digestion of food in the elementary canal


DIGESTION OF FOOD AND THE ELEMENTARY CANAL IN MAN

Alimentary canal, also called digestive tract, pathway by which food enters the body and solid wastes are expelled. The alimentary canal includes the mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus.

What is the elementary canal?

This is the digestive system in man through which food substances are taken in and by which also nutrients are taken into the blood steam. The elementary canal in man includes the following









i. Mouth
ii. Oesophagus
iii. Stomach
iv. Duodenum
v. Small intestine
vi. Large intestine or colon
vii. Rectum
viii. Anus

Importance of the parts of the elementary canal are as follows

1. Functions of the teeth
i. The teeth are used to cut, grind and chew food into tiny particles
ii. The teeth exposes large area of food for the action of enzymes

2.

Functions of the tongue

i. The tongue helps to roll the food into bolus
ii. The tongue aids the movement of food in the mouth
iii. The tongue allows the mixing of food in the mouth with saliva or ptyalin-enzyme
iv. The tongue aids in swallowing of food into the Oesophagus or gullet

3.

Functions of the salivary gland

i. The salivary gland is part of the digestive system which secretes saliva which in turn contains an enzyme called ptyalin.
ii. The ptyalin as an enzyme that breaks down starch into maltose which is later swallowed into the gullet in form of bolus
iii. It allows for the easy chewing or movement of food in the mouth for swallowing
iv. It also serves as solvent for food




4.

Functions of the Oesophagus/Gullet:

The Oesophagus connects the mouth to the stomach. The food swallowed is passed down into through the Oesophagus by a movement called peristaltic movement.


5.

Functions of the stomach:

i. The stomach is a temporary storage for food which takes just a few hours which is then released through the opening of the pyloric sphincter at regular intervals.
ii. In the stomach, the gastric gland secretes gastric juice which contains two enzymes, the RENIN and PEPSIN
iii. The renin acts on milk. It helps to curdle milk.
iv. The pepsin breaks down protein to peptones
v. The gastric gland also secretes hydrochloric acid (HCL) which creates an acid medium for two enzymes to act.
vi. The HCL also helps to kill bacteria in the stomach.
vii. The food is churned by muscular contraction of the stomach wall which enables the mixing of food with digestive juice-enzymes
viii. The churning movement then converts the food in semi-liquid state called chyme

1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE

40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE





49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES





146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE




6.

Functions of the DUODENUM

I. The digestion of food takes place in this region of the elementary.
II. The Duodenum contains pancreas which secretes pancreatic juice that contains three enzymes. These enzymes are
1. Amylase: this enzyme converts starch to maltose
2. Lipase: lipase converts fats and oil to fatty acid and glycerol
3. Trypsin: trypsin converts proteins and peptones to polypeptides
iii. The pancreatic juice is alkaline and provides that medium for enzymes
iv. The digestion of fats and oil is aided a green alkaline liquid called BILE which is secreted by the liver and stored in the gall bladder.
v.

The bile helps in the emulsification of fats-meaning breaking down fats into tiny droplets

vi. At the end of the digestion in the Duodenum, the food which is now in liquid form called chyme, passes into the ileum or small intestine

7.

The functions of the small intestine

i. The small intestine also known as ileum is found between the Duodenum and large intestine
ii. Two major events takes place in the small intestine
iii. These events are 1. Digestion and 2. Absorption of the digested food
iv.

DIGESTION of food also takes place in the small intestine or ileum

v. The intestinal wall secretes intestinal juice which contains the following enzymes, lipase, erepsin, maltase, sucrose and lactase
vi.

The lipase converts fats and oil to fatty acid and glycerol

vii.

Erepsin converts polypeptides to amino acid

viii.

Maltase converts maltose to two units of glucose

ix. Sucrose

converts sucrose to glucose and fructose

x.

