VITAMINS AND THEIR DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS


VITAMINS AND THEIR DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS

WHAT ARE VITAMINS?
Vitamins are organic food substances required to by man and other animals only in small quantity or amount for normal growth and healthy development of the body.
Inadequacy or lack of any of these vitamins can lead to nutritional deficiency in animals generally.
A typical example of nutritional disease is GOITRE. The goiter is caused as a result of insufficient iodine in diet of man. Goiter is characterized by the swollen of the thyroid gland in the neck.
GROUPS OF VITAMINS
Vitamins are grouped into two main classes. They are
i. FATS SOLUBLE VITAMINS
These vitamins that are soluble only in FATS. E.g. Vitamins A, D, E and K
ii. WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS
These are vitamins that are soluble only in water. Examples are vitamin-B complex and Vitamin C. some members of the vitamin B-complex are vitamins B1 (Thiamine), B2 (Riboflavin), B3 (Niacin), B5 (Pantothenic), B6 (Pyridoxine), B12 (Cyano Cobalamine), Folic acid etc.

Sources, functions and deficiency symptoms of some vitamins are outlined below








VITAMINS=======SOURCES======FUNCTIONS=======DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS
1. VITAMIN A (RETINOL)

SOURCES=========liver, eggs, fish, milk, palm oil and fresh vegetables

FUNCTIONS OF VITAMIN A
i. Vitamin A is required for growth of the body cells and skin
ii. Vitamin A is required for proper vision and maintenance of the eye

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS OF VITAMIN A
I. LACK OF VITAMIN A CAUSES NIGHT BLINDNESS
II. LACK OF VITAMIN A REDUCES RESISTANCE TO DISEASES

2. VITAMIN B (thiamine)
SOURCES OF VITAMIN B======Yeast, unpolished rice, milk, beans and palm oil

FUNCTIONS OF VITAMIN B (thiamin)

i. This type of vitamin is required for proper growth
ii. Vitamin B-thiamin is required for proper functioning of heart and nervous system

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS OF VITAMIN B THIAMINE
i. Lack of vitamin B thiamin causes beriberi (a condition of loss of appetite, weight and tiredness) and Paralysis

3. VITAMIN B (RIBOFLAVIN)

SOURCES OF VITAMIN B-RIBOFLAVIN====Yeast, soya beans, eggs, milk and green vegetables


FUNCTIONS OF VITAMIN==RIBOFLAVIN
I. Vitamin B riboflavin is required for growth,,
II. Vitamin B riboflavin is required for healthy skin
III. Riboflavin is required for proper functioning of the eyes
IV. Vitamin B Riboflavin is required for the formation of Co-Enzymes involved in ce4llular respiration

Deficiency symptoms of Vitamin B Riboflavin
i. Lack of vitamin B Riboflavin causes slow growth
ii. Lack of vitamin B Riboflavin in the body causes Dermatitis



4. VITAMIN B (NIACIN)
SOURCES OF VITAMIN B NIACIN===yeast, beans milk and palm oil, wine, yam and vegetables

FUNCTIONS OF VITAMIN B NIACIN
i. Vitamin B Niacin is needed for cellular respiration

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS OF VITAMIN B NIACIN

I. LACK OF VITAMIN B NIACIN IN THE BODY CAUSES PELLAGRA, WHICH IS A TYPE OF SKIN AND DIGESTIVE PROBLEM



5. VITAMIN B (CYNACOBALAMIN)

SOURCES OF VITAMIN B-Cyna Cobalamine===kidney, liver, fish and milk


FUNCTIONS OF VITAMIN B CYNACOBALAMINE

I. This type of vitamin B is used for the production red blood cells


DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS OF VITAMIN B CYNA COBALAMINE

I. LACK OF VITAMIN B Cyna Cobalamine in the body causes Pernicious anaemia.


6. VITAMIN C (ASCORBIC ACID)









SOURCES OF VITAMIN C====fresh fruits, and green vegetables


FUNCTIONS OF VITAMIN C

i. Vitamin C aids wound healing
ii. Vitamin C helps to resist diseases and infections in the body


DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS OF VITAMIN C

I. Lack of vitamin C in the body causes SCURVEY. This characterized by bleeding gum, poor healing of wounds and low resistance to infections



