ANIMAL DISEASES AND THEIR TREATMENT


CAUSES, SYMPTOMS, PREVENTION, AND TREATMENT OF VARIOUS ANIMAL DISEASES


INTRODUCTION
It is impossible to accurately estimate all the losses caused by livestock diseases.

In Agriculture, it is estimated that losses caused by mortality, reduced productivity, lower fertility, condemned products, and restricted access to potential markets “exceed 17.5 billion dollars annually in the United States”.

Those losses represent almost 15% of the production costs associated with the livestock industry. Livestock production is an integral part of the way-of-life for the people of the world. Many farmers and ranchers depend upon livestock production for their livelihoods.
Consumers expect adequate supplies of meat at economical prices. With livestock mismanagement and spread of diseases, we are all affected, which is why in Nigeria most people are afraid to but meat from roadside sellers.

CAUSES OF DISEASES

Disease causes the body to function improperly.










Three principal reasons most often mentioned for the spread of diseases are
1. poor sanitation,
2. improper management, and
3. Introduction of new animals into a herd. One or more of the following defects cause diseases. Nutritional defects - An imbalance of required food nutrients in the ration is the cause of nutritional defects.
4. Animals receiving inadequate amounts of vitamins, minerals, fats, carbohydrates, and protein cannot produce efficiently. Therefore, their levels of resistance to disease are lowered. Physiological defects
5. These defects cause an improper functioning of glands, organs, or body systems.

The relationship between the diet and the proper functioning of body parts is directly related. For example, the thyroid gland regulates the rate of body metabolism and depends upon an adequate supply of iodine to function properly.read more about balanced diet

An improperly functioning thyroid gland may increase the nutritive requirements of animals to the point that very few nutrients are available for growth or production.

2 - Morphological defects (physical defects)
An accident or negligence is responsible for physical defects. Cuts, scrapes, scratches, bruises, and broken bones are examples of morphological defects.
Any one of these can temporarily or permanently reduce the efficiency of an animal.
Good management practices help eliminate defects of this nature.

PATHOGENIC EFECTS

CHARACTERISTICS OF DISEASE CAUSING ORGANISMS
Certain organisms produce toxins or poisons that upset the normal metabolic activity of the animal. Viruses and bacteria are the most common disease-causing pathogens.
They are microscopic in size and capable of multiplying themselves under ideal environmental conditions.
* Other pathogens are fungi and protozoans.

Viral diseases read here. are the most difficult to control because viruses closely resemble the chemical compounds that make up a cell.
Another problem in controlling viruses is that the chemicals capable of killing or controlling them also kill or destroy the host cell.
PREVENTIVE VACCINATIONS are the most successful method of controlling viral diseases.








BACTERIA are microscopic in size, produce powerful toxins, and multiply rapidly.
Many bacteria are capable of forming spores, resistant forms of bacterial cells able to withstand severe environmental conditions.
These spores are difficult to control and may lie dormant for years before being provided with the opportunity to cause disease.
Antibiotics are used successfully to control bacteria. Fungal diseases are caused by fungi, which are small organisms.
Many disease-producing fungi live in the soil. It is often difficult to determine the cause of fungal diseases, because bacteria cause a secondary infection and are often erroneously identified as fungi. Protozoa are one celled and the simplest form of animal life.

HOW DO PROTOZOA MOVE ABOUT?
Some protozoa cannot move themselves and must be transported by other means.
Some move by making whip-like lashes or vibrating projections. A number of different kinds of protozoa prey upon animals and cause disease.
EIGHT GOOD MANAGEMENT PRACTICES
Animals to be added to a farm should be isolated for at least 4 weeks before they are placed with the herd.
This includes both new animals and those removed from the herd and exposed to other animals.
A sound immunization program should be followed.
Clean, healthful surroundings should be provided.
Rations must be nutritionally adequate.
Visitors and new animals should not be allowed in the livestock area.
Diseases should be accurately and quickly diagnosed.
A competent veterinarian should be consulted when a health problem arises.
Livestock should be handled properly.

Examples of how to handle animals include the following,
1. Canvas slappers, rather than clubs and whips, should be used.
2. Protruding nails and broken boards should be eliminated
3. Machinery and equipment should be removed from the lot
4. Horned cattle should be dehorned.
5. Barns and trucks should be bedded properly.
6. Animals should be loaded slowly and carefully.
7. Partitions should be used to separate different classes of livestock.
8. Livestock should be protected from inclement weather.
9.


CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMON DISEASES


All farm animals are susceptible. Iron deficiency prevents the formation of hemoglobin, a red iron containing pigment in the red blood cells responsible for carrying oxygen to the cells.
Characterized by general weakness and a lack of vigor.
WHAT IS A BLOAT?
Balanced ration usually prevents the occurrence of anemia.
Bloat typically occurs when animals are grazing on highly productive pastures during wet seasons.
Swollen abdomen on the left side, labored breathing, profuse salivation, groaning, lack of appetite, & stiffness. Maintain pastures composed of 50% or more grass.
Improper feeding. Pain, sweating, & constipation, kicking, & groaning. Careful feeding.
Bacteria and over-eating.
Constipation is an early symptom & sometimes followed by diarrhea.
Antitoxin vaccine should be used at the beginning of the feeding period. Founder Overeating of grain, or lush, highly improved pasture grasses. Affected animals experience pain and may have fever as high as 106 degrees F. Good management & feeding practices prevent the disease.

VIRAL DISEASES

Cholera Caused by a filterable virus. Loss of appetite, high fever, reddish-purplish patchwork of coloration on the affected stomach, breathing difficulty& a wobbly gait.








A preventive vaccine is available.
Producers should use good management. Equine Encephalomyelitis Viruses classified as group A & B are transmitted by bloodsucking insects, such as the mosquito. Fever, impaired vision, irregular gait, muscle spasms, a pendulous lower lip, walking aimlessly. Control of carrier, use of a vaccine.

HEMORRHAGIC SEPTICEMIA
Used by a bacterium that seems to multiply rapidly when animals are subject to stress conditions.

Fever, difficulty in breathing, a cough,
Discharge from the eyes & nose.
Vaccination several days prior to shipping or other periods of stress.

Newcastle Poultry disease
Caused by a virus that is spread by contaminated equipment or mechanical means. Chicks make circular movements, walk backwards, fall, twist their necks so that their heads are lying on their backs, cough, sneeze, and develop high fever & diarrhea.
Several types of Newcastle vaccines are available, antibiotics are used in treating early stages of the disease.
Protruding growths on the skin.
Most effective means is with a vaccine.
CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMON DISEASES
BACTERIAL DISEASES
Pneumonia Bacteria, fungi, dust, or other foreign matter.
The bacterium, pasturella multiocida, is often responsible for the disease. A general dullness, failing appetite, fever & difficulty breathing. Proper housing, ventilation, sanitation, and antibiotics. Tetanus A spore-forming anaerobe bacterium is the cause.
The spores may be found in the soil & feces of animals. Difficulty swallowing, stiff muscles, & muscle spasms. Immunizing animals with a tetanus toxoid. Atrophic Rhinitis Two different bacterium,
Bordetella bronchiospetica & Pasturella, cause atrophic rhinitis. Affects the nose, making it crooked and wrinkled. Sneezing, nose bleeds, and a tear-stained face occur.
Sanitation and a good health program are important for prevention.
Vaccines are available.
Anthrax spore,
Forming bacterium causes the disease. Fever, swelling in the lower body region, a bloody discharge, staggering, trembling, difficult breathing, & convulsive movements.


types of bacteria,read here

An annual vaccination.
Manure & contaminated materials should be burned & area disinfected.
Insects should be controlled. Blackleg (Cattle-Sheep) A spore-forming bacterium that remains in an area permanently. The germ has an incubation period of one to five days & is taken into the body from contaminated soil & water. Lameness, followed by depression & fever.. The muscles in the hip, shoulder, chest, back, & neck swell. A preventative vaccine. Brucellosis Caused by bacteria.
Brucella abortus is the bacterium.

The abortion of the immature fetus is the only sign in some animals. Vaccinating calves with abortus prevent cattle from contacting the disease. Infected cattle must be slaughtered. Distemper (Horses) – Contagious. Exposure to cold, wet weather, fatigue, and an infection of the respiratory tract aid in spreading the disease. Increased respiratory rate, depression, loss of appetite & discharge of pus from the nose are visible symptoms. Infected animals have fever & swollen lymph glands, located under the jaw of Animals with disease should be isolated, provided with rest, protected from the weather, and treated with antibiotics.

