THE CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS




THERE ARE ONLY TWO CATEGORIES OF THINGS ON THE EARTH, THEY ARE

LIVING THINGS AND NON-LIVING THINGS

There are only two categories of things on earth, they are living things and non-living things. Living things includes plants and animals. Non-living thing are those things that doesn’t have life in them.




Examples of living things includes man, rabbit, dogs, monkeys, lizards, cattle and grasses etc, while non-living things are tables, chairs, iron, glass, plates etc.

CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS
ALL LIVING THINGS ARE DISTINGUISHED FROM NON-LIVING THINGS BY A WHOLE LOT OF DIFFERENCES. This distinguishing factors are what is known as the characteristics of living things.
So the following are generally considered as the characteristics of living things.

READ ABOUT WEEDS AND THEIR BOTANICAL NAMES HERE

1. MOVEMENT: movement is defined as the ability of an organism, either in part or whole from place to place in search of food or comfort, reproduction and as a means of escape from danger. Generally most animal can move from place to place in search of food, while most plant can only move part of their body in response to stimuli unless for a few microscopic plants which are capable of complete movement.

2. NUTRITION. Nutrition is defined as the ability of living things or organism to feed. The major reason for feeding in living things is to enable them carry out life process like growth, reproduction, respiration and movement. 
Although most green plants can manufacture their own food through a process known as photosynthesis, known also as autotrophic nor holophytic nutrition. Animals cannot manufacture their own food hence depends on food manufactured by plants, and this type of feeding is known as heterotrophic or holozoic nutrition.




3. RESPIRATION. Respiration is defined as the exchange of gases between organisms and their environment. The main purpose of respiration is to break down/burn down or oxidize food substances in order to release energy that is used for all their life processes.
4. EXCRETION. Excretion is defined as the removal of metabolic wastes from the body of any living thing. The purpose of excretion is to remove the metabolic waste products from the system, e.g. water and carbon dioxide in animals, which are toxic to the body.
So the process of getting rid of these waste materials from the body is called excretion.
5. IRRITABILITY. Irritability is defined as the ability of an organism to respond to stimuli. All living thing exhibit sensitivity in order to enable them survive in their environment. In clear terms, stimuli means the ability of any living thing to respond to changes that occurs within their environment.


6. GROWTH. Growth is defined as the irreversible or permanent increase in size, mass, or weight of an organism. It is most known as the increase or addition living proton plasmic materials within the cell of the organism. The purpose of growth is to enable the organism to repair or rebuild worn out tissues in their body..
7. REPRODUCTION. This is defined as the ability of living organism to produce or give birth to offspring or young ones after its kind in order to enable continuity of life. So in practical terms, reproduction occurs in two forms. They are
i. ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION. This takes only one organism to reproduce its kind or another offspring.




ii. SEXUAL REPRODUCTION. This process of reproduction involves two organism coming together for the purpose reproduction.
8. ADAPTATION. This is simply the way living things interact with their environment. Or better known as survival process of living things.
9. DEATH. All living things must die. Which means they are limited to a certain number of years to live before they die.
10. COMPETITION. This is the ability of living things to struggle or compete for life necessities in order to survive. Living things compete for food, water, air, space, mates and light.
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CLASSIFICATION OF PLANT KINGDOM


KINGDOM PLANTAE

Kingdom plantae has three main subdivision and they are
a. Thallophyta (e.g. green, brown and red algae)
b. Bryophyta e.g. liverworts and mosses
c. Tracheophyta that is vascular plants

Thalophyta

This group can be further be divided into three main class
1. Rhodophyta that is red algae
2. Chlorophyta that is green algae
3. Phaecophyta which is red algae

CHARACTERISTICS OF THALOPHYTA GROUP OF PLANTS

I. These are simple microscopic plants
II. Some are unicellular e.g. Chlamydomonas while others are multi-cellular like spirogyra
III. They are simple aquatic plants
IV. They have no true roots
V. They have no true stem
VI. They have no real leaves
VII. They have cellular cell wall
VIII. Algae are mainly autotrophic plants
IX. They synthesize their own food
X. Algae are filamentous and the cells are not differentiated into tissue
XI. They have no specialized reproductive organs but can exhibit both sexual and asexual means of reproduction
XII. Examples are the free single living Algae like Chlamydomonas








