Types of Farming System in agriculture

Farming System in agriculture

Agricultural systems have been used over the years by farmers to produce foods for humanity. These systems are affected by climatic conditions, vegetation and crops in different areas. This means that these factors in no small way determine the type of system that could be used in an area for production.

Shifting Cultivation

This is the practice of farming on a piece of land for some years then abandoning it for another piece of land also known as bush fallowing
It is mainly used under subsistence agriculture and in areas with abundant farmland which is the opposite of land tenure system. Under this practice, the farmer may not return to the Hire land in life.


At times, however, he may return after the land has been left fallow (that is, without cultivation) for several years. The period of no cultivation is termed fallow period, hence this system is also called bush fallowing.

Advantages

1. It helps to replenish the fertility of the soil in a natural way.

2. It prevents the rapid spread of crop pests-and diseases.









3. It helps to control soil erosion.
4. The system reduces farmers' cost of production in terms of erosion control practices and fertilizer usage.

read about pre-planting practices in agriculture here

Disadvantages

1. A lot of time and energy is usually spent by farmers in preparing fresh land for planting. 2. It leads to the destruction of valuable forest resources such as wildlife and timber trees. 3. It helps to control soil erosion.

4. The system reduces farmers cost of production in terms of erosion control practices and fertilizer usage. 2. Land Rotation This is a modified system of shifting cultivation or bush falllowing. The system involves dividing an available farmland into portions. The farmer (then) farms on one portion for some time before moving to the next portion, in a definite order. This illustrated below: Land Rotation The system is practiced in areas where farmlands are limited are where="" food="" crops="" are="" mainly="" grown.="" advantages

1 . it helps to main the fertility of the soil. 2. It also helps to reduce the build-up of pests and disease organisms. 3. It reduces soil erosion. Disadvantages 1. The system does not encourage production of permanent crops such as cocoa 2. Diseases and pests can spread easily from old plot tn new .
2. Pastoral farming This system involves the rearing of animals that feed on forage crops (grasses and legumes), such as goats, sheep and cattle.

Pastoral farming could take any of these two forms:


(a) Ranching: This is a system of keeping animals in a fenced expanse of land containing forages (grasses and legumes) for them to feed on. Examples are Obudu cattle ranch, in Cross River State, Igarra cattle ranch in Edo State.

(b) Nomadic herding:

This involves the movement of grazing animals from one place to another in search of fresh pasture and ' water. This is mainly practiced by the Fulani nomads of northern Nigeria. This system is also called pastoral nomadism or pastoral farming.

1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION









70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION



Advantages

1. It provides a source of animal protein.

2. The system is not too costly because natural grasses are fed upon by the animals.
3. Less labour is required as;one man can cater for a large number of animals.


Disadvantages

1. It is highly laborious for the herdsmen particularly the nomads.
2. Animals can only be reared in grassland areas where they can have access to feed.
3. The productivity of the animals is affected by availability of pasture crops. The latter is affected by seasonal changes.

Mixed Farming

This is the combination of crop production with animal production on the same farmland. This is mainly practised on commercial farms where large units of livestock such as poultry, pigs, etc. are kept along side the cultivation of crops like maize, rice, and vegetables.

Advantages
1. It ensures steady supply of income for the farmer.
2. It ensures against failure in one of the two enterprises (that is, crop production and animal production.
3. The farmer will be able to replenish the soil for crop cultivation using the manure from the animals.
4. The farmer can also supply feeds to the animals from the crop products.
5. The farmer and his family have access to good food obtained from both his crops and animals.
6. The animals may serve as source of power on the farm, e.g bullock can be used to pull ploughs or harrows.


Disadvantages
1. It requires a great deal of knowledge, skill, time and labour from the farm
2. When animals are reared on the same land where crops grown without fence, the animals may damage the crops.
3. It is expensive to operate - especially in respect of the skill personnel needed.
5.