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You can read some of most interesting topics below

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION


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classes of mineral salts and their deficiency symptoms



CLASSES OF MINERAL SALTS

MINERAL SALTS
Not with general view but with definite accuracy, animals need or require various mineral salts for metabolic activities within the body.
Except for sodium chloride which is table salt, and a few medicines like iron tablets which can be taken directly by man, other mineral salts are usually taken in minute quantity through the food we eat. Lack of any of these minerals in a certain degree, will result in nutritional deficiency
CLASSES OF MINERAL SALTS
The various classes of mineral salts include the following
i. Calcium
ii. Phosphorus
iii. Magnesium
iv. Potassium
v. Sulphur
vi. Sodium
vii. Chlorine
viii. Iron
ix. Iodine
x. Manganese
xi. Fluorine
xii. Copper and
xiii. Cobalt


The various classes of mineral salts include the following
xiv. Calcium
xv. Phosphorus
xvi. Magnesium
xvii. Potassium
xviii. Sulphur
xix. Sodium
xx. Chlorine
xxi. Iron
xxii. Iodine
xxiii. Manganese
xxiv. Fluorine
xxv. Copper and
xxvi. Cobalt







Here is a chat of the sources, functions, deficiency and symptoms of any of the afore mentioned mineral salts

MINERAL
1. CALCIUM
Sources===== MILK, CHEESE, EGG AND FISH
FUNCTION OF AS A MINERAL
I. IT FACILITATE bone and teeth formation
II. Calcium helps in blood clotting
III. Calcium helps in the normal functioning of the heart, the nervous system and muscles
DIFFICIENCY SYMPTOMS OF CALCIUM
i. RICKET
ii. OSTEOMOLACIA AND TOOTH DECAY

2. PHOSPHORUS
SOURCES OF PHOSPHORUS=====Milk, cheese, egg, fishes and meat
FUNCTIONS OF PHOSPHJORUS
I. FOR STRONG DEVELOPMENT OF TEETH AND BONES
II. For respiration
III. Forms part of DNA and RNA
DEFFICIENCY SYMPTOMS OF PHOPHORUS
i. Rickets
ii. Tooth decay
iii. Osteomalacia

3. MAGNESSIUM
SOURCES OF MAGNESSIUM=======Green vegetables, milk and meat

FUNCTIONS OF MAGNESSIUM
i. Magnesium helps in muscle contraction
ii. Magnesium is needed for the utilization of IRON
iii. Magnesium is present in teeth and bones







DEFFICIENCY SYMTOMS OF LACK OF MAGNESSIUM
i. Lack of magnesium in the body causes Nervous disorder


4. POTASSIUM
SOURCES OF POTASSIUM============fruits and other natural food

FUNCTIONS OF POTASSIUM IN THE BODY
I. POTASSIUM HELPS IN THE TRANSMISSION OF IMPULSES IN NERVES
II. Potassium helps in the proper functioning of muscles

DEFFICIENCY SYMPTOMS OF LACK OF POTASSIUM IN THE BODY
i. Lack of potassium in the body leads to muscle paralysis


5. SULPHUR
SOURCES OF SULPHUR======beans, meats, fishes, eggs

FUNCTIONS OF SULPHUR IN THE BODY
i. Sulphur is a constituent of proteins, amino-acids and vitamin B

Deficiency symptoms of lack of sulphur in the body
i. Lack of sulphur in the body leads to poor growth






6. SODIUM AND CHLORINE
SOURCES OF SODIUM AND CHLORINE===========table salts, fishes and fruits


FUNCTIONS OF SODIUM ND CHLORINE
i. Sodium and chlorine help in the transmission of nerve impulses
ii. Sodium and chlorine helps in the maintenance of the osmotic balance of the cells

SYMPTOMS OF THE LACK OF SODIUM AND CHLORINE
i. Lack of sodium and chlorine in the body causes dehydration
ii. Lack of sodium and chlorine in the body causes muscle cramp


7. IRON
SOURCES OF IRON=========eggs, liver, kidneys, beans and vegetables

FUNCTIONS OF IRON
i. Iron helps in the formation of haemoglobin in the red blood cells

DIFFICIENCY SYMPTOMS OF IRON
i. Causes anaemia


8. IODINE
SOURCES OF IODINE======SEA FOODS

FUNCTIONS OF IODINE IN THE BODY
i. Iodine is required by the thyroid gland to make thyroxin