7. VITAMIN D (Calciferol)


SOURCES OF VITAMIN D CALCIFEROL===fish, milk, egg, liver.
It can also be formed in the skin by sunlight



FUNCTIONS OF VITAMIN D CALCIFEROL

I. Vitamin D is needed for strong bones
II. Vitamin D is essential for teeth formation and development

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS OF VITAMIN D

i. Lack of Vitamin D in the body causes Rickets and Osteomalacia



8. VITAMIN E (Egosterol)

SORCES OF VITAMIN E=====gree3n vegetables, egg, butter and liver


FUNCTIONS OF VITAMIN E

i. Vitamin E promotes fertility in animals

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS OF VITAMIN E

I. Lack of Vitamin E in the body leads to reproductive failures
II. Lack of vitamin E can also cause pre-mature abortion and sterility



9. VITAMIN K (PHYLLOQUINONE)

SOURCES OF VITAMIN K=====FRESH GREEN VEGETABLES, LIKE CABBAGE AND SPINACH


FUNCTIONS OF VITAMIN K

i. Vitamin K aids in blood clotting



DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS OF VITAMIN K
i. Lack of Vitamin in the body causes haemorrhages
ii. In ability of the blood to clot in time




You can read some of most interesting topics below

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.

1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL





79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION



WHAT IS PARASITIC NUTRITION?


PARASITIC PLANTS AND THEIR NUTRITION

As we learnt earlier that parasitism is an association in which an organism called the parasite though different from the partner called HOST but feeds directly off its host thereby causing harm to the host. So without a host there is no parasitism in place. So if parasitic nutrition in animals involves two organisms of different species, then there is also what we call parasitic nutrition in plant, and that plants are also living things.

So then what is parasitic nutrition in plants?
Parasitic nutrition in plants is a type of nutrition in plant which a PRIMARY PLANT Lives on another secondary host for survival and feeding.

TYPES OF PARASITIC PLANTS

i. CASSYTHA FILIFORMIS (DODDER) Cassytha is a thin, thread-like stem which normally coils around the stem of anther plant. At intervals, Cassytha sends out suckers which grows through the stem of the host until it reaches the phloem tissue of the host from which it absorbs manufactured food from the host.






Cassytha is regarded as a complete parasite because it absorbs already made food from its host.
Cassytha has no root,
Cassytha has no chlorophyll hence it cannot manufacture its own food



ii. MISTLETOE: the Mistletoe is a type of parasitic plant commonly found growing on another plant, called the host. Mistletoe is photosynthetic which means it has green leaves and can synthesize its own food.
iii. However it described as a partial parasite because its roots only penetrates into the xylem tissues of the host where it only absorbs water to enable it manufacture its own food through the process called photosynthesis.

PARASITIC PLANTS AND THEIR NUTRITION


As we learnt earlier that parasitism is an association in which an organism called the parasite though different from the partner called HOST but feeds directly off its host thereby causing harm to the host. So without a host there is no parasitism in place. So if parasitic nutrition in animals involves two organisms of different species, then there is also what we call parasitic nutrition in plant, and that plants are also living things.


So then what is parasitic nutrition in plants?

Parasitic nutrition in plants is a type of nutrition in plant which a PRIMARY PLANT Lives on another secondary host for survival and feeding.

TYPES OF PARASITIC PLANTS

iv. CASSYTHA FILIFORMIS (DODDER) Cassytha is a thin, thread-like stem which normally coils around the stem of anther plant. At intervals, Cassytha sends out suckers which grows through the stem of the host until it reaches the phloem tissue of the host from which it absorbs manufactured food from the host.

Cassytha is regarded as a complete parasite because it absorbs already made food from its host.
Cassytha has no root,
Cassytha has no chlorophyll hence it cannot manufacture its own food



v. MISTLETOE: the Mistletoe is a type of parasitic plant commonly found growing on another plant, called the host. Mistletoe is photosynthetic which means it has green leaves and can synthesize its own food.
vi. However it described as a partial parasite because its roots only penetrates into the xylem tissues of the host where it only absorbs water to enable it manufacture its own food through the process called photosynthesis.