Lactase converts lactose to glucose and galactose









In man, the final digestion of food ends in the small intestine.
The end product in the
digestion of protein are amino acids, fats and oil, fatty acid and glycerol while that of starch ends in glucose


ABSORPTION OF FOOD

The end product of digestion of food, which are amino-acids, glucose, fatty acids and glycerol are absorbed in the small intestine by a tiny finger-like structures called villi, Villus for singular.
The folding of the small intestine and the numerous villi presence creates a large surface area for the absorption of digested food nutrients.
The inner surface layer or epithelium of each villus is thin.
This allows the end product by either diffusion or by active transport through it.
The glucose and amino acids are easily absorbed by blood capillaries through the epithelium while the fatty acid and glycerol enter the lacteal where they are carried through the lymph vessels which eventually empty their contents into the blood vessels near the heart.
The blood then carries the fats and other food materials to various parts of the body where they are needed.


8.

THE FUNCTIONS OF THE CEACUM AND APPENDIX

The functions of the caecum and appendix are not well defined or known in man but are well known to contain some bacteria which aid minor digestion of cellulose.
Some vitamins such as K and B-complex are partially synthesized in this region


9.

THE FUNCTIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE

i. The undigested food particles passes into the colon or large intestine.
ii. Here in the large intestine, water is absorbed
iii. This absorption of water, concentrates the waste products and turn them into faeces.
iv. These faeces is finally passed into the rectum and then eventually pushed out of the body through the anus.









FUNCTIONS OF THE DIGESTIVE ENZYMES

Enzymes performs the following function within the body. They are
1. Enzymes helps in breaking down proteins in food into amino acid
2. The help to break down fats and oil into fatty acids and glycerol
3. Enzymes helps to break down carbohydrates into glucose, fructose and galactose
4. The digestive enzymes aids in the absorption of digested food through the addition of water to the food

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5. Usefulness of science
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7. Characteristics of living things

MECHANIZATION AND MEANING


Meaning of Mechanization

Mechanization is concerned with the use of machines in farm work. In Nigeria, farm work is carried out using simple farm implements.

For example, clearing of land is done with the cutlass, digging of the land with hoe and, planting with cutlass and trowel.
The introduction of machines into farming has enabled, for instance, land clearing to be carried out more easily with the bulldozer. Digging of the land before seeds are planted can now be done with either the disc or mouldboard plough. Different machines called planters are now available to plant different crops.



In addition, different crop harvesters are now in existence for the harvesting of mature crops. Advantages of farm mechanisation (a) It removes the difficulty in farming. Farm work is considered by people to be very hard. The use of machines therefore makes farming enjoyable. (b) Large areas of farm Ind can be prepared within very short time. This means that mechanisation saves time. (c) It allows the farmer to perform some difficult jobs easily; for example, the felling of trees is easily done with the motor-saw instead of the axe and cutlass. (d) Mechanisation saves labour.

Very few labourers are required when machines are employed on the farm. (e) It increases farm productivity because of large cope operation. Increased productivity leads to higher farm income and standard of living. (f) The cost of using machines on the farm is cheaper in the long run compared with the cost of farm-labour that is always rising. (g) It prevents bad agricultural practices such as complete burning all vegetation on new farmland. In addition, large are of farm land can still be cultivated by the farmer during one cropping season (h) It enables the farmers to use surplus farm products profitably, For example, the crop dryer allows quick and easy drying of crop product such as rice, maize, sorghum and wheat. Crop product can be processed into different products, more acceptable to consumers.






In addition, surplus perishable products such as tomatoes, vegetables, milk and meat can be stored for a long time using the refrigerator are cold storage. (i) The use of machines in farming may attract young and educated persons to take up farming as- an- occupation. (j) The mechanisation of farming may release some workers formerly engaged in farming to take up jobs in Agro-allied industries in urban centres. Disadvantages of mechanisation (a) Many of the farm- workers will be jobless.

With the use of machine in farming, the work that can be done by many workers be carried out by very few. farm hands. The others need to be retained before they can fit into new jobs. (b) The use of heavy machine. such as the bulldozers and- tractors . soil structure. This ma'y result in soil erosion caused by water. (c) The environment is polluted because of the use of machines. The exhaust from motor-vehicles and scraps from machines and burning result in environmental pollution.