Ley Farming

This system of farming is not so common in our communities except in experimental stations.
It involves alternating arable or production with the growing of forage crops on a piece of land, instance, a farmer may use a piece of land to grow food crops about two years and then use it for growing forage crops to animals for some other years.
The land is reploughed and planted with food crops again. The farm land is referred to as 'ley’ during the period it is covered with forages.

Advantages of ley farming

1. The pastures, especially the legume species help to replenish the soil fertility.

2. Soil erosion is controlled through the system because at no point in time is the land exposed completely for too long a time 3. It also helps to reduce the build-up of pests and disease agents on a farmland.
It is not easy to practice, hence the system is not popular in farming communities.
forage crops usually become weeds on the farm when they are is cropped with food crops and they are often difficult to terminate.

6. Taungya Farming
This is the system whereby food crops are grown alongside trees.
It involves clearing forest land (forest reserve). and food crops. Later, tree seedlings are planted in between crops to continue on the land after the food crops have been harvested.
The system is practiced in forest reserves in the southern part of Nigeria where the State Governments allow the use of forest reserves for farming.

Advantages of taungya farming
1. The fertility of the soil is usually high for crops to use for maximum productivity.
2. It is an economic way of replacing unwanted forest with desirable tree species.
3. The land is always protected against erosion.
4. The timber seedlings are protected by the food crops in their early stage of life.
5. The system provides a source of income to the government.







Disadvantages of taungya farming
1. It leads to destruction of natural forests which may result in the loss of many forest resources.
2. At times, the needed forests may not develop because most farmers do not cater for the forest trees as they are left to die under heavy cropping with cassava or plantain.
3. The system does not allow the cultivation of permanent crops such as cocoa, rubber, and oil palm.

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MODERN TECHNIQUES IN CROP PROPAGATION

PROPAGATION OF CROPS

Propagation is the multiplication of crops population for the continued existence of crop species.
1. Outline the various methods of propagating crops.
2. List the various methods of sowing seeds,
3. State the advantages and disadvantages of each method of propagation.
4. Identify the various organs of vegetative propagation
Propagation is the multiplication of crops population for the continued existence of crop species.
Sexual or seed propagation
This method makes use of seeds. It is common with both self pollinated and cross-pollinated crops. It is sometimes the only possible way to propagate some crops like tomato, maize, rice, pea and groundnut. Seeds can be collected from healthy, vigorous and high yielding plants.
 These are sown either directly on the farm or first in nursery before they are transplanted to the farm. Examples of crop that are propagated by seeds are maize, rice, tomato, okra, cocoa, oil palm, rubber, mango, cashew and guava.



Seed and fruit formation
 The main reproductive organ flowering plants is the flower.
 The flower consists of two major parts - the male and the female parts.
The stamen is the  reproductive organ and it is made up of filaments carrying anthers which contain the pollen grains.
The pistil is the female reproductive organ. It consists of the stigma which receives the pollen grains during pollination; style which connects the stigma to the ovary through which the pollen tube grows during the process of fertilizers: and the ovary which contains the ovules which develop Into seeds.

After fertilization, a zygote is formed from the ovule. This develops to form an embryo. The ovule eventually develops into the seeds, while the ovary which contains the







Classification of fruits:
Fruits may be classified as simple, foot pound, and aggregate.
Simple fruits are those formed from a flower with a monocarpous pistil. Examples are beans, lemon and mango.

Compound/multiple fruits are formed from an inflorescence or bunch whose fruit-lets are fused together to form a , jingle large fruits. Examples are pineapple and jack fruit.

Aggregate joints are formed from a single flower with an apocarpous pistil, carpel constitutes a fruit let. An example is kola nut. Again fruits can also be divided into two: fleshy and dry fruits.

(i) Fleshy or succulent fruits:
This group includes:

1. Berry:
This has a fleshy pericarp with hard seeds which are embedded in the fleshy and pulpy endocarp. Examples are tomato and guava. DIAGRAM Figure 2.4.1 :Tomato fruits
: Berry.