The following are related link and posts to this topic








1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER







90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143.
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE

WHAT IS OVULATION?




What is ovulation?


Ovulation is the name of the process that happens usually once in every menstrual cycle, when hormone changes trigger an ovary to release an egg. In this article, we look more closely at this process and explain how you use this knowledge to help you to become pregnant.

What is ovulation?
What is the difference between ovulation and fertile days?
When am I most fertile?
When do you ovulate?
How long does ovulation last?

Woman tracking her ovulation days with an app







Ovulation is the process when hormone changes trigger an ovary to release an egg.
You can only become pregnant if a sperm meets with and fertilizes an egg.
Ovulation normally occurs 24 to 36 hours after the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge, so identifying this LH surge helps you to determine when you are about to ovulate.
Sperm can remain active for up to five days, so couples can conceive by having intercourse prior to the egg being released.
Clearblue Ovulation Tests are at least 99% accurate at detecting the LH surge.

Ovulation

Ovulation is the name of the process that happens usually once in every menstrual cycle when hormone changes trigger an ovary to release an egg. You can only become pregnant if a sperm fertilizes an egg. Ovulation usually happens 12 to 16 days before your next period starts.
The eggs are contained in your ovaries. During the first part of each menstrual cycle, one of the eggs is being grown and matured.

female reproductive organs


As you approach ovulation, your body produces increasing amounts of a hormone called estrogen, which causes the lining of your uterus to thicken and helps create a sperm friendly environment.
These high estrogen levels trigger a sudden increase in another hormone called luteinising hormone (LH). The ‘LH’ surge causes the release of the mature egg from the ovary - this is ovulation.
Ovulation normally occurs 24 to 36 hours after the LH surge, which is why the LH surge is a good predictor of peak fertility.
The egg can only be fertilized for up to 24 hours after ovulation. If it isn’t fertilized the lining of the womb is shed (the egg is lost with it) and your period begins. This marks the start of the next menstrual cycle.

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION





48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION




THE SKIN




SKIN

Structure of skin:

The skin of farm animals (Fig. 29.12) has been described as the largest organ of the body. It covers the outer surfaces of all animals. The skin is made up of two layers - epidermis and dermis.

Epidermis

The epidermis is the outermost layer and it is made up of three layers: (i) cornified layer (ii) granular layer (iii) malpighian layer.
(i)

The cornified layer:

It is the outermost layer of the epidermis. It is made up of flat, hard and scaly cells. The cells of cornified layer are dead.
(ii)

The granular layer:

This contains the living cells where active division of cells takes place. These cells replace the cells of the granular layer which in turn are replacing the cells of the cornified layer which are constantly being worn-out.
(iii)

The Malpighian layer:

This contains granules of pigment called melanin. This hair pigment is responsible for skin colour. The melanin also prevents the penetration of a lot of violet rays of sunlight. The Malpighian layer also contains another pigment called keratin which is responsible for the toughness and flexibility of the skin.









Dermis:fibrous collective tissues. The dermis contains nerves which enable the skin to be sensitive to changes in its environment such as pain, heat, temperature, touch, cold, etc.. The blood and lymph vessels supply materials to the skin, remove wastes from the skin cells, and carry out temperature regulation. The sweat glands which consist of a coiled tubular gland opening into the epidermis excrete water and salts as sweat, sebaceous or oil gland which produces an oily substance called sebum. This helps to lubricate the hair and make it waterproof, while the erector muscle controls the erection of the hairs on the skin surface by its contraction and relaxation. Underneath the skin is a layer of fat called subcutaneous fatty tissue. This fat layer varies in thickness, depending on the part of the body.


FUNCTIONS OF THE SKIN

The functions of the skin include the following:
(1) Protection: The skin protects the inner skin or tissue from mechanical injuries, bacterial infection, and ultraviolet rays of the sunlight and against desiccation.
(2) Excretion: The skin excretes excess water, mineral salts and nitrogenous wastes through the sweat glands as sweat
(3) Sensitivity: The skin is sensitive to its environment through the specialized sensory nerve endings scattered in the dermis. The skin is sensitive to such stimuli as change in temperature, pressure, pain and cold.
(4) Production of vitamin D: The skin manufactures Vitamin D by using infra-red rays from sunlight
(5) Production of milk in females: The mammary gland which is a modification of the skin produces milk which is used for feeding the young one.
(6) Storage of preserved foods: Fats are stored under the dermis of mammals, especially those of pigs. Fats also from an insulating layer.
(7) Regulation of body temperature: when an animal is hot, blood vessels under the epidermis of the skin dilate (vasodilation) and more blood is brought to the surface to be cooled through the process of convection and radiation. On the other hand, the blood vessels of the skin constrict (vasoconstriction) in cold weather, thereby conserving heat.