(d) The use of heavy machines leads to soil compaction. The continuous use of tillage implements results in the development of hard soil layer below the soil surface. This reduces water inhlliation in the soil as well as crops roots penetration. (e) Mechanization has directed production to those crops that are mechanized such as rice, maize, and few others. The production of crops such as cocoyam and yam that are not easils produced with the aid of machines is therefore declining yearly. (f) Machinery requires large capital investment. Only farmers that have enough money will be able to acquire machines.


(g) The use of machines in farming requires adequate and continuous supply of energy from fuel and electricity. Problems will arise if the supply is not enough, or is lacking. Problems of farm mechanization in Nigeria (a) Farm holdings are very small: farm mechanization is only suitable with large farm holdings. (b) Most of the farmers poor. Tractors and other farm machines are costly and many farmers cannot buy them.

(c) Nigerian soils contain large tree stumps, roots and stones(pre-planting operation). These breakdown farm machines and render them useless. Also the presence of small hills, pits and moats makes the land rugged and unsuitable for machines. (d) There is lack of adequate facilities for the maintenance of farm machines. The result is that machines can be rendered useless because of minor faults. (e) The people that have skills to operate the tractor and other farm machines. Many farmers do not have the money to employ those that are trained in the use of farm machines. (f) There are no good access roads in farming communities. Tractors and other
machines spend long hours on the road between farm sites and sheds. They sometimes get stuck in the mud.
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HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER









126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION

Characteristics of a Fertile Soil


Characteristics of a Fertile Soil

1. High cation exchange capacity (C.E.C.)
2. Good water holding capacity
3. Adequate humus contents
4. Good granular (Spheroidal)
5. Easily tilled (good workability)
6. Essential elements available in required forms and amount.

Sometimes, a soil may not be able to produce good crops even if it is fertile. This is because of the inability of the soil to make nutrients available to the crops in the right amount. This can happen because of several factors such as:
(a) Too much acids or bases in the soil.
(b) Poor soil structure.
(c) The proportion of the different soil particles present in the soil (Texture).
(d) Climatic factors such as amount of rainfall and temperature.
(e) The nature of the clay lattice.
(f) Cation exchange capacity of the soil.

2.2 Methods of Soil Fertility Management
There are several methods that can be used to maintain the fertility of the soil. They include bush fallowing, cover cropping, rotation cropping, application of organic and inorganic fertilizers.







1. Bush fallowing
This is the practice of leaving a farm-land uncultivated for a period of time. This is to allow the soil to regain its lost nutrients in natural form. For instance, leaves from the shrubs and herbs drop and decay thus adding manure to the soil.

Advantages
1. It can effectively maintain soil fertility in areas with low pressure on land.
2. It protects the soil against erosion.
3. Fallen leaves decompose to increase organic matter content of the soil.
4. Evaporation of soil water and leaching of minerals are reduced.
5. There is also a build up of living organisms in the soil which arc useful for soil modification and
granulation.
Disadvantages
1. It is a very slow process of maintaining soil fertility.
2. It does not suit the increasing demand for land due to population increase.
3. The period allowed for fallow is not enough for adequate replacement of lost nutrients.

2. Cover Cropping
This is the growing of crops purposely to provide cover for the. soil. Crops such as melon, cowpea (trailing type), groundnut, sweet potato, and others could be grown along side the main crops to provide cover for the soil. Others like pueraria. niucuna and centrosema can be used in plantations or on fallow lands.

Advantages
1. They protect the soil against erosion.
2. Evaporation of soil water is reduced.
3. They prevent the leaching of useful mineral elements in the soil.
4. They suppress weeds on the farmland
5. Their fallen leaves decompose to add organic matter to the soil.
6. Where legumes are used, they help to increase the nitrogen content of the soil due to the action of root nodule bacteria
7. They can be worked into the soil as green
8. They help to maintain fairly stable soil temperature "'

Disadvantages
1. Cover crops compete with the main crops for nutrient elements and available water.
2. They increase the rate of loss of water in the soil through transpiration.

3. Rotation Cropping
This is the growing of crops on a piece of land year after year in a definite order.

Advantages
1. The use of a good rotational system of cropping enables soil to be used continuously without rapid loss of essential nutrients.
2. It is an ideal system to be used where land is scarce.
3. It is a labour saving system as the same land is prepared for planting every year.
4. Weeds are effectively checked.
5. Erosion is reduced because the land is not exposed.
6. It reduces the build up, of host specific diseases and pests.