 2. Hesperiditrm: This class of fruit is made up of distinct chambers of separated sheets of endocarp. The epicarp and mesocarp are fused together to form the skin. Seeds are embedded in each chamber. Examples are orange, lemon, lime, tangerine.
3. Drupe: Phis consists of a thin epicarp. fleshy or fibrous mesocarp and a stony or hard endocarp surrounding the see Examples are mango, coconut and palm fruit.

4. Pome: This consists of an outer covering and a fleshy edible part which are formed by the swelling of the receptacle. Examples are pear and apple.

5. Sorosis: This is a fleshy multiple false fruit which develop from a dense inflorescence. Every part of each flower forms part of the fruit while the peduncle swells to form the core. Example are pineapple and Jack fruit. DIAGRAM

 Figure 2.4.2a: Internal Structure of Orange (Hesperidium) DIAGRAM Figure 2.4.2b: Internal Structure of Coconut (Drape) DIAGRAM Figure 2.4.2c: Pome (Peat) DIAGRAM Figure 2.4.2d:

 Sorosis
 (Pineapple) (ii) Dry fruits: These are fruits which have hard, dry pericarp.
They include:
 1. Legume:
 This has one carpel which can split along two edges. Examples are cowpea, groundnut.
 2. Capsule:
This has many joined carpels which split along all structures from base to the apex. Examples are okra, cotton.
3. Caryopsis:
This is a simple dry one seeded fruit which does not split open (indehiscent). Examples are maize, guinea corn, millet and other cereals.
 4. Nut:
This has a hard pericarp which can be broken or cracked. Examples are cashew nut, walnut, almond.


 Advantages of sexual or seed propagation


1. It is very easy to practice. That is seeds can be carried conveniently to the farm 2. It brings about easy multiplication of plant population. 3. Well stored seeds can remain viable for a long time. 4. It is a sure way to start a disease free crop. 5. It can be used to improve crops through cross-breeding.

 Disadvantages of sexual or seed propagation
1. Some crops take long time to mature and fruit when planted by seeds. Example is orange.
2. Some seeds are lost in the soil during propagation because of termites, rats and hare. 3. It is difficult to grow crops that are seedless with this method

Seed treatment before sowing:
1. Pre-soak the seeds. This is to allow some very hard secd to absorb water that will aid germination.
2. Scarification is carried out to loosen the surface of the seeds for easy emergence of the radical and plumule.
 3. Chemical dressing of seeds. This is done so that disease organisms do not affect the seeds. It is also to prevent pests from destroying the seeds.






 2. Asexual or vegetative propagation This involves the use of parts of plant in multiplying the plant, parts of plant such as roots, stem and leaves can be used instead of seeds. For example, the root can be used to grow breadfruit and potato. The leaf can be used to multiply the plant Bryophyllum.

Crops such as cassava and sugar-cane can be grown from stem. Methods of Asexual or Vegetative Propagation: There are several methods of asexual or vegetative propagation
These are: 1. Budding 4. Layering 2. Grafting 5. Marcotting 3. Cutting 6. Others. 1. DIAGRAM

 1. Budding:
  This is the bringing together of the bud and stock. The bud is taken from a tree already producing or matured. This forms the bud stick or slip. The stock is a young plant of about a year old.
  During budding, a T-shaped cut or inverted T-shaped is made at about 45 cm from the ground on the stem of the stock plant. The cut shape is slightly raised to expose the cambium.

The bud is carefully slipped into the raised bark and pressed firmly to ensure that the combination of both bud and stock unite together. It is tied with plastic material, or any device to hold it in place. This should be done quickly to prevent the bud from drying. Air and water should be prevented from the cut until the bud lies taken' or heal together with the stock


 This will show when the bud remains green. The bud then shoots after some days. When it becomes well established, the part of the stock above the bud should be cut-off. The cut surface should be to avoid fungal or bacterial infection. It is commonly used in citrus. .