Facts about the skin


The skin is the body's largest organ, covering the entire body. In addition to serving as a protective shield against heat, light, injury, and infection, the skin also:

Regulates body temperature

Stores water and fat

Is a sensory organ

Prevents water loss

Prevents entry of bacteria

Throughout the body, the skin's characteristics vary (for example, thickness, color, and texture). For instance, the head contains more hair follicles than anywhere else, while the soles of the feet contain none. In addition, the soles of the feet and the palms of the hands are much thicker than skin on other areas of the body.

The skin is made up of the following layers, with each layer performing specific functions:


Epidermis

Dermis

Subcutaneous fat layer

Epidermis


The human skin is the outer covering of the body and is the largest organ of the integumentary system. The skin has up to seven layers of ectodermal tissue and guards the underlying muscles, bones, ligaments and internal organs.[1] Human skin is similar to most of the other mammals skin, and human skin is very similar to pig skin.[2][3] Though nearly all human skin is covered with hair follicles, it can appear hairless. There are two general types of skin, hairy and glabrous skin (hairless).[4] The adjective cutaneous literally means "of the skin" (from Latin cutis, skin).

Because it interfaces with the environment, skin plays an important immunity role in protecting the body against pathogens[5] and excessive water loss.[6] Its other functions are insulation, temperature regulation, sensation, synthesis of vitamin D, and the protection of vitamin B folates. Severely damaged skin will try to heal by forming scar tissue. This is often discolored and depigmented.

In humans, skin pigmentation varies among populations, and skin type can range from dry to oily. Such skin variety provides a rich and diverse habitat for bacteria that number roughly 1000 species from 19 phyla, present on the human skin.

The epidermis is the thin outer layer of the skin that consists of three types of cells:

Squamous cells. The outermost layer is continuously shed.

Basal cells. Basal cells are found just under the squamous cells.

Melanocytes. Melanocytes are found in every layer of the epidermis and make melanin, which gives the skin its color.

Dermis


The dermis is the middle layer of the skin. The dermis contains the following:

Blood vessels

Lymph vessels

Hair follicles

Sweat glands

Collagen bundles

Fibroblasts

Nerves

The dermis is held together by a protein called collagen, which is made by fibroblasts. This layer gives skin flexibility and strength. It also contains pain and touch receptors.

Subcutaneous fat layer


The subcutaneous fat layer is the deepest layer of skin and consists of a network of collagen and fat cells. It helps conserve the body's heat and protects the body from injury by acting as a shock absorber.


Structure

Skin has mesodermal cells, pigmentation, such as melanin provided by melanocytes, which absorb some of the potentially dangerous ultraviolet radiation (UV) in sunlight. It also contains DNA repair enzymes that help reverse UV damage, such that people lacking the genes for these enzymes suffer high rates of skin cancer. One form predominantly produced by UV light, malignant melanoma, is particularly invasive, causing it to spread quickly, and can often be deadly. Human skin pigmentation varies among populations in a striking manner. This has led to the classification of people(s) on the basis of skin color.[9]

In terms of surface area, the skin is the second largest organ in the human body (the inside of the small intestine is 15 to 20 times larger). For the average adult human, the skin has a surface area of between 1.5-2.0 square meters (16.1-21.5 sq ft.). The thickness of the skin varies considerably over all parts of the body, and between men and women and the young and the old. An example is the skin on the forearm which is on average 1.3 mm in the male and 1.26 mm in the female.[10] The average square inch (6.5 cm²) of skin holds 650 sweat glands, 20 blood vessels, 60,000 melanocytes, and more than 1,000 nerve endings.[11][better source needed] The average human skin cell is about 30 micrometers in diameter, but there are variants. A skin cell usually ranges from 25-40 micrometers (squared), depending on a variety of factors.