Disadvantages
The major disadvanitage of this method is that continuous tillage of the surface soil renders it loose and easily eroded.'

4. ORGANIC MANURING
Manures are plants and animal materials that are added to the soil to supply nutrients needed for the growth of crops. A well decomposed organic matter is called humus. Humus is a rich source of plant nutrients suitable for vegetable gardening.

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1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE








TYPES OF FARM MACHINARY


Types of farm machinery

Farm machinery refers to machines collectively used in carrying out farm activities. With the introduction of machinery into farming operations formerly done with human effort are now carried out with mechanical appliances.

Common types of farm machinery include the tractor, bulldozer, tillage, machines, planters, lathes, sprayers, motor-saws, harvesters and others. 1. The Tractor This is a powerful motor-vehicle. It essentially consist of petrol or diesel engine, two small front wheels and two large rear wheels. The function of the tractor is that it provides the power used for pulling and lifting agricultural implements such as the ploughs, harrows, drills, sprayers and other heavy equipment.

The bulldozer

This is a powerful tractor that pushes broad rectangular blade in front.






The uses of the bulldozer are:

(a) Leveling of land.

(b) Shifting large quantities of earth.

(c) Uprooting large tree stumps, and (d) Removing obstacles such as large stones and logs.


3.

Tillage machinery

Tillage means the working of soils or loosening of soils before seeds are planted.
The purpose of soil tillage is to provide:

(a) Suitable seed-bed for seed germination and emergence,

(b) Easy water infiltration, (c) Better soil aeration or air movement,

(d) Control of weeds, (e) Erosion control,

(f) To work organic matter into the soil, and

(g) Adverse environment for soil inhabiting pathogens and pests.






There are two types of tillage machinery. These are:
(a) Primary tillage machinery: This refers to the tillage implements that are first used to open or loosen the soil to preparing it to receive seeds. This initial opening of the soil is called primary tillage. The primary tillage implement are the ploughs.

(b)

Ploughs

The ploughs are primary tillage implements that used initially to break and turn the soil-over in the course preparing it for planting. Ploughs break soil into large clods lumps. The ploughs are of three types. These are the mouldboard plough, chisel plough, and the disc plough.

The mouldboard plough among other parts, has the Coulter and share for cutting and mouldboard for inverting the soil. Most importantly, the plough has discs or concave metal blades that cut into the and turn it over. The discs are mounted on frames called disc standards.
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES

54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON








90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS

158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE


The standards connect the discs to the beam or holl and cylindrical part of the plough. The disc plough can better and is more adapted to Nigerian soils than the mouldboard plough. The ploughs are usually attached to be pulled by the tract Work animals such as bullocks can also be used to pull plough for land cultivation.

Typical Disc Plough DIAGRAM Figure 3.3.4: Animal Driven Moldboard Plough.

(B) Secondary tillage machinery:
This refers to tillage implements used to cultivate the soil after the ploughs have initially been used.

The purposes of secondary tillage include:
1. To break down the large soil clods obtained from primary tillage.
2. Kill weeds further ALSO READ WEED CONTROL METHODS
3. Incorporate manure or fertilizers into the soil, and
4. Produce suitable tilt or soil structure for seeds The secondary tillage machinery includes the harrows, ridgers, cultivators, rotavators and rollers.

(i) Harrows:
The harrows are secondary tillage implements used for breaking help to put the soil in good seed-bed condition for seed emergence. The use of harrows kills weeds not affected by the ploughs. The implement can also be used to cover seeds with soil after broadcast.
The harrows consist of dics, or pines that are fitted to a shaft. All the parts rotate as one unit. The implement is hitched or attached to the tractor during farm operation.

Different types of harrows are in existence. They include:
1. The disc harrow
2. Spike toothed harrow
3. Spring tine harrow and
4. Tandem disc harrow

(ii) Ridgers:
The ridger is an implement that is used to turn the soil in one direction after ploughing to form ridges.