 2. Grafting:
 This is the union of the stock and scion. The part of the plant whose root is in the ground is called the stock while the stem removed from other plant is called scion. The scion is normally attached to the stock for grafting to take place.
The two plants must be of the same species or closely related species. The plant should be of the same age and size for grafting to be possible. Both plants are cut in a slant or V-shape to provide good surfaces for contact. They are then tied together with plastic tape or any device to keep them in place.
The junction is rubbed with grafting wax to prevent trie entrance of air water and pathogens. It is advisable to water until when the wrapping may be removed after two weeks.
Advantages of budding and grafting:
 1. They are used to bring good qualities in two crop species together. Examples are high yield, taste and resistance to diseases. 2. They are used in perpetuating clones. 3. Budded plants mature very early. This is because the bud tends to assume the age of the parent plants. 4. They produce plants with uniform qualities. 5. They take the advantages of the roots of a more resistant stock to thrive. 6. Destroyed parts of a plant could be replaced by graft-tag.

 3. Layering:
 This involves bending a shoot or branch of a plant to the ground so that the nodes can make contact with the soil. It is then pegged below the ground and covered with rich soil to provide good medium for root development.
 When roots have emerged the branch is cut from the parent plant. This can be transplanted after a time as rooted cuttings. Layering can be used in coffee, cocoa and kola production. DIAGRAM Figure 2.4.5: Layering Method

 4. Cutting: This involves the use of mature stem or branch stem to propagate plants. This is a very common method of many crops such as cassava, ixora. croton and sugar-cane.
The plants produced, have the same characteristics as the original plant from which the cuttings were obtained. Cuttings can be obtained from soft wood as in sweet potato, semi hard wood as in cassava and hard wood as in hibiscus plant.
they should be cut from stems that have started to harden. The cutting should be about 20 cm long or convenient length, with two to three nodes or buds. It should be put into the ground to enable it have contact with the soil. It should be watered after planting or raised in shade during dry periods or planted during the rains.

 5. Marcotting:
 Marcotting is a practical vegetative propagation method. In this practice, the bark of a branch is peeled off with a knife, up to a considerable length. This should not be more than 5 cm long. Soil rich in organic manure is tied to the peeled portion by means of coconut husks or any suitable device. It is watered to keep moist always. After a time, roots will grow out of the peeled portion. As the roots become strong enough, the branch is cut off the plant. The rooted branch is planted into the soil to give rise to a new plant. It is used for plants whose cuttings do not produce roots easily. It is employed in fruit crops such as lemon and man no as well as shrubs. DIAGRAM Figure 2.4.6: Marcotting

6. Other methods: Some plants are grown or propagated means of suckers as in pineapple and plantain
, tubers as in yam, under-ground stem (corms) in cocoyam, bulbs in onion.

 Vines (runners) in Irish potato. Some are grown from rhizomes as in grasses and ginger with horizontal underground stems, containing nodes and internodes. Also, the roots of plants can be used as is the case of breadfruit-and carrot and cut leaf as in the case of bryophyllum.



 Advantages of vegetative propagation:

 1. It enables crop to produce in very short time e.g. citrus.

 2. Plants propagated vegetatively have uniform growth rate.

3. They can stand a more adverse environmental conditions e.g. poor soil.

 4. Plants that do not produce viable seeds can be propagated by this method.

5. The offspring are identical to the parent plant always

6. It is easy to obtain planting materials.

 7. Many flowers or ornamental plants are easily grown with the method.

Disadvantage of vegetative propagation:

 1. It is sometimes very laborious because planting materials are bulky.

2. Diseases are easily transferred from parent to offspring.

 3. Vegetative parts of plant cannot be stored for a long time for planting.

4. Genetic improvement of crop is impossible. STUDY QUESTIONS 1. Outline the various methods of crop propagation. 2. State Three advantages and disadvantages of seed or sexual propagation. 3. Enumerate Five types of vegetative propagation of crops.describe any Three of such methods. 4. State four advantages of budding and grafting as methods of vegetative propagation. 5. What are the advantages of vegetative propagation of crops? 6. Write short notes on the following: i. Vegetative propagation ii. Marcotting iii. Caryopsis iv. drupe 7. (a) Describe layering as a vegetative method of crop propagation. (b) Mention some crops that can be propagated by layering.