DEFFICIENCY SYMPTOMS OF IODINE
I. GOITRE



9. MANGANESE
SOURCES OF MANGANESE======egg, milk and meat

FUNCTIONS OF MANGANESE IN THE BODY
i. Manganese is required for normal growth of the body
ii. Manganese acts as co-factor in some enzymatic reactions

DEFFICIENCY SYMPTOMS OF MANGANESE
i. As at the time of writing this lines, I could not lay my hands on the effects of the lack of manganese in the body.
ii. I hope to make it available as soon as I get details.
iii. You can also help using the comment box if you know the symptoms of the lack of manganese in the body



10. COPPER

SOURCES OF COPPER IN THE BODY========green vegetables, eggs, milk and meat


FUNCTIONS OF COPPER IN THE BODY
i. Copper catalyzes the use of Iron in the body
ii. Copper is used for proper respiration in some aerobic organisms

DEFFICIENCY SYMPTOMS OF COPPER IN THE BODY
i. Anaemia

read more here, on the importance of mineral

Here are a lists of related posts to this
i. Types of carbohydrates
ii. Types of protein
iii. Composition of protein
iv. Sources of protein

v. Fats and oil
vi. Importance of fats and oil

vii. Mineral salts
viii. Importance of carbohydrates
ix. Polysaccharides or complex sugars
x. Classification of food substances
xi. Monosaccharide or simple sugars
xii. Disaccharides or reducing sugars

xiii. Types vitamins
xiv. Water soluble vitamins
xv. Groups of vitamins
xvi. Roughages
xvii. Food tests
xviii. Importance of water
xix. Composition of water

xx.

You can read some of most interesting topics below

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.

1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL





79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION






What is balanced diet and the effects of malnutrition


BALANCED DIET


effects of malnutrition on animals

Definition of balanced diet
What is balanced diet?
Balanced diet is a diet containing all six classes or types of food in the right proportion to meet the body’s requirement for growth, repair and maintenance.
In other words, balanced diet is a diet containing the correct amount of all six class of food substance required by an organism or man.
The balanced diet must contain the six food substances such as carbohydrates, protein, fats and oil, mineral salts, vitamin, and water.
In terms of the percentage composition of the food substances, balanced diet should contain 15% of proteins, 15% of fats and oil, 10% of vitamins, minerals and water, and 60% of carbohydrates.
Balanced diet should be taken at these proportions for normal growth, development and all activities of the body.

IMPORTANCE OF BALANCED DIET







v.
I once lost a cousin to the cold hands of death, caused by the disease popularly known as Kwashiokor. The name Kwashiokor as a disease originated from Ghana, former Gold Coast in West Africa. Kwashiokor is a protein deficiency symptom.
Kwashiokor is characterized by the following
i. A child suffering from Kwashiokor will have retarded growth
ii. Any child suffering from Kwashiokor will lose weight tremendously
iii. Any child suffering from Kwashiokor will develop swollen legs, oedema and swollen feet.
iv. A child suffering from Kwashiokor will develop cracked and split skin
v. The child will have distended and swollen stomach as a result of Kwashiokor
vi. The will develop pale body
vii. There will be change in the hair, so the hair becomes reddish brown
viii. The child also develops thin and tiny legs

All these are the symptoms of malnutrition deficiency of protein. It is therefore advised to make sure we imbibe the attitude of eating balanced diet at all times.

COMPREHENSIVE EFFECT OF MALNUTRITION OF ANIMALS

Malnutrition
manultrition is an imbalance in micro and macronutrients —either a deficit or surplus of them— which impedes the body’s capability of growing and staying healthy. As mentioned in previous articles, malnutrition can be caused by several different factors, which include but are not limited to disease, lack of access to safe drinking water, eating disorders, mental health illnesses, and even climate change. With such a wide range of causes, it is expected that the effects of malnutrition are just as varied. Keep reading for more information on the effects of malnutrition on the human body and overall health.

EFFECTS OF MALNUTRITION


As described on Livestrong.com, malnutrition occurs in stages. The imbalance in nutrients first shows in blood and tissue, followed by metabolic processes —finally, tell-tale signs and symptoms appear. The effects of malnutrition include: changes in body mass, poor wound healing, severe weight loss (cachexia), and organ failure —among others—, all of which are described below.