Crops such as yam, cassava and potato can be sown thereafter. There are two major types of ridges.

These are the disc ridger and mouldboard ridger.
The two ridgers work in the same way. However, the disc ridger 1 is better for use in Nigerian soils. This is because the soil contains obstacles such as stumps, roots and stones.

At times the! soils are sticky and disc ridger can effectively work in such conditions without frequent breakdown. The disc ridger consists of opposed concave discs which actually make the ridges. The discs are fitted to mental frame called standard.
This is bolted to a bigger frame called beam. The ridger is attached to the tractor during field operation. The mouldboard ridger has features common to the disc ridger.
It however has concave or convex blades used to turn the soil in order to form rid»es.

(iii) Cultivator: The cultivator is a secondary tillage implement. It is attached to the tractor during field operation. It consists of several tines used to stir the soil and breakdown soil clods. The cultivator is also used for weed combing, and dragging out stones and tree roots from the soil. The implement can be used for weeding and incorporating fertilizers into the soil after broadcast.

(iv) Rotavator: This is also a secondary tillage implement that has set of rotating blades. It breaks up soil clods and farm thrashes are chopped up in the process for easy decomposition.


4. Other farm machinery
(a) Seed drills: These machines can be operated by tractor or by hand. They drop or plant seeds and in some cases, discharge fertilizer at the same time. Most seed drills plant crops in row. They are set up to plant seeds at appropriate rate and distance. Crops such as maize, rice, wheat, barley, rye. oat and beans can be planted using the drills.

(b) Planters: These are machines designed to plant seeds. Some of them are built to plant one type of seed. Others can plant more than one type of crop. This is achieved by changing the plates.
The planter built to plant seeds in rows with enough detail between the stands is referred to as row planter. Some plant are able to plant seeds and distribute fertilizer at the same time The planters can be mounted on a tractor or trailed.

(c) Lathes:
The lathe is a machine that is used for holding and turning wood or metal into different shapes. Today, there many different lathes used for all types of shaping of materials.
The kinds of lathes developed from the centre lathe capstan lathes, turrel lathes, cropping lathes, automatic lathes and special purpose- lathes. In the school workshop, operations are turning, facing, drilling, boring, parting, knurl! and sometimes screw cutting.

(d) Motor-saw or powered chain-saw:
This is a machine consists of a small petrol engine, steel blade and chain round the blade. The chain rotates during operation and is the cut edge of the machine. The motor-saw has two handles for handling and positioning during use.

The machine is becoming popular among small-scale farmers because:
(i) It is used in cutting down (felling) trees during farm preparation.

(ii) It is used in felling and cutting timber trees into logs.

(iii) Also used to split logs into planks.

(iv) It is used in trimming the big branches of trees. (


e) Harvesters:
These are machines designed for the harvesting of ripe and mature crops from the field. Common harvest machines are: (i) Combine harvester,
(ii) Forage harvesters.
(iii) Corn pickers
(iv) Balers,
(v) Cotton strippers-. and
(vi) Field mowers.

The combine harvester is commonly used in commercial farms for the harvesting of cereals such as rice, maize, wheat, barley As the name suggests, the combine cuts the standing crops, separates the seeds from the chaff, and collects the grains tank while tank while the crop residues are thrown Held.
These activities are completed in one operation. The forage harvesters are machines used in cutting forage crops (grasses and legumes) for making silage to be kept for feeding animals during the dry season.
The field mowers (weeders) are machines used to cut grasses for hay making.
They are also used for clearing farms lawns and parks. Most field mowers are designed in rows. Examples are the blade mower and the drum mower

(f) Sprayer:
This is a machine consisting of tank where chemical is stored pump, spray booms and nozzles. The sprayer is used for:

1. Applying herbicides, insecticides and fungicides.

2. Watering crops

3. Applying liquid fertilizers.

4. Applying hormones to increase fruit yield or prevent dropping of fruits. There are three types of sprayer. These are:

1. The simple knapsack sprayer:
This can take between nine and twenty-three litres of solution.
It is usually mounted and pegged to the back of the operator during field operation.