CHARACTERISTICS OF BRYOPHYTA

i. They are complex, multi-cellular green plants
ii. The cells are differentiated into tissues
iii. They lack true roots, leaves and stems
iv. They are non-vascular plants
v. They are mostly found growing in moist places
vi. Bryophytes can be aquatic or terrestrial
vii. They exhibit asexual reproduction by spores and sexually by gametes
viii. Examples are mosses and liverworts


TRACHEOPHYTA

This division is made up of vascular plants and are grouped into two sub-division
1. Pteridophyta
2. Spermatophyta

CHARACTERISTICS OF PTERIDOPHYTA

i. They are multi-cellular and vascular green plants
ii. They are non-flowering plants
iii. They have no true roots, leaves and stems
iv. They are mainly terrestrial plants while a few of them are aquatic
v. They are non-seed producing plants
vi. They reproduce sexually by spores
vii. Example is fern


SPERMATOPHYTA

CHARACTERISTICS OF SPERMATOPHYTA

i. They are multi-cellular, seed producing flowering plants
ii. They are vascular plants and have well developed vascular tissues
iii. They have true roots, leaves and stem
iv. They reproduce sexually and do not need water for reproduction
v. They are mainly terrestrial green plants


DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SPERMATOPHYTES AND BRYOPHYTES
SPERMATOPHYTES BRYOPHYTES

1. Vascular bundle present vascular bundle absent
2. Stems are present stems are absent
3. They have true leaves no true leaves or stems
4. They reproduce by flower they reproduce through spores
5. They have well developed roots they Rhizoids






Further, spermatophytes can be divided into two main class. These are
a. Gymnosperm
b. Angiosperm
Characteristics of Gymnosperm
i. These are plants with naked seeds
ii. They do not bear flowers
iii. They have true roots
iv. The seeds are borne on special nobs called cones
v. They are vascular green plants
vi. Examples are pine, cycads, gingkos and conifers

Characteristics of Angiosperm

i. They are the most complex green flowering plants
ii. They are vascular plants
iii. They have well developed and complete flowers
iv. They are seed plants with seeds enclosed in the fruits
v. They are mainly terrestrial plants
vi. They show up more sophisticated or specialized reproductive mechanism involving pollination and fertilization

Difference between Gymnosperm and Angiosperm

Gymnosperm Angiosperm
i. Don’t bears seeds bear seeds
ii. Seed are naked seeds are enclosed
iii. Seed borne on cones seeds develop from ovules


DIVISIONS OF ANGIOSPERM

Angiosperm can be sub-divided into two main classes according to their number of seed leave known as cotyledons,
These are dicotyledonous plants and Monocotyledonous plants


Characteristics of dicotyledonous plants

i. They bear two seed leaves at germination known as cotyledon
ii. The vascular bundles of each stem are arranged in a regular pattern
iii. The floral parts exists in two groups of four or five
iv. They leaves have veins arranged in a branched network
v. They have taproot systems
vi. The usually undergoes secondary growth
vii. Examples are mango, orange and groundnut

Characteristics of monocotyledonous plants

i. They have only one seed leaf during germination called cotyledon
ii. The vascular bundles of the stem are scattered
iii. The leaves have veins running into one another
iv. They have fibrous root system
v. They do not undergo secondary growth
vi. Examples are rice, maize, millet, palm tree and guinea grass

Difference between dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants

MONOCOT DICOT
1. They possess one seed leaf they have two seed leaves (cotyledon)
2. Scattered vascular bundle vascular bundle arranged in patterns
3. Fibrous root system taproot system
4. Hypogeal germination epigeal germination
5. Floral parts in groups of threes floral parts exist in group of fours
6. They possess parallel venation they possess net venation
7. Ring of vascular bundle presence of Xylem in stem Centre
8. Do not undergo secondary growth they undergo secondary growth

A typical Angiosperm whether dicotyledonous or monocotyledonous plants has four major parts.

They are listed as follows

1.

FLOWERS

FUNCTION OF THE FLOWERS
I. FLOWERS are responsible for reproduction
2.

LEAVES

FUNCTIONS OF THE LEAVES
i. The leaves are responsible for carrying out photosynthesis
ii. It aids excretion
iii. Used for transpiration
iv. Used for respiratory process
3.