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HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY








TYPES OF JOINTS IN THE SKELETAL SYSTEM


THE JOINTS

Most often we discuss the internal structure of living things and forgetting to talk about the way these things work. So we shall be taking a look at the types of joints, the way the joints work to make man effective and some terms found under this topic of joints. So first let’s look at the definition of joint.

DEFINITION OF JOINTS

What is a joint?
A joint is a point, place or region where two or more bones meet or articulate. Movement of the body or body parts are made possible through the aid of joints and muscles. So as it is, there cannot be any effective movement in vertebrates without the joints in place.
Most importantly these joints are held together by ligaments which are made of stiff, partially elastic fibres. Ligaments joins bones to bones. Suffice me to say that the amazing way the internal skeletal system is designed leaves with profound admiration for the creator even though science frowns at the mention of the name God the creator of the universe.






TYPES OF JOINTS

There are two main types of joints that can be found in the skeletal system of vertebrates. These are IMMOVABLE/FIXED JOINTS and MOVABLE JOINTS

1.

FIXED OR IMMOVABLE JOINTS

Immovable joints are joints or regions where two or more bones are attached to one to another firmly fixed by ligaments in such a way that movement of these bones is not possible.

Examples of places within the body where such joints can be found are the skull and the pelvic girdle. The immovable joints of the skull are called SUTURES


2.

MOVABLE JOINTS

TYPES OF MOVABLE JOINTSMajorly within the scope of this study, there are four main types of movable joints. These are
i. Ball and socket joint
ii. Hinge joint
iii. Gliding and sliding joint
iv. Pivot joints


i.

BALL AND SOCKET JOINTS

The ball and socket joints allow movements in all planes or directions. This type joint is found in the shoulder and the hip joint. In the shoulder, the head of the humerus is a ball like structure which fits into the glenoid cavity of the scapula-pectoral girdle. This then allows for movement in all direction.

SIMILARLY, IN THE HIP JOINT, THE ROUND HEAD OF THE FEMUR FITS INTO THE ACETABULUM OF THE PELVIC GIRDLE TO FORM A FREELY ARTICULATING JOINT


ii.

THE HINGE JOINT

The hinge joint only allow movement in one direction or one plane. An example of hinge joint are found in the elbow and knee joints.
The elbow joint is found the humerus and ulna/radius.
Similarly, the knee joint is found between the femur and tibia/fibula. As the name HINGE implies, each set of bones making up the hinge joint functions like one half of a hinge used for house doors


iii.

GLIDING OR SLIDING JOINTS

The gliding joints allows the sliding of bones over one another. These joints are found at the wrist and ankle. T6hey practically allow the hand foot to up and down or to rotate slightly


iv.

PIVOT OR ROTATING JOINTS

Pivot joints are that allow nodding or rotation of one part of the body on another. Pivot joint is found between the atlas and axis vertebrae. The odontoid process of the axis allow or acts as a pivot which allows the rotation of the head on the vertebral column. This is the seen in the atlas and the skull together rotates about the odontoid process


HOW THE STRUCTURE OF A JOINTS ADAPTS TO ITS FUNCTION


i. In movable joints, there is the presence of cartilages to reduce friction between bone that are in contact
ii. The ligaments helps to hold the bones together
iii. The SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE secretes the SYNOVIAL FLUID
iv. The synovial fluid helps to lubricate the joints thereby minimizing shock and friction which enhances smooth movement of bone of the joints

THE MAIN PARTS OF A JOINT AND ITS SETUP

The main parts of a joint consist of the following
i.

LIGAMENTS:

these are tough, partly elastic band of tissue. They hold two bones together at a joint. They are able to accommodate movement at the joints because of their elastic nature
ii.

TENDONS:

the tendons are an extension of connective tissues which surrounds the muscles. Unlike the ligaments, they are non-elastic in nature. They connect muscles to bones







iii.

ARTICULAR CARTILAGE:

these are found at the surface of bones at the joints. They play the role of cushioning the bones by protecting them from wear and tear during movements. They prevent the articulating surfaces from being worn out due to friction
iv.

SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE:

synovial membrane is responsible for the secretion of the synovial fluid
v.