2. The tractor mounted sprayer:
This is attached to the tractor during field operation. The sprayer is operated by the power take-off or P.T.O. 3.

The knapsack engine operated:
This type is made of plastic tank for the liquid chemical and uses petrol as Its source power. more on farm power here. As in the simple knapsack, the operator i the spray boom to the crops or objects to be sprayed. Spraying with chemicals should not be done during bad weather. The chemicals left after spraying exercise must not be poured in places where they can contaminate vegetables, and drinking water Protective covers should be used by the operator during field operation. Sprayers should be washed, cleaned after use, and a safe place until when needed. DIAGRAM Figure 3.3.7: Knapsack Sprayer.


5. Accessory Tools These are tools which are useful for the effective utilization of farm machines.
They include:
(a) Pliers: This tool is like a pair of scissors. It is made with two handles having plastic coverings. The pliers holding things such as wires during electrical
(b) Screw drivers:
These are made of round rods which are beaten flat at the tips. The handles are either made of wooden I materials. The screw driver is used for tightening and re-tightening of screws,
it is also used for loosening screw. There is also the star-screw driver with multiple or star-like grooves.

(c) Nuts and bolts:
Nuts are small pieces of metal and screwed onto the end of a bolt. On the other hand, bolts are metal pins with heads. Nuts and bolts are together used for holding parts of machines together or in place.

(d) Spanners: The spanners are made of metal. Some have the two ends split into two teeth for holding nuts and bolts. the spanner is essentially used for:
( i) tightening and re-tightening of nuts and bolts: and
(ii) loosening nuts and bolts.

(e) Hammers:
The hammer consists of a thick small metal head and a wooden or metal handle. It is used for knocking in nail and also to beat metals into flat shapes.

(f) Allen key:
This is a tool that is used in tightening, re-tightening and loosening deep seated nuts or nuts that cannot be reached with the ordinary spanner or screw driver. read here simple farm tools

(g) Oil applicator or can:
This contains oil which is applied to engine parts with the help of its pointed tip. (h) Grease gun: This instrument is used to apply grease into engine parts.
It consists of the tank and a long pipe with which the "tease is pumped into inner parts of engines.


STUDY QUESTIONS
1. (a) Briefly explain the meaning of farm mechanization
(b) Mention five advantages and disadvantages of farm mechanization in Nigeria.

2. Discuss five problems that may hinder farm mechanization in Nigeria.

3. (a) List the sources of farm power
(b) Mention one use for each of the farm power listed.

4. Mention the uses of the following farm machines: (a) Tractor (d) Cultivator (b) Bulldozer (e) Lathes (c) Ridger (f) Motor-saw

5. (a) Explain the term tillage machinery (b) List two primary and two secondary tillage machinery.

6. (a) Give reasons why secondary tillage is necessary. (b) Briefly explain the importance of the plough inform operation 7. Write short notes on the following: (i) Sprayers (v) Spanners (iii) Seed drills (vi) Alien key (Hi) Harvesters (vii) Pliers (iv) Screw drivers (viii) Nuts and bolts.

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HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

TYPES OF SUPPORTING TISSUES IN PLANTS


SUPPORTING TISSUES IN PLANTS

How is support provided for in Herbaceous and woody plants?

TYPES OF SUPPORTING TISSUES

IN PLANTS
FUNCTIONS OF THE PARENCHYMA
WOOD OR THE XYLEM TISSUES
What are the Xylem tissues?

Plants generally, are knows to possesses supporting tissues which gives them definite shape, strength, rigidity and resistance against external forces such as wind and water to which they are continuously subjected.

TYPES OF SUPPORTING TISSUES IN PLANTS

The main supporting tissues in plants are PARENCHYMA, COLLENCHYMA, SCLERENCHYMA (FIBRE), AND WOOD=XYLEM.
The structure of some of these tissues are practically not the same







1.