Sarcopenia:

It is the progressive loss of lean body mass, which normally starts after age 40. During natural sarcopenia, men typically shed 22 pounds of lean body mass, with women losing half of this amount. When an individual endures undernutrition, an abnormal case of sarcopenia may ensue, triggering other effects of malnutrition, such as an increase in susceptibility to infections. Those with a case of overnutrition are not exempt of suffering sarcopenia, however, this is often camouflaged by an excess of adipose tissue around the internal organs.

Poor wound healing:

Typically, when there is a deficit in the protein, carbohydrates and vitamins, the body cannot heal. Malnutrition is not only responsible for increased risk of infections, but also of impairing and delaying healing from common diseases or surgery. In the overnourished, obese patient, poor wound healing is largely due to poor oxygenation of tissues and the inability to provide necessary nutrients and generate enough white blood cells, as well as an increased tension on wound edges.

Cachexia:

Among the effects of malnutrition, this is perhaps one of the most evident ones. It is also very dangerous. Cachexia, or wasting syndrome, encompasses a severe weight loss, along with muscle atrophy, fatigue, weakness and loss of appetite. A person with cachexia typically looks like they have shrunk and withered: the skin loses its elasticity and becomes dry. The hair falls out and there is risk of pressure ulcers, blood clots and hip fractures. People with cachexia also lose some of their motor coordination, thus being more prone to falling.

Organ failure:





Kidneys:

Malfunctioning kidneys can cause failure in the regulation of salt and fluid, which in turn can trigger over-hydration or dehydration.

Brain:

Mental health illnesses can cause malnutrition and malnutrition can be a decisive factor in the development of mental health illnesses, such as apathy, depression, introversion, self-neglect and deterioration in social interactions.

Reproduction:

Reduced fertility and a poor sex drive are other effects of malnutrition. Moreover, malnutrition during pregnancy can make the baby more prone to disease, strokes and developing diabetes later in life.

Impaired temperature regulation:

Especially seen in people with cachexia, people who endure severe weight loss due to undernutrition find themselves unable to store body heat, which can lead to hypothermia.


Increased risk of pulmonary infections and respiratory failure.

There is no doubt that the effects of malnutrition can be severe –and even deadly—for the population at large. However, this issue is worse yet for newborns, small children and pregnant women. As said by MotherChildNutrition.org, “beyond the age of 2-3 years, the effects of chronic malnutrition are irreversible”. This implies that malnutrition in children must be tackled before they turn two years old, or the future of that child may be impaired.

Statistically, children who are low-for-age or constantly experience weight loss are affected in the long term, namely by not reaching their optimum size and physical capacity as adults. Also, malnourished kids make sickly men and the illness also affects their mental capacity, with undernourished children typically having lower IQs than their well-fed counterparts.
Furthermore, acute malnutrition is the biggest contributor to under-five mortality. This is caused two of the effects of malnutrition: susceptibility to infections and a slow recovery from illness. Finally, undernourished mothers not only give birth to undernourished children, but are at a higher risk of perishing during or after the birth. Malnutrition causes issues such as obstructed labor and postpartum haemorrhage, with anemia –one of the effects of malnutrition— in mothers being linked to increase mortality at labour.


You can read some of most interesting topics below






HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.

1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING





118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION


WHAT IS CARNIVOROUS NUTRITION


CARNIVOROUS NUTRITION OR INSECTIVOROUS PLANTS MODE OF NUTRITION

Understanding Carnivorous plants
Carnivorous plants are plants that derive some or most of their nutrients (but not energy) from trapping and consuming animals or protozoans, typically insects and other arthropods. Carnivorous plants have adapted to grow in places where the soil is thin or poor in nutrients, especially nitrogen, such as acidic bogs. Charles Darwin wrote Insectivorous Plants, the first well-known treatise on carnivorous plants, in 1875.

True carnivore

is thought to have evolved independently nine times in five different orders of flowering plants and is represented by more than a dozen genera. This classification includes at least 583 species that attract, trap, and kill prey, absorbing the resulting available nutrients.

300 proto-carnivorous plant species in several genera show some but not all of these characteristics.