STEM

FUNCTIONS OF STEM
i. It gives support to plants
ii. It holds the leaves in best position to receive sunlight
iii. It conducts water and helps in transporting mineral salts from the roots to the leaves
iv. The stem helps in transporting manufactured from the leaves to other parts of the body
v. The stem helps to hold the flowers in the best place for pollination to take place
vi. Some parts of the stem can also manufacture food
4.

ROOTS

FUNCTIONS OF THE ROOT
1. The root holds the plants firmly to the ground
2. The roots absorbs water and mineral salts from the ground through a process called osmosis
3. The roots of some typical plants stores food like cassava and sweet potato
4. It aids respiration in some aerial plants


THE MODIFICATION OF LEAVES

The leaves of some plants are modified for various purposes and the purposes are as follows
1. FOR FOOD: for storage e.g. onion, Garlic,
2. LEAF TENDRILS: e.g. Gloriosa
3. LEAF SPINES: e.g. Cactus, Opuntial and Euphorbia
4. LEAFHOOKS: e.g. Bignonia
5. VEGETATTIVE PROPERGATION: e.g. Bryophyllum
6. ANIMAL TRAPS: e.g. Venus flytrap, Nepenthes or pitcher plants, Uticalaria Bladderworts, Sundews, Butterwort, Pinguicula
7. PROTECTIVE SCALE LEAVES: e.g. Onions, Shallots canna.

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HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34. FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS

41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

LIVING THINGS AND NON-LIVING THINGS



LIVING THINGS AND NON-LIVING THINGS

There are only two categories of things on earth, they are living things and non-living things. Living things includes plants and animals. Non-living thing are those things that doesn’t have life in them.
Examples of living things includes man, rabbit, dogs, monkeys, lizards, cattle and grasses/weeds etc, while non-living things are tables, chairs, iron, glass, plates etc.

CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS
ALL LIVING THINGS ARE DISTINGUISHED FROM NON-LIVING THINGS BY A WHOLE LOT OF DIFFERENCES. This distinguishing factors are what is known as the characteristics of living things.
So the following are generally considered as the characteristics of living things.

1. MOVEMENT: movement is defined as the ability of an organism, either in part or whole from place to place in search of food or comfort, reproduction and as a means of escape from danger. Generally most animal can move from place to place in search of food, while most plant can only move part of their body in response to stimuli unless for a few microscopic plants which are capable of complete movement.

2. NUTRITION. Nutrition is defined as the ability of living things or organism to feed. The major reason for feeding in living things is to enable them carry out life process like growth, reproduction, respiration and movement. Although most green plants can manufacture their own food through a process known as photosynthesis, known also as autotrophic nor holophytic nutrition. Animals cannot manufacture their own food hence depends on food manufactured by plants, and this type of feeding is known as heterotrophic or holozoic nutrition.






3. RESPIRATION. Respiration is defined as the exchange of gases between organisms and their environment. The main purpose of respiration is to break down/burn down or oxidize food substances in order to release energy that is used for all their life processes.

4. EXCRETION. Excretion is defined as the removal of metabolic wastes from the body of any living thing. The purpose of excretion is to remove the metabolic waste products from the system, e.g. water and carbon dioxide in animals, which are toxic to the body.
So the process of getting rid of these waste materials from the body is called excretion.

5. IRRITABILITY. Irritability is defined as the ability of an organism to respond to stimuli. All living thing exhibit sensitivity in order to enable them survive in their environment. In clear terms, stimuli means the ability of any living thing to respond to changes that occurs within their environment.

6. GROWTH. Growth is defined as the irreversible or permanent increase in size, mass, or weight of an organism. It is most known as the increase or addition living proton plasmic materials within the cell of the organism. The purpose of growth is to enable the organism to repair or rebuild worn out tissues in their body..

7. REPRODUCTION. This is defined as the ability of living organism to produce or give birth to offspring or young ones after its kind in order to enable continuity of life. So in practical terms, reproduction occurs in two forms. They are

i. ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION. This takes only one organism to reproduce its kind or another offspring.

ii. SEXUAL REPRODUCTION. This process of reproduction involves two organism coming together for the purpose reproduction.