PARENCHYMA TISSUES

Where is the parenchyma found or located?
The parenchyma tissues are found in the cortex of stem, phloem, root, leaf, mesophyll, storage tissues and the xylem

STRUCTIURE OF THE MESOPHYLL

The mesophylls are composed of cells with large vacuoles and relatively thin wall. They are mainly living cells with cellulose and many air spaces within them. Parenchyma tissues are the most common and in abundant of plants tissues

FUNCTIONS OF THE PARENCHYMA


The functions of the parenchyma are as follows
i. When the vacuoles are filled with sap, parenchyma tissues gives firmness and turgidity to the stem of herbaceous plants
ii. The parenchyma can also store food and water
iii. They are found in the leaf and mesophyll, functioning mainly in the synthesis of food.


COLLENCHYMA

What is Collenchyma?
Collenchyma cell are usually located in the Cortex of stem, root and in the Hypodermis just beneath the epidermis

THE COLLENCHYMA STRUCTURE
The cells of collenchyma tissues are living, elongated and unevenly thickened at the corners. The cells are flexible thus allow the bending and twisting strains to which the stem, roots and the leaves of plants are often subjected to


THE FUNCTIONS OF A COLLENCHYMA

What are the functions of a Collenchyma?
i. Collenchyma cells provides strength and supports in young growing plants parts such as the stem, petioles and leaf blade
ii. The Collenchyma cells gives flexibility and resilience to the plant.
iii. They also enable the plant to bend without breaking


SCERENCHYMA

What is Sclerenchyma?
Sclerenchyma cells are found mainly in the pericycle, in the vascular tissues cortices of stem and roots.

The structure of the Sclerenchyma cells is that they have thicken walls containing lignin in addition to cellulose and other substances

There are two types of Sclerenchyma,

they are
i. FIBRES AND
ii. SCLEREIDS.

1. Fibres are elongated cells with tapering ends. These help to provide strength and flexibility to plants
2. Sclereids unlike fibres, are not too elongated but have great strength like the fibres too.

The functions of Sclerenchyma

The functions of Sclerenchyma are as follows
i. The Sclerenchyma fibre type give flexibility to plants and prevent them braking up easily
ii. Sclerenchyma provide strength, rigidity, hardness and support to plants



WOOD OR THE XYLEM TISSUES

What are the Xylem tissues?
Then wood or Xylem tissues are mainly in the vascular tissues of stems, roots and leaves

The structure of the wood or Xylem tissues is made up of many cells. They are
i. Tracheid’s
ii. Vessels
iii. Fibres and
iv. Xylem parenchyma








i.

TRACHEIDS:

Tracheids are non-living elongated, tapering cells with thickened, lignified walls which have piths that aids the passage of water and helps to dissolve mineral salts.
ii. VESSELS: Vessels are long tabular structures that are formed by the fusion of several elongated cells places or stacked one upon another

iii. FIBRES: fibres are similar to the Sclerenchyma fibres. They are narrow, elongated cells with very thick walls and tapering end walls
iv.

XYLEM PARENCHYMA:

these are similar to the parenchyma tissues. They are composed of cells with large vacuoles. The functions of the Xylem parenchyma tissues are as follows
1. The Xylem tissues provides support, strength and shape to the plant.
2. Xylem parenchyma is also a conducting tissue as it helps to conduct water and dissolve mineral salts from the roots to the leaves.

PHLOEM TISSUES

The phloem tissues are closely associated with the major supporting tissues. The tissues are located within the vascular bundles of all plants, be it in the roots, stems or leaves
The structure of the Phloem tissues are made up of four cells. These are sieve tubes, Phloem parenchyma, companion cells and Phloem fibres

i.

SIEVE TUBES:

these are made up of elongated rows of cylindrical cells arranged vertically. The cells are living and mainly conducts food
ii.

PHLOEM PARENCHYMA:

these are similar to the parenchyma cells earlier discussed. They provides strength and support to the plant. The cells also helps in food storage
iii.

PHLOEM FIBRES: these are special cells which are concerned with the strenghtening of the organs in which they are found
iv.

COMPANION CELLS:

they are small and short cells which are vertically elongated like the sieve tube. They assist in the conduction of food substances

FUNCTIONS OF THE PHLOEM TISSUES

i. The general function of the phloem tissues is to conduct manufactured food from the area of synthesis to the Areas where they are mainly needed.
ii. Secondly, the Phloem tissues assists to provide support to the entire plant
NOTE
The vascular tissues which is the xylem and phloem tissues, are found mainly in the roots, stems, and leaves of plants

MECHANISMS OF SUPPORT IN PLANTS

The entire body of plants, either internal or external, provides the necessary support to plants. The knowledge of the internal structure of the leaves, stem and roots will assist in the understanding of the mechanisms of support in plants

1.