SYNOVIAL FLUID:

this is the fluid that is secreted by the synovial membrane. It lubricates the joints thereby reduces shock as well as friction between two bones
vi.

CAPSULE:

capsule is the space in form of sac which contains the synovial fluid




HOW THE MUSCLES ACTS ON BONES TO CAUSE MOVEMENT

SO WHAT ARE MUSCLES?

DEFINITION OF MUSCLEh2>THE MOVEMENT OF FORE-LIMB OR ELBOW JOINT


The muscles of the upper arm on humerus are referred to as BICEPS and TRICEPS.
The bicep muscles are found at the front of the humerus and are attached to the scapula by means of two TENDONS.
The triceps muscles are found at the back of the humerus. The contraction and the relaxation of these muscles bring about bending and straightening of the limb
The muscles of the fore limbs are antagonistic muscles, that is to say they work together in pairs in an opposing way or direction. Whenever an impulse is received from the central nervous, the biceps/flexor contracts by becoming shorter and thicker, and at the same time the extensor/triceps relax.
Now since the TENDONS do not stretch, the shortening of the biceps results in a pull of the radius and this invariably causes the arm to bend

On the other hand, when the triceps muscle/extensor contract, by becoming shorter and thicker at the same time, and the biceps/flexor relaxes, a force is exerted on the ulna and the arm is straightened as a result.
Note that energy is highly involved in the movement of limbs. The muscular energy comes from the oxidation of glycogen which is stored within the muscles also known as TISSUE RESPIRATION


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HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.


1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION


Areas of Agriculture


Areas of Specialization in Agriculture

The following are the different areas.which one can specialize in the study of agriculture:


1. Soil Science
This deals with the study of the soil. It has to do with knowing the nature and types or classes of the soil, how to prepare the soil for crop production and managing the soil in a way that will enhance high yield of crops. A person that studied soil science is called soil scientist.

2. Animal Science
This is the study of farm animals. Farm animals are also called livestock. 
The rearing of livestock or farm animals is referred to as animal husbandry, The animal scientist is the person who studied the different kinds of farm animals, how they grow and reproduce, their food requirement, how to take proper care of the animals so that they would have good conditions favourable for high productivity.

3. Crop Science/Agronomy
This area deals with the study of crops, it is concerned with knowing the different kinds of crops and their varieties, the of cultivating them, what they require to grow and produce This area is closely connected with soil science hence universities prefer to use the term agronomy to include soil science and crop science. The agronomist is one who is specialized in crop science.

4. Agricultural Education
This is the study and teaching of agriculture in schools. People who teach agricultural science in schools and colleges are called Agricultural Educators or Agricultural Science Teachers. In the universities or other higher institutions, they are called Agricultural Lecturers.






5. Agricultural Extension
This is a very important aspect of agriculture, because the development of sound agricultural practices depends on a good extension service. It is mainly concerned with passing information on improved farming techniques to farmers. 

The farmers' problems are also carried through extension service to research stations for solutions. The people who are trained to carry out agricultural extension service are called Agricultural Extension Officers or agents.

6. Agricultural Economics
Agriculture is a business. .This means that it must be run in a way that profit will always come from it. Agricultural Economics is therefore concerned with the study of how agriculture can be run so that it will be a profitable business. 

Agricultural Economics enables the farmer to know what to produce, with what to produce, how to produce, and what to do with the farm produce and finally what is the profit. A specialist in this area of agriculture is called Agricultural Economist.
their food
reproduce, requirement, how to take proper care of the animals so that they would have good conditions favourable for high productivity.

6. Horticulture
This deals with the science and art of growing:

(a)fruit (pomology)
(b) Vegetables (Olericulture)
(c) Ornamental plants or flowers (Floriculture).
A person that specializes in horticulture is called Horticulturist.


8. Forestry
This is that branch of agriculture that deals with the control and management of forests and forest resources. A forest represents an area of land which is mainly covered_ with trees along with other plant species. 
The forestry officer is one who specializes in forest management.