Skin is composed of three primary layers: the epidermis, the dermis and the hypodermis.[10]
Layers, Receptors, and Appendages of Human Skin
Epidermis
Main article: Epidermis

Epidermis, "epi" coming from the Greek meaning "over" or "upon", is the outermost layer of the skin. It forms the waterproof, protective wrap over the body's surface which also serves as a barrier to infection and is made up of stratified squamous epithelium with an underlying basal lamina.

The epidermis contains no blood vessels, and cells in the deepest layers are nourished almost exclusively by diffused oxygen from the surrounding air[12] and to a far lesser degree by blood capillaries extending to the outer layers of the dermis. The main type of cells which make up the epidermis are Merkel cells, keratinocytes, with melanocytes and Langerhans cells also present. The epidermis can be further subdivided into the following strata (beginning with the outermost layer): corneum, lucidum (only in palms of hands and bottoms of feet), granulosum, spinosum, basale. Cells are formed through mitosis at the basale layer. The daughter cells (see cell division) move up the strata changing shape and composition as they die due to isolation from their blood source. The cytoplasm is released and the protein keratin is inserted. They eventually reach the corneum and slough off (desquamation). This process is called "keratinization". This keratinized layer of skin is responsible for keeping water in the body and keeping other harmful chemicals and pathogens out, making skin a natural barrier to infection.
2D projection of a 3D OCT-tomogram of the skin at the fingertip, depicting the stratum corneum (~500 ┬Ám thick) with the stratum disjunctum on top and the stratum lucidum in the middle. At the bottom are the superficial parts of the dermis. The sweatducts are clearly visible. (See also: Rotating 3D Version)
Components

The epidermis contains no blood vessels, and is nourished by diffusion from the dermis. The main type of cells which make up the epidermis are keratinocytes, melanocytes, Langerhans cells and Merkel cells. The epidermis helps the skin to regulate body temperature.
Layers

Epidermis is divided into several layers where cells are formed through mitosis at the innermost layers. They move up the strata changing shape and composition as they differentiate and become filled with keratin. They eventually reach the top layer called stratum corneum and are sloughed off, or desquamated. This process is called keratinization and takes place within weeks. The outermost layer of the epidermis consists of 25 to 30 layers of dead cells.
Sublayers

Epidermis is divided into the following 5 sublayers or strata:

Stratum corneum
Stratum lucidum
Stratum granulosum
Stratum spinosum
Stratum germinativum (also called "stratum basale").

Blood capillaries are found beneath the epidermis, and are linked to an arteriole and a venule. Arterial shunt vessels may bypass the network in ears, the nose and fingertips.
Genes and proteins expressed in the epidermis

About 70% of all human protein-coding genes are expressed in the skin.[13][14] Almost 500 genes have an elevated pattern of expression in the skin. There are less than 100 genes that are specific for the skin and these are expressed in the epidermis.[15] An analysis of the corresponding proteins show that these are mainly expressed in keratinocytes and have functions related to squamous differentiation and cornification.
Dermis
Main article: Dermis

The dermis is the layer of skin beneath the epidermis that consists of connective tissue and cushions the body from stress and strain. The dermis is tightly connected to the epidermis by a basement membrane. It also harbors many nerve endings that provide the sense of touch and heat. It contains the hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, apocrine glands, lymphatic vessels and blood vessels. The blood vessels in the dermis provide nourishment and waste removal from its own cells as well as from the Stratum basale of the epidermis.

The dermis is structurally divided into two areas: a superficial area adjacent to the epidermis, called the papillary region, and a deep thicker area known as the reticular region.
Papillary region









The papillary region is composed of loose areolar connective tissue. It is named for its fingerlike projections called papillae, that extend toward the epidermis. The papillae provide the dermis with a "bumpy" surface that interdigitates with the epidermis, strengthening the connection between the two layers of skin.