8. ADAPTATION. This is simply the way living things interact with their environment. Or better known as survival process of living things.

9. DEATH. All living things must die. Which means they are limited to a certain number of years to live before they die.


10. COMPETITION. This is the ability of living things to struggle or compete for life necessities in order to survive. Living things compete for food, water, air, space, mates and light.
If you find our content of great interest and value, please help us to share this contents to your friends and family. If you any question or comment please feel free to drop it in our comment box


don't forget to use the comment box and leave a message or suggestion and we will get back to you within seconds.

You can read some of most interesting topics below






HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION







ANIMAL PESTS OF CROPS


Pests of Crops

1. Bird
These attack mainly grain crops such as maize, rice, sorghum and barley. They also attack fruits in the field. Examples of these birds are Weaver birds (Quela), parrots, etc.
A Bird.

(a) Nature of Damage: They peck out planted seeds, eat up grains on the field and destroy leaves of some plants such as oil palm. They also eat ripe fruits such as pawpaw, mango, and cashew.
(b) Control






1. Use of scare crows
2. Spraying chemieals such as furadan with aircraft,
3. Shooting with catapult or gun.
DIAGRAM

Figure 2.8.5: Scare Crow for birds and mammalian pest in farms.

2. Rodents
These include rats, grass-cutters, African rabbits and hare.


DIAGRAM
Figure 2.8.6: A Rodent (Grass-cutter)
(a) Nature of Damage: They cut down and eat various parts of the crop especially cereal and tuber crops. Grass-cutters eat up rice, young palm seedlings and maize plants. Rats eat up stored produce like tubers and grains. Hare eat up planted grains.

(b) Control:
(i) Use of poison baits
(ii) Use of traps
(iii) By shooting with guns,
(iv) Use of rat gums.

3. Other Mammalian Pests
These include monkey, deer, antelopes and bush pig.
They do a lot of damage to crops in the farm by uprooting eating them up. For example, monkey eat up plantains, banana maize and cocoa pods.

Control:
(i) Trapping






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You can read some of most interesting topics below

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS





125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

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STUDY QUESTIONS
1. How can insect pests be classified using their feeding habits?
2. (a) Name 10 insect pests you know.
(b) For each one, slate the crop it affects, the damage done to the crop and control measure of the pest.
3. (a) Apart from insect pesis, mime three other pests you blow.
(b) Which crops do they affect? (b) flow can they be controlled?
4. Classify the following into hiling and chewing piercing and sucking, and boring insect pests:- Beetles, Aphids. stem boreres, caps ids, weevils, locusts, mealybugs, crickets, cotton stainer,
5. Itemise >>>>> you would use for rodents attack on your farm.



LIVESTOCK REPRODUCTION


REPRODUCTION

MEANING OF REPRODUCTION
Reproduction is the ability in animal to give birth to young ones. The purpose of reproduction is to ensure continuity of life.
The reproductive system includes all the organs and tissues concerned with reproduction in animals.
Farm animals reproduce sexually and are mostly viviparous because they bear their young ones alive. Poultry birds on the other hand are oviparous because they produce their young ones by hatching eggs after an incubation period.

REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM IN MAMMALS AND POUILTRY

The reproductive system includes all the organs and tissues concerned with reproduction in animals. Reproduction is the ability in animals. Reproduction is the ability in an animal to give birth to young ones. The purpose of reproduction is to ensure continuity of life.








Farm animals reproduce sexually and are mostly viviparous because they bear their young ones alive. Poultry birds on the other hand are oviparous because they produce their young ones by hatching eggs after an incubation period.

MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

The male reproductive system includes the testes which produce the spermatozoa and sex hormone called testosterone which aids the development of male sexual secondary characteristics. The spermatozoa are specifically produced in the seminiferous tubules of testes during meiotic cell division by a process called spermatogenesis. The testes are suspended or protected by scrotal sac (scrotum) outside the abdominal avity to enable sperm ells to the produced at desired temperature.


