animals
2. Saprophytic nutrition
3. Parasitic nutrition
4. Forages and farm animal nutrition
5. Water as a food substance
6. Carnivorous nutrition in plants
7. Endoparasites and Ectoparasites feeding modes
8. Holozoic mode of nutrition
9. Heterotrophic mode of nutrition
10. Autotrophic nutrition
11. Chemosynthetic nutrition
12. Importance of balance diet
13. What is Kwashiokor?
14. How to test for food
15. Vitamin deficiency symptoms
16. Mineral deficiency symptoms
17. Types of carbohydrates
18. Food substances






-major-crops.html">DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY


28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88.





89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE



FACTORS AFFECTING THE AVAILABILITY OF PLANT NUTRIENTS IN THE SOIL


FACTORS INFLUENCING NUTRIENTS AVAILABILITY IN THE SOIL

The factors which influence the availability of nutrients in the soil include the following:
Soil pH:
The degree of acidity or alkalinity of the soil affects the availability of nutrients, both in the soil and also to plants.
(i) A low pH (high acidity) will encourage the disintegration of clay like calcium, iron and aluminum, which are leached away from the soil.
(ii) At high pH (high alkalinity), calcium and magnesium ions accumulate in the soil, and this affects the growth of plants.
(iii) A low pH also reduces the activities of soil living organisms which aid the decomposition of organic matter.

(2)

Concentration of Other Nutrients

(1) The presence of certain element(s) in high concentration may prevent the absorption or utilization of other elements.macro and micro elements
(ii) The concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus in the soil results in the non-availability of potassium.
(i) This condition results in retarded growth, low yield or even death of the plant.







(3)

Leaching

details of leaching here
(i) This is the removal of nutrients from the top soil to the inner parts of the soil beyond the reach of the roots of plant.
(ii) It results in the loss of nutrients such as calcium, magnesium, potassium from the top soil in solution.
(iii) It also results in the accumulation of aluminum and hydrogen ions which become acidic and toxic to plants.

(4)

Crop Removal

(i) Nutrients are removed from the soil by crops for growth, development and production (of crops)
(ii) When the crops are harvested, the nutrients contained in the plants are never returned to the soil.
(iii) The rapid removal of nutrients from the soil by continuous cropping completely deprives the soil of such nutrients.

(5)

Oxidation and Reduction of Organic Material

(i) Some compounds such as ammonium radicals are oxidized to gaseous ammonia.
(ii) Nitrates are also reduced to molecular nitrogen or oxides of nitrogen by denitrifying bacteria.
(iii) These products (i.e. ammonium radicals and nitrates) which escape into the atmosphere in form of gases make the soil become poorer in nutrients.
(6)

Burning

(i) It exposes the soil to erosion which can wash away plant nutrients in the soil.
(ii) It burns the organic matter content of the soil, thereby reducing the amount of nutrients in the soil.
(iii) It kills or reduces the number of soil organisms which aid decomposition of materials, and consequently, most nutrients may not be available to the soil.

(7)

Soil Texture

(i) Fine texture, such as clay and silt, ensures the availability of nutrients in the soil.
(ii) But coarse texture like sand prevents the availability of nutrients in the soil.
(iii) Coarse texture encourages the leaching of nutrients from the soil

(8)

Erosion

(i) Heavy rainfall causes the washing or carrying away of top soil which is rich in plant nutrients.
(ii) Top soil can also be blown away by winds, resulting in nutrient reduction in the soil.








(9)

Soil Moisture Content

(i) Soil moisture content determines the level of nutrients in the soil.
(ii) High level of soil moisture can lead to toxicity of nutrients in the soil.
(iii) High moisture content can lead to soil erosion that can wash away nutrients in the soil.
(iv) Moderate moisture in the soil ensures adequate availability of nutrients in the soil
(v) Very low soil moisture leads to dryness or non-availability of nutrients for plants.
(10) Level of organic matter/micro organisms in the soil
(i) High level of organic matter and micro-organisms lead to adequate availability of nutrients in the soil.
(ii) High level of organic matter ensures availability of water in the soil and vice versa..
(iii) High level of micro-organisms the soil ensures good growth for crop plants
(iv) High level of organic matter in the soil helps to prevent soil erosion.
(v) Adequate level of organic matter improves the activities of micro organisms in the soil.
(vi) Organic manure also helps to improve the structure of the soil.
(vii) It also reduces rapid soil temperature fluctuations.