In the palms, fingers, soles, and toes, the influence of the papillae projecting into the epidermis forms contours in the skin's surface. These epidermal ridges occur in patterns (see: fingerprint) that are genetically and epigenetically determined and are therefore unique to the individual, making it possible to use fingerprints or footprints as a means of identification.
Reticular region

The reticular region lies deep in the papillary region and is usually much thicker. It is composed of dense irregular connective tissue, and receives its name from the dense concentration of collagenous, elastic, and reticular fibers that weave throughout it. These protein fibers give the dermis its properties of strength, extensibility, and elasticity.

Also located within the reticular region are the roots of the hairs, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, receptors, nails, and blood vessels.

Tattoo ink is held in the dermis. Stretch marks often from pregnancy and obesity, are also located in the dermis.
Subcutaneous tissue
The subcutaneous tissue (also hypodermis and subcutis) is not part of the skin, and lies below the dermis of the cutis. Its purpose is to attach the skin to underlying bone and muscle as well as supplying it with blood vessels and nerves. It consists of loose connective tissue, adipose tissue and elastin. The main cell types are fibroblasts, macrophages and adipocytes (subcutaneous tissue contains 50% of body fat). Fat serves as padding and insulation for the body.

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.


1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION


IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE AND FARMING


The following are some of the importance of farming:

1. Provision of Food
Farming provides the food we eat. A good farmer and his family are well fed. They are never hungry. They have access to varieties of food and usually in. their natural forms. This makes farmers and their families healthier and stronger than the non-farmers.


2.

Job Opportunity


Farming provides jobs for farmers and their families: In farming communities, no one is unemployed.

read more about careers in agricultural science here

3

Income


Through farming, farmers get money http://crops-agriculture.blogspot.com.ng/2017/10/planting-operations.htmley which they use for other purposes, like provision of shelter, children's education, health care, etc. Farmers arc rich because they spend less money on food since they produce most of the food they eat by themselves.

4.

Self-Satisfaction

There is joy and satisfaction in seeing and utilizing what one" produces. The psychological satisfaction a farmer
as during harvest time cannot be .

5.
Source of Satisfaction
Farming activities afford farmers sources of exercising themselves. The farmer can never be idle any time of the year. He uses his brain as well as his hands often read about sense organs of farm animals here. This helps him to overcome emotional stress and build good body physique. Farmers fall sick less often, they are not hypertensive or obsessed. They live longer than other average non-farmers.

6.

Contribution to National Development-

read more here


The farmer is the key person in the life and economy of any country. Through the provision of food which sustains life, raw materials for industries and foreign exchange earnings, the farmer helps to build the nation and save it from hunger and diseases. more about agricultural development here



1. (a) List five different courses in Agriculture which one can study in the university in Nigeria

(b) What possible jobs would one engage in after completing each course listed

2. State four benefits that could be derived from choosing farming as a career

3. List five possible vocations one could engage in after studying agriculture. . . 4. Write short notes on the following:



a. Agricultural education


The following are some benefits that are derived from farming:
1. Provision of Food
Farming provides the food we eat. A good farmer and his family are well fed. They are never hungry. They have access to varieties of food and usually in. their natural forms. This makes farmers and their families healthier and stronger than the non-farmers.

2. Job Opportunity
Farming provides jobs for farmers and their families: In
farming communities, no one is unemployed.
read more about careers in agricultural science here

3 Income
Through farming, farmers get money which they use for other purposes, like provision of shelter, children's education, health care, etc. Farmers arc rich because they spend less money on food since they produce most of the food they eat by themselves.

4. Self-Satisfaction
There is joy and satisfaction in seeing and utilizing what one" produces. The psychological satisfaction a farmer







as during harvest time cannot be <|ii;in tided. 5. Source of Satisfaction Farming activities afford farmers sources of exercising themselves. The farmer can never be idle any time of the year. He uses his brain as well as his hands often. This helps him to overcome emotional stress and build good body physique. Farmers fall sick less often, they are not hypertensive or obsessed. They live longer than other average non-farmers. 6. Contribution to National Development- read more here
The farmer is the key person in the life and economy of any country. Through the provision of food which sustains life, raw materials for industries and foreign exchange earnings, the farmer helps to build the nation and save it from hunger and diseases. more about agricultural development here
STUDY QUESTION
1. (a) List five different courses in Agriculture which one can study in the university in Nigeria. lists of universities in Nigeria
(b) What possible jobs would one engage in after completing each course listed
2. State four benefits that could be derived from choosing farming as a career
3. List five possible vocations one could engage in after studying agriculture. . . 4. Write short notes on the following:

a. Agricultural education
b.
Agricultural extension
c. Agricultural economics
d. Agricultural engineering


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You can read some of most interesting topics below

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL







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AIR AND ITS PROPERTIES


THE AIR WE BREATH

WHAT IS AIR?