9. Fishery
The rearing of fishes and other aquatic organisms in a body of water is termed fishery. Fishery as a course/subject in agriculture studies the different kinds of fishes and other aquatic organisms, how they are reared, captured, preserved and used. Fishery matters are handled by fishery






officers, trained in fishery.

10. Veterinary Medicine
This is the area that studies the diseases and pests -of farm animals. The veterinarian is one who helps in vaccinating farm animals against diseases and treat them when they are sick. They are often called Veterinary doctors.

11. Agricultural Engineering
This is concerned with the study of farm machineries and their uses. It also includes the maintenance of those machines and implements used on the farm, as well as construction, use and maintenance of farm structures and buildings. A specialist in this area is called Agricultural Engineer.
Other areas include Agricultural Journalism, Agricultural Biology, General Agriculture, Agricultural Biochemistry and Nutrition, etc,



Courses in agriculture available in Nigerian Higher Institutions '
Agriculture can be studied in any of the following levels of institution:

1. Schools of Agriculture and polytechnics
These offer a two-year course leading to the award of the national Diploma (N.D.) some offer a further two-year course leading to the award of Higher National Diploma (H.N.D).

2. Colleges of Education
These institutions train agricultural science teachers for a three year duration after which they are awarded the Nigeria Certificate of Education (N.C.E.).

3. Universities
Different universities have their faculties of agriculture when different courses are offered leading to the award of any of the following:
(a) B.Sc ( Agric)
(b) B. Agric~
(c) B.Ed(Agric) 

To study Agriculture in higher schools in Nigeria, it is advisable to offer and have credit passes, at the senior school certificate examination, Agricultural Science, Biology, Chemistry, English and Mathematics. Other relevant subjects are Physics, Economics and Geography.
Graduates from the different schools and different courses may become any of the following:
(1) Agricultural Officers in Ministries of Agriculture.
(2) Research Officers in Research Stations.
(3) Teachers in secondary schools.
(4) Teachers/Lecturers in -higher institutions.
(5) Managers in commercial farms.
(6) Agricultural loans officers in Banks ,
(7) Veterinary doctors.
(8) Public Relations Officers in large Agro-industries or farms.
(9) Agricultural journalists
(10) Agricultural businessmen f
(11) Forestry officers. .
(12) Fishery officers.

It has been mentioned earlier in this unit that agriculture is both academic and vocational. What has been discussed above is the academic and vocational aspect of agriculture.
On the vocational side, a person who studied agriculture' can engage in any of the following vocations or occupations:
a) Arable crops production: This is concerned with the cultivation of food crops such as cereals, tubers, plantains* and banana, etc.
(b)Cash crops production: This includes the cultivation of crops such as cotton, oil palm, rubber, cocoa, etc.
(c) Vegetables production
(d) Production of ornamental plants and landscape development and beautification.
(e) Livestock production: This includes the rearing of cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, rabbits or poultry. . (g) Fishery.,
(h) Agricultural business (trading on farm produce and farm equipment or inputs
13.3 Advantages of choosing farming as a career
Many people often think that agriculture means farming. T his is not entirely true. As it has been seen in the preceding discussions, agriculture is academic, it is a business and it is a vocation or an occupation. Farming comes under vocation or occupation in agriculture.
Agriculture is mainly concerned with the cultivation of crops and the rearing of animals on the farm. Farming therefore is an important component or sub-sector of agriculture because it is the source of food for mankind. AH other aspects of agriculture are geared towards improving farming and hence increasing available food for human consumption. Therefore, agriculture cam toe regarded as the mother of all professions, occupations or businesses.
If agriculture flourishes, every other aspect of human endeavour will flourish, but if the land is allowed to lie fallow, every other thing is at a standstill.


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HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

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Alley cropping system of farming



what is ALLEY FARMING

This is a system which involves the growing of food crops in spaces between hedge-rows of trees or shrubs, which must undergo regular pruning every five or six weeks. The species of plants that can be used for alley cropping include: nitrogen fixing Gliricidia and Leucaena. The spacing of these plants is put at 4 metres between rows, to allow enough space for the growing of food crops. The soil nutrients are recycled through the decomposition of the organic residue.