The epididymis ensures the storage and maturation of sperm cells in the testes. The testes are connected to the uterus masculinus by vas deferens which transports sperms from testes to the uterus masculinus where matured spermatozoa are stored until they are released during coitus or mating. Blood vessels called spermatic cord supply nutrients and oxygen spermatic cord supply nutrients and oxygen to the testes. Located along the urethra are accessory glands which are the coper’s gland. They prduce slimy alkaline fuild which aids the movement of spermatozoa. This fluid together with the spermatozoa results in the formation of semen. The urethra is a uro-genital organ which helps to inject sperms into the vigina as well as the removal of urine. The urethra ends externally in penis.

FEMALE REPORUCTION SYSTEM:

The female reproductive system includes the ovaries which produce the ovum or ova (eggs) enclose by the graffian follicles and some hormones such as the oestrogen.
A matured egg or ovum is released from the follicle in the ovary into the oviduct. This process is called ovulation.
As the ovum or egg is released from the ovary, the female animal comes into ‘heat’ and is willing to make with the male animal.







Fertilization

, which is the fusion of the male sex cell (spermatozoa) and the female sex cell (egg or ovum) takes place in the fallopian tubes or the oviduct. When the egg is fertilized by the spermatozoa, the fertilized egg anchors itself to the wall of the uterus. This process is called implantation. The development of the foetus takes place in the uterus. Below the uterus is the vigina which receives the spermatozoa during corpulation. The female reproductive system terminates with an external opening called the vulva.

DEVELOPMENT OF THE EMBRYO (FOETUS):

The fertilized eggs is implanted in the uterus where the development of the embryo takes place. Soon, a number of embryonic membranes develop round the embryo. These are: the chorion, the allantois and the yolksac. The amnion forms a sac in which the embryo lies and is filled with ammonitic fluid. Hence, the embryo is held in a liquid environment which acts as a buffer or “shock absorber”. This ensures the protection of the embryo. The allantoises forms a sac which is excretory, respiratory and nutritive in function. It contributes to the formation of placenta. The yolk sac provides the food during the early stages of embryonic development. The chorinon forms the outmost membrane, enveloping all these structures.
The placenta established an intimate connection between the embryo and the mother which aids nutritional, respiratory and excretory needs of the embryo (foetus). The placenta and the embryo are connected by the umbilical cord which develops from the allantois. The parental blood supply is linked to the foetal blood supply through this umbilical cord.
At the end of the gestation period (from fertilization to birth), parturition (giving birth) takes place during which the young animals is pushed out through the vagina. The remaining part of the embryonic membrane known as after-birth is sent out after the birth of the foetus.


REPRODUCTION SYSTEMS IN BIRDS

In the male bird, the two testes are located inside the body. A narrow tube connects them to the cloaca in which the tube ends as a small raised papilla.
In the female, only the left ovary is functioning,. The ingle ovary produces ova (eggs) in capsules attached to the ovary by short stalks. The ovary also produces the yolk.
The infundibulum receives the yolk releases by the ovary. Albumen and chalaza (which hold the yolk and germ cell in position) are formed in the magnum. The two shell membranes and the shape of the egg are formed in the isthmus. The egg shell is finally formed in the uterus after which the egg is laid through the cloaca. Fertilization of the egg can take place as soon as the egg enters the oviduct when spermatozoa are present.
Fertilization occurs before the formation of the albumen.






FUNCTIONS OF THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

(i) It ensures the continuity of species by gamete for motion, coitus, mating or servicing
(ii) It ensures the formation of eggs and spermatozoa (sperm cells).
(iii) It ensures the production of reproductive hormones.

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION


THE LIVER ANATOMY



LIVER

The structure of the liver: The liver is usually regarded as the most powerful organ in the body because it is constantly at work, controlling- major activities going on in the body. It is located on the right side of the upper abdomen and partly overlaps the stomach. It is basically divided into lobes.

FUNCTIONS OF THE LIVER

The liver performs a number of functions which include:
(1) Digestion: The liver produces bile which is secreted into the duodenum through the bile duct. The functions in digestion include:
(a) It adds water to chime (less watery form of food undergoing digestion, because of its high percentage of water.
(b) Its alkaline (sodium) salts neutralize hydrochloric acid of the chime, thereby providing a right medium for the action of pancreatic juice enzymes
(c) It reduces the surface tension of fats and emulsifies them i.e splits them into minute droplets
(2) Deamination: Proteins are not stored in the body and so excess amino acids must be eliminated. Amino acids which are not built up into proteins and used for growth and replacement of cells are broken down (deaminated) by the liver into carbohydrate and urea by the removal of the amino group. The urea is secreted through the kidney while the carbohydrate can be converted into glycogen to be stored or oxidized to release energy.