Air is that which we breathe in and out. We can also notice air when we run or when we are riding down a hill on a bicycle.
If you look out of the window, you will notice that the leaves on the trees are moving. This movement of the leaves is due to air.

WHAT MAKES UP THE AIR?
Clear your nostrils with a handkerchief or soft tissue paper. What do you notice?
These dirts are some dusts which are in the air and which was removed by the tiny hairs in our nostrils when we were taking in air.
If you breathe out on a mirror you will notice some tiny drops of water vapour. This is also part of the air. Apart from these two—dusts and vapour, air contains other things or gases. These are oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen and some other minor gases.
WHEN WE BREATHE

When we breathe in, we are taking in oxygen and nitrogen

It is only oxygen which is useful in our body. It gives us life and without it death occurs. It helps to break down the food we eat and thus give us energy and power.
When we breathe out, we expel the air which we took in. this air, however, contains plenty of poisonous carbon dioxide and little oxygen since the body used it to live. The poisonous carbon dioxide that we breathe out is used by plants to manufacture their food during photosynthesis. When plants take in carbon dioxide, they produce oxygen which we breathe in. this is why we should always have flower bottles in our houses and in the classroom.






THE ORGAN OF BREATHING

The main organ of breathing is called the lungs. It is made up of a right and left lungs. Each lung is a big bag with tiny air sacs.
From each lung arises a pipe. The two pipes (from the two lungs) join to form the windpipe. The windpipe opens into the back of the tongue.
Air usually enters the lungs through the nose. Occasionally during illness it can do so through the mouth. The nose has some hairs. These hairs filter and remove all dust before the air passes into the lungs.

THE BREATHING PROCESS

When we breathe in, oxygen in the air enters the body through the nose. It then passes into the windpipe it gets into the two lungs.
The air sacs of the lung has very many tiny blood vessels in their thin walls. The oxygen, on getting into the lungs passes through the thin walls of the air sacs into the blood in the blood vessels. From here, the oxygen is carried round the body.
As the oxygen passes into the blood, carbon dioxide in the same blood from the body passes out into the air sacs of the lungs. When we breathe out, the carbon dioxide is expelled.
Hence, during breathing, oxygen is taken in while carbon dioxide is sent out of the body.
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY






30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88.





89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM






112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE

VENTILATION OF OUR HOUSES

If you enter a house without windows, what happens to you?
You will feel uncomfortable, hot and will start to sweat. This is because the air in the room is stagnant or is standing still. Worse, the room itself will be warm or even hot. In such situations, you will want to get out of the room quickly.
To keep our houses and our rooms cool and allow air to pass through it, we always have windows. A good and well ventilated house, has windows at opposite sides of the house, so that air entering at one end, gets out through the other.


It is dangerous to live in poorly ventilated houses.

Some houses in the villages have no windows. This makes the house to be hot, dark, stuffy and wet. If there is a sick person in such house, then, it is likely that everybody in the house will be sick. This is because as he breathes out disease germs, the others will be taking them in since there is no window for the germs to be blown out.
Diseases that can attack persons living in poorly ventilated houses are tuberculosis, measles, chicken and smallpox, cough and common cold.
The practice in villages of keeping animals such as fowls, goats and sheep at night in the same badly ventilated rooms where people sleep, is bad. These animals will compete with people for the little oxygen there is in a room. Some of these animals may be sick and they can thus

spread germs that are harmful.

It is also bad to have wood or coal fire in the sleeping rooms at night. The smoke from the fire contains poisonous gases that can kill people. This is a warning to all villagers who make coal fires to warm themselves at night during the rainy season or during harmattan.

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Important topics related to the above article

1. Recognizing living things
2. Biology as an enquiry in science
3. Branches of biology
4. Processes of methods of science
5. Usefulness of science
6. Living and non-living things
7. Characteristics of living things

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