Carnivorous or insectivorous plants are equipped with devices for trapping, digesting and absorbing nutritive compounds from the body of insects and other small organisms. They have green leaves to help them carry out photosynthesis or photosynthetic nutrition







Carnivorous plants

usually grow in place with little nitrogenous salts and they then use insects and other smaller animals as their source of nitrogen
Examples of carnivorous or insectivorous plants are
i.

SUNDEW (DROSERA)

The Drosera plant possesses leaves capable of forming an organ to trap and digest insects and it is an example of a carnivorous plant. The upper surface of the leaves has a number of glandular hairs or tentacles. The leaf surface is sticky as a result of digestive gland in the gland.
The ends of the tentacles secretes enzymes capable of digesting insects caught.
The presence of an insect on the leaf stimulates the leaf to fold over and turn all the tentacles inwards. The insect caught get enmeshed. Secretions from the glands then pour out and cover the insect. The explanation above shows the Sundew as a carnivorous plant
ii.

BLADDERWORT (UTRACULARIA)





The Bladderwort is an aquatic carnivorous plant without the possession of roots. Some of the leaves are modified to form hair-like bladders. Each bladder has a trap door hinged on only one edge, so that it can only open inward and tend to remain closed.
In these arrangement, a trapped insect finds it difficult to escape. The captured insect eventually dies of starvation and its nutrients are then absorbed by the plant. This characteristics of Bladderwort makes it a carnivorous plant

iii.

PITCHER-PLANT OF THE NEPENTHES AND SARRACENA


The pitcher is a type of carnivorous plant and it is formed from the modified leaf while the whole leaf of the Sarracena is modified into the Pitcher plant, only the terminal leaf of Nepenthes forms the Pitcher plant
The Nepenthes as a carnivorous plant contains watery fluids secreted by glands in the lower half. The wall of the rest Pitcher above these secretion is smooth, being covered by little waxy scales.
The Pitcher as a carnivorous plant has a lid. Once at the lid, the insect falls over the rim of the Pitcher into the fluid at the bottom.
Enzymes secreted by the Pitcher aids the digestion after which the required nutrients are absorbed by the plant.

Other examples of carnivorous plants are

i. Venus-fly trap also known as Dionaea muscipula
ii. The Butterwort also called Pinguicula



Plants belonging to the genus Nepenthes are carnivorous, using specialized pitfall traps called "pitchers" that attract, capture, and digest insects as a primary source of nutrients. We have used RNA sequencing to generate a cDNA library from the Nepenthes pitchers and applied it to mass spectrometry-based identification of the enzymes secreted into the pitcher fluid using a nonspecific digestion strategy superior to trypsin in this application. This first complete catalog of the pitcher fluid subproteome includes enzymes across a variety of functional classes. The most abundant proteins present in the secreted fluid are proteases, nucleases, peroxidases, chitinases, a phosphatase, and a glucanase. Nitrogen recovery involves a particularly rich complement of proteases. In addition to the two expected aspartic proteases, we discovered three novel nepenthensins, two prolyl endopeptidases that we name neprosins, and a putative serine carboxypeptidase. Additional proteins identified are relevant to pathogen-defense and secretion mechanisms. The full complement of acid-stable enzymes discovered in this study suggests that carnivory in the genus Nepenthes can be sustained by plant-based mechanisms alone and does not absolutely require bacterial symbiosis.




Here are links to previous articles and post that are related to insectivorous or carnivorous nutrition



1. Modes of nutrition in animals
2. Saprophytic nutrition
3. Parasitic nutrition
4. Forages and farm animal nutrition
5. Water as a food substance
6. Carnivorous nutrition in plants
7. Endoparasites and Ectoparasites feeding modes
8. Holozoic mode of nutrition
9. Heterotrophic mode of nutrition
10. Autotrophic nutrition
11. Chemosynthetic nutrition
12. Importance of balance diet

13. What is Kwashiokor?
14. How to test for food
15. Vitamin deficiency symptoms
16. Mineral deficiency symptoms
17. Types of carbohydrates
18. Food substances
19. Classification of food substances
20. feeding mechanisms in holozoic organisms




agricultural biology topics
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS








61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES







154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE

maintenance of teeth and gum


DENTAL CARE FOR OUR TEETH

Oral hygiene, the practice of keeping the mouth and teeth clean in order to prevent dental disorders
Dentistry, the professional care of teeth, including professional oral hygiene and dental surgery
Oral Surgery, any of a number of medical procedures that involve artificially modifying dentition; in other words, surgery of the teeth and jaw bones.
Teeth is one of the most important aspect of the human system. The teeth plays a very important role in the feeding habit of an organism. It is worthy of note that the teeth in the mouth of an adult can be maintained to old age without losing any of it.
The decaying of teeth by bacteria and the formation of starch within the teeth can prevented by adequately caring for the teeth






How to Clean Your Teeth and Gums

There is a right way to brush and floss your teeth. Every day:

1. Gently brush your teeth on all sides with a soft-bristle brush and fluoride toothpaste.
2. Use small circular motions and short back-and-forth strokes.
3. Brush carefully and gently along your gum line.
4. Lightly brush your tongue to help keep your mouth clean.
5. Clean around your teeth with dental floss. 6. Careful flossing removes plaque and leftover food that a toothbrush can't reach.
7. Rinse after you floss.
8. People with arthritis or other conditions that limit hand motion may find it hard to hold and use a toothbrush. Some helpful tips are:

1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES







56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE


Oral hygiene

, the practice of keeping the mouth and teeth clean in order to prevent dental disorders
Dentistry, the professional care of teeth, including professional oral hygiene and dental surgery
Oral Surgery, any of a number of medical procedures that involve artificially modifying dentition; in other words, surgery of the teeth and jaw bones.


The teeth can therefore by cared for in the following ways

i. The teeth should be cleaned with brush or chewing stick and tooth paste twice a day especially after meal and bed.
ii. Stains due to eating kola nuts or tobacco smoking should be removed by using hydrogen peroxide to wash the mouth
iii. Vitamins and mineral containing food such as green vegetables, fresh fruits, butter, cheese, milk and egg should be taken regularly
iv. Sugary foods and drinks like sweet ice cream, soft drinks etc. should be avoided because bacteria feeds on sugar and in the process turn them into acid which attack the teeth
v. The dentist should be visited for regular check-up minimum twice a year
vi. For those using artificial teeth, it should be removed and washed with germicide solution after each meal
Food particles of meat or any other materials should be removed after meal using tooth pick Healthy teeth and gums make it easy for you to eat well and enjoy good food. Several problems can affect the health of your mouth, but good care should keep your teeth and gums strong as you age.








vii.

viii. Teeth are covered in a hard, outer coating called enamel. Every day, a thin film of bacteria called dental plaque builds up on your teeth. The bacteria in plaque produce acids that can harm enamel and cause cavities. Brushing and flossing your teeth can prevent decay, but once a cavity forms, a dentist has to fix it.
ix.
x. Use fluoride toothpaste to protect your teeth from decay. If you are at a higher risk for tooth decay (for example, if you have a dry mouth because of a condition you have or medicines you take), you might need more fluoride. Your dentist or dental hygienist may give you a fluoride treatment during an office visit or may tell you to use a fluoride gel or mouth rinse at home.

xi. The misuse of the teeth such as opening a bottle cork or cracking large bones that may cause damage to the enamel should be avoided

Gum Disease

Gum disease begins when plaque builds up along and under your gum line. This plaque causes infections that hurt the gum and bone that hold your teeth in place. Gum disease may make your gums tender and more likely to bleed. This problem, called gingivitis, can often be fixed by brushing and flossing every day.

A more severe form of gum disease, called periodontitis, must be treated by a dentist. If not treated, this infection can ruin the bones, gums, and other tissues that support your teeth. Over time, your teeth may have to be removed.

how To prevent gum disease:


1. Brush your teeth twice a day with fluoride toothpaste.
2. Floss once a day.
3. Visit your dentist regularly for a checkup and cleaning.
4. Eat a well-balanced diet.
5. Quit smoking. Smoking increases your risk for gum disease.

CARING FOR AN INFANT'S TEETH


Even though newborns and infants do not have teeth, it is important to take care of their mouth and gums. Follow these tips:

1. Use a damp washcloth to wipe your infant's gums after each meal.
2. DO NOT put your infant or young child to bed with a bottle of milk, juice, or sugar water. Use only water for bedtime bottles.
3. Begin using a soft toothbrush instead of a washcloth to clean your child's teeth as soon as their first tooth shows (usually between 5 and 8 months of age).
4. Ask your child's health care provider if your infant needs to take oral fluoride.

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