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT








IMPORTANCE OF NITROGEN CYCLE


Nitrogen Cycle

Nitrogen cycle involves the complex process by which nitrogen is naturally added and removed from the soil. It is a sequence of reaction, indicating the various means by which nitrogen is added to and removed from the atmosphere and the soil.

Importance of Nitrogen Cycle

Nitrogen cycle is nature’s way of regulating the amount of nitrogen to the soil.

WAYS BY WHICH NITROGEN IS ADDED TO THE SOIL IN THE NITROGEN CYCLE

These are the ways by which nitrogen is added to the soil in the Nitrogen cycle:
(1) Direct fixation by lightning during rainfall (Electrical discharge).
(2) Incorporation into the soil by free living bacteria or non-symbiotic bacteria.
(3) Nitrogen fixing bacteria in the root modules.
(4) Decomposition of organic matter
(5) Application of nitrogenous fertilizers
(6) Ammonification
(7) Nitrification






Soil can gain nitrogen through the following ways:

(1)

Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation:

Some bacteria, such as rhizobium leguminosarum, which live in the root nodules of legunminous plants can fix atmospheric nitrogen directly into the plant. The plant supplies carbohydrate for use by the bacteria while the bacteria supply the plant with combined nitrogen.

(2)

Electrical Discharge

: Nitrogen can also be fixed into the soil during lightning. Nitrogen in the air combines with oxygen to form nitric oxide which further undergoes oxidation to form nitrogen dioxide. The nitrogen dioxide will dissolve in rain water to form nitrous and nitric acid which later dissociates to form nitrate in the soil.

(3)

Non-Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation

: Some bacteria such as azotobacter and clostridium also Live freely in the soil and can fix atmospheric nitrogen into the soil either aerobically or anaerobically.

(4)

Ammonification and Nitrification:

The process involving the formation of ammonium and decaying plants and animals and their waste products like urine and feaces is called ammonification. A further reaction known as nitrification involves the conversion of ammonium compounds first to nitrite by nitrifying bacteria called nitrosomonas. These nitrites are converted by oxidation to nitrates by another bacterium called nitrobacter. Plants can only absorb nitrates from the soil.
(5) Application of Organic Manure and Nitrogen Fertilizers: These also add or supply nitrogen to the soil.


WAYS BY WHICH SOIL NITROGEN IS LOST FROM THE SOIL

(1) By denitrification: This process involves the conversion of nitrate to nitrogen gas by certain bacteria. The nitrogen gas escapes into the air.
(2) Soil erosion
(3) Leaching
(4) Soil ph
(5) Bush Burning and Crop removal
(7) Volatilisation
(8) Oxidation reaction
(9) Reduction reaction.









PROCESSES THAT LEAD TO THE FORMATION OF NITRATE FROM ORGANIC MATTER IN THE NITROGEN CYCLE

(i) Putrefaction
(ii) Amminization
(iii) Ammonification/mineralization
(iv) Nitrification

(i) Putrefaction: Decay of plant and animal remains into simpler nitrogenous compounds by micro-organisms
(ii) Amminization: Products from putrefactions reaction converted to simple amino compounds and amines
(iii) Ammonification: Conversion of amino compounds and amines into ammonium (NH2 +) compounds
(iv) Nitrification: Oxidation of ammonium compounds into nitrites and nitrates.
Carbon cycle
involves the series of processes which contribute to the circulation of carbon in nature.
i. Carbon dioxide is removed from the air mainly by photosynthesis during which plants use it to manufacture their own food.
ii. Carbon is lost in form of carbonates of calcium and magnesium through leaching and drainage
The atmosphere gains carbon dioxide through
i. Burning of fuel like coal and wood,
ii. The action of volcanoes which releases carbon dioxide
iii. The respiration by plants and animals
iv. The death, decay and putrefaction of plants and animals,
v. Diffusion of carbon dioxide form sea and other bodies of water, acting as reservoir of carbon dioxide
Importance of carbon cycle
i. Plants use carbon dioxide obtained from the air to manufacture their food during photosynthesis
ii. It provides carbon which is the major building block of all organic matters
iii. It helps to purify the atmosphere and also to maintain atmospheric level of carbon dioxide
iv. Organic matter which is made form carbon helps replenish the soil nutrients
HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING

52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW







89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION

147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE

popular post of all time

new posts

diseases caused by microorganisms in animals, like bacteria, virus, fungi and protozoa

there are so many types of diseases that are caused by microorganisms in animals these diseases are harmful to the well-being of every anima...