EPIDERMIS OR THE PILIFEROUS LAYER

The epidermis is the outer covering of the leaves and stem while that of the roots is called piliferous layer.
The epidermal layer is one-cell thick.
Their function is mainly protection. They prevent the inner cells from injury, infection and loss of water. In some cases only the guard cells of the leaves that has chloroplast are the only cells that can carry out photosynthesis.
2.

CORTEX

The Cortex is mainly found between the epidermis and the vascular bundles of the dicotyledonous stem. The cortex is made up of three tissues which are collenchyma-the outside, parenchyma-the middle and endodermis-the inner

THE PARENCHYMA

is about three or four cells thick.
The parenchyma is made of large, thin-walled cells with many air spaces. Both cells provides strength and support.

THE ENDODERMIS

is a single layer cell which is often regarded as the starch sheath.
It stores starch hence when stained with iodine solution will always turn blue black.


SCLERENCHYMA

This layer is found on the outer part of vascular bundles. It consists of dead, lignifies cells. It aids to strengthen the stem

VASCULAR BUNDLES

Vascular bundles are found in the inner parts of the stem. It consist of xylem, phloem and cambium

XYLEM
Xylem is responsible for the conduct of water and dissolved mineral salts from the soil to the roots through the roots and stem.


PHLOEM
Phloem is responsible for the transportation or conduct of manufactured food from the areas of synthesis to the where they are needed within the plant.

CAMBIUM

Cambium which almost look like the bone marrow in animals is found between the xylem and the phloem. The cambium cells are constantly dividing cells which are called secondary thickening and is responsible for the increase in size of the stem of so many trees.


PITH

The pith is the central part of the stem. It is large and is made of the parenchyma and extends between the vascular tissues.
In flowering plants, strength and rigidity are achieved by a combination of tugor pressure and supporting tissues. The parenchyma cells of the Pith when fully turgid, push outside and this force is restrained by the inelastic epidermis

Hence when the cells of the parenchyma tissues are fully expanded, with water-turgid, they give rigidity and strength otherwise known as HYDROSTATIC SUPPORT

In the vascular bundles, the xylem vessels and fibres which are lignified, adds mechanical strength to the stems and roots of the plant.

The function of the cambium,

which contributes to the growth of trees trunks in width, provides the necessary support and strength to plants.
The wood fibres generally make stems strong and rigid. Other supporting tissues such as the parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma provides necessary strength needed by plants.



USES OF FIBRES TO PLANTS


Sclerenchyma fibres known simply as fibres provides flexibility and strength.
Two of the special function of the fibres in plants.
The fibres gives mechanical functions that is the necessary strength, rigidity, flexibility and elasticity to the plant body and also enables it to withstand various strains.
plants like Hibiscus, jute and sisal are known to contain some of the strongest plant fibres hence they are making ropes, mats, clothes and sacks.


WHAT ARE THE FUNCTIONS OF THE SUPPORTING TISSUES IN PLANTS?


The supporting tissues in plants provides the following function in plants
1. Strengthening
2. Rigidity
3. Resilience and flexibility
4. Protection
5. Distinct shape and
6. Conduction



How is support provided for in Herbaceous and woody plants?

i. By turgidity, water is preserved
ii. Due to the presence of water, vacuoles inside the parenchyma cells/living cells
iii. Thickening of the walls of collenchyma cells

WOODY PLANTS

I. Sclerenchyma in the Cortex
II. By the xylem strengthened the deposited ligning in their walls
III. Secondary growth provides extensive xylem and bark

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HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.

1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOILCLAY SOIL LOAMY SOIL
83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES FARM YARD MANURE APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE
117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING CLEARING
121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING FARM YARD MANURE
124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149. PLOUGHS
142. FIELD MACHINES
157. PLANTERS
164. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION


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