(3) Storage of iron: Iron derived from the broken down red blood cells (erythrocytes) is completed and stored in the liver.
(4) Regulation of blood sugar: The liver has the role in carbohydrate metabolism and so is able to convert glucose, amino acid and other substances to an insoluble carbohydrate called glycogen. Some of the glucose may be taken from the hepatic portal vein carrying blood which is rich in digested food from the small intestine to the liver. Their reserve of glycogen is converted to glucose so as to maintain the level of glucose circulating in the blood.
(5) Regulation of body temperature: Many chemical activities taking place in the liver release energy in form of heat which i distributed round the body by the circulatory system.
(6) Fat metabolism: The liver contains about 6% stored lipid and when required for use in providing energy and in starvations, it travels in the blood stream from the fat deposits, leading to a fall in fat content of the liver. This happens after exhaustion of all other body fats. Some are used directly or changed to other substances that can be oxidised for energy.
(7)

Detoxication:

Poisonous compounds and other chemical substances transported in the blood to the liver are converted to harmless substances and later excreted in the urine.
(8) Manufacture of plasma proteins: The liver produces most of the protein found in blood plasma, including fibrinogen which forms an important part in the clotting action of blood.
(9) Storage of vitamins: Vitamins A and D are stored in the liver. (Livers of fish are richer in vitamins especially vitamin D than livers of mammals). The liver also stores vitamin B 12, an anti-anaemic factor which is necessary for the production of red blood cells in the bone marrow.



The liver is the heaviest organ in the body and one of the largest. It's located in the upper right portion of your belly under the ribs and is responsible for functions vital to life. The liver primarily processes nutrients from food, makes bile, removes toxins from the body and builds proteins. It's easy to see how inflammation of the liver, or hepatitis, interferes with these important functions and can lead to poor health. Fortunately, the liver is extremely resilient and most cases of liver inflammation don't even come to medical attention, but in cases of the severe liver disease, there can be a serious interruption of these essential liver functions. Let's look at each of these functions a little closer.









Processing Nutrients from Food


The digestive system immediately begins to break down the food that we eat into smaller and smaller pieces. Eventually, these nutrients will enter the blood and travel to the liver through the hepatic portal system, the major pathway that blood takes from the ​digestive system to the liver. The liver will then process these nutrients in different ways, depending on the body's needs. It usually stores some of the nutrients in a form that the body can use for quick energy. The rest will be used to make other important chemicals the body needs. When the liver is severely damaged, such as in liver failure, it can't continue to process nutrients from the blood that the body must have. Without aggressive medical care, the absence of these essential liver functions can result in signs of serious illness like brain damage and coma.


Making Bile


Bile is a thick, green-yellow fluid that the liver produces to help digest food, especially fat, as it passes from the stomach to the intestines. This fluid is made in the liver but is stored in a nearby sac called the gallbladder. When a person eats a meal heavy in fat, like a juicy steak, the body will use its store of bile to help break down the fats in the steak for digestion.
Removing Toxins From the Blood

All of the blood in the body will eventually pass through the liver. This is important because the liver needs to pull out any bad things in the blood, such as toxins, and remove them from the body. Some of these toxins are drugs, like penicillin and Tylenol, and other toxins are things that the body needs but is done with, like damaged cells, proteins and old hormones. The liver prepares all of these types of toxins to be removed from the body. However, when the liver is damaged, these toxins can't be removed and they start to accumulate creating problems.
Building Proteins








A protein is a complex chemical that is essential to living things, like plants, animals, and people. Proteins are everywhere in the body and need to be constantly produced. The liver is in charge of building many kinds of proteins that the body uses every day. For instance, there are many proteins produced by the liver that is responsible for blood clotting. When the liver is damaged, sometimes the body isn't able to clot blood effectively. In mild cases, it just takes a long time for bleeding to stop. However, in severe cases, the blood wouldn't be able to clot. A simple cut on the skin would lead to continued bleeding (though not necessarily a dangerous amount), and possibly bruises.


HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION






87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION


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