ADVANTAGES OF ALLEY CROPPING

(i) The pruned leaves help in the feeding of ruminants in the dry season as fodder.
(ii) The branches or stems are cut and used as yam stake and firewood.
(iii) The shades provided by the plants help to suppress weed growth.
(iv) The pruned leaves also serve as mulching materials.
(v) The shrubs serve as a barrier when planted across the slope in the control of erosion.
(vi) Alley cropping serves as an alternative to bush fallowing.
(vii) The nitrogen fixing plants fix nitrogen for the food crops.






DISADVANTAGES OF ALLEY CROPPING

(i) The plants used can easily smother the growing food crops, if they are not pruned in time.
(ii) Nitrogen supply may be in short fall to the crops, if non-nitrogen fixing plants are used.
(iii) The system may be difficult to practice on a large scale.

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT

56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING







soil improvement techniques
90. MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL

157. PLANTERS
164. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION




SITING OF SCHOOL FARM AND CONSTRUCTION OF FARM ROAD


SITING OF SCHOOL FARM AND CONSTRUCTION OF FARM ROAD


1. Outline the factors to be considered in siting a school farm.
2. Enumerate the importance of school farm.
3. Plan the construction of farm road.
A farm is an area of land for growing crops and/or raising Him animals. The school farm is a place where students of agric acquire practical skills and knowledge in crop or animal production.

Factors to Consider in Choosing a Site for a Sc Farm

1. Nearness to the School
This will reduce time wasting in movement between the school and the farm by both students and teachers. It also reduces activities of thieves in the farm and makes it easy for the students to monitor their respective plots closely.

2. Good Access Roads
The, farm should be well linked with roads or paths to movement by students and teachers. It will also facilitate movement of farm inputs to the farm and the harvested pi (output) from the farm.
3. Topography (Slope of Land)
The land should be flat or level to reduce erosion problem cost of farm operation. The slope of the land will determine
(i) The direction the beds or ridges should run; and
(ii) The type of erosion control measure to adopt on the far
4. Nature of the soil
Good soil types, such as loam, sandy-loam or clay-loam are preferable for most crops and are easily drained. Fertile soil should be selected to reduce the cost of manuring and fertilizer application. Stony water-logged, and overused soils should be avoided

5. Source of Water
The school farm should be located as close as possible, toa source of water supply. Water is needed for both compulsory and ple-mental irrigation on the farm, processing of some farm iicc like melon, cleaning of body and tools after work and for drinking.
6. Aspect
This refers to the appearance or look of the farm in relation to its situation. The site that is directly overshadowed by tall trees and buildings should be avoided. This is because the shade will prevent crops from receiving die full solar radiation for development and yield. Full exposure is important for the crops to receive sunlight for photosynthesis.








Importance of school farm
1. Source of income to school: Money is realized from the sale of farm products.
2. It is a place for learning: Students are taught practical skills and knowledge on crop and animal husbandry on the school farm
3. Centre of attraction to school visitors.
4. It serves as a demonstration centre where farmers in the locality can learn modern farming practices
5. It also provides a forum for students group work and interaction which may not be possible in the classroom
6. Student and teachers of agriculture derive satisfaction from putting classroom knowledge into practice, as well as reaping what they sow. It gives them a sense of achievement
7. School farm can serve as a source of food for students

6.3 Construction of Farm Roads
Before embarking on land preparation for planting it is very important to first construct or mark out the roads on the farm.
There should be a major path leading from the school to the farm. The farm should be divided into portions or plots with each plot linked and surrounded by paths. The paths should be linked to the main path. The whole farm should be surrounded by a path. All roads or paths on the farm should be constructe along level land case movement.

Roads on the farm enable the movement in and out, and round the farm. They help to prevent treading on seed-beds or crops.

don't forget to use the comment box and leave a message or suggestion and we will get back to you within seconds.

You can read some of most interesting topics below







HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS






125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

Please feel free to share while using our comment box below.
Thanks for sharing

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