THE CARBON CYCLE AND ITS IMPORTANCE


what is Carbon cycle

Carbon cycle: involves the series of processes which contribute to the circulation of carbon in nature.
i. Carbon dioxide is removed from the air mainly by photosynthesis during which plants use it to manufacture their own food.
ii. Carbon is lost in form of carbonates of calcium and magnesium through leaching and drainage
The atmosphere gains carbon dioxide through
i. Burning of fuel like coal and wood,
ii. The action of volcanoes which releases carbon dioxide
iii. The respiration by plants and animals
iv. The death, decay and putrefaction of plants and animals,
v. Diffusion of carbon dioxide form sea and other bodies of water, acting as reservoir of carbon dioxide

Importance of carbon cycle

i. Plants use carbon dioxide obtained from the air to manufacture their food during photosynthesis
ii. It provides carbon which is the major building block of all organic matters
iii. It helps to purify the atmosphere and also to maintain atmospheric level of carbon dioxide
iv. Organic matter which is made form carbon helps replenish the soil nutrients








HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE

58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON







60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS

WATER CYCLE AND ITS IMPORTANCE


Water cycle:

cycle is defined as the continuous movement of water from the atmosphere to the earth and from the earth to the atmosphere.
HOME PAGE INDEX

The atmosphere receives water through

i. Rainfall or precipitation,
ii. Infiltration and percolation
Importance of water to crops
i. Water provides the medium for absorption of mineral salts.
ii. It facilitates the transfer of nutrients to other parts of plants where they are used in various metabolic processes
iii. Water is an essential raw material in the process of photosynthesis
iv. It is used for hydrolyzing food substances such as starch, proteins fats and oil for easy transmission to other parts of plants.







v. Water facilitates enzymatic activities occurring in crop plants
vi. It is a constituent of plant protoplasm
vii. The loss of water through transpiration is important for keeping the stomata open in gaseous exchange for respiration and photosynthesis
viii. It has a cooling effect on crops
ix. It helps to maintain plant tugor or turgidity
x. It helps to sustain life
xi. It helps in seed germination

Forms in which water exists in the soil

The form in which water exists in the soil include:
i. Hygroscopic water
ii. Capillary water

iii. Gravitational water

Ways of conserving water in the soil

i. Stoppage or reduction of surface water run – off
ii. Addition of human or organic manure
iii. Removal of weeds to reduce transpiration and water loss
iv. Mulching
v. Cover cropping
vi. Contour ridging
vii. Appropriate tillage
viii. Strip cropping

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE

42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION






ORGANIC AGRICULTURE AND IT'S IMPORTANCE


ORGANIC AGRICULTURE

Meaning: organic agriculture simply means the use of ruminants and decay of plants and animal by-products to improve agricultural production. In other words, it involves the use of remains of plants and animals to improve the production of crops for improve yield in agriculture. Organic agriculture involves the use of prepared manure which are natural to improve agricultural production. In this regard the use of artificial chemical like inorganic fertilizer does not constitute in which is called organic agriculture.


Forms of organic agriculture

The use of material obtained from plants and animals in form of organic materials are available for use in agriculture. These include:
1. Organic matter
Definition: Organic manure refers to the decayed plant and animal product which have been carefully prepared to supply nutrients to plants or crops
Types of organic manure
There are three types of organic manure these are:
(a) Green manure
(b) Farm yard manure
(c) Compose manure









These have been discuss earlier in this chapter
2. Cover cropping: Cover cropping is a process of planting certain plats mainly to cover soil surface. By so doing, the nutrients are conserved in the soil
3. Mulching: Mulching is another form of organic agriculture whereby certain dead and decaying plants are used to cover the soil in order to conserve soil water and prevent evaporation
4. Crop rotation: Thus is the planting of different types of crop on the same piece of land in a definite sequence so as to maintain the fertility of the soil

IMPORTANCE OF ORGANIC MATTER

Organic manuring as a way of improving soil fertility has the following advantages:
i. It promotes the activities of soil living organisms such as earthworms , termites and microbes. These organisms promote aeration of the soil, easy percolation of water, mixing organic materials with soil, form humans and fix nitrogen into the soil. All these help to promote the fertility of the soil
ii. Organic manure helps to improve the structure of the soil by building the particles of coarse texture soil together.
iii. Mineralization of human adds to the nutrients to the soil
iv. It reduces rapid soil temperature fluctuations. As a result of its dark colour, humans easily absorb heat during the day and loses it slowly at night.
v. Organic manure helps to conserve moisture and prevent evaporation from the soil
vi. Organic manure (humus) has a buffering effect on the soil; that is , it balances the acid-base condition of the soil or soil pH
vii. It prevents erosion because it improves the structure of the soil and reduces the speed of the run-off
viii. Organic matter increases water holding capacity of soil
ix. It increases the rate of water percolation through clay soil
x. It increases the activities of soil micro-organism
xi. It improves the aeration of the soil
All these advantages of organic manure help to maintain or even promote the availability of nutrients in the soil.








HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT

49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION

61. PARENT MATERIALS







AGRO-FORESTRY


MEANING OF AGRO-FORESTRY

Agro-forestry is a collective name for land use system where woody perennial (trees, shrubs and palms) are deliberately planted on the same land management units as agricultural crops and or animals in some form of spatial arrangement or temporal sequence. In other words, agro-forestry is simply a form of land management, food production and conservation form integrated
Components. Agro-forestry is normally viewed in the context of food production, forest production and environmental conservation.

IMPORTANCE OF AGRO-FORESTRY

The type of land and the combination of plants and animal that constituted an agro-forestry system has the following importance to man and his environment.
(1) Production of food crops: the combination of the growth of food crops within some forestry trees do help in the production of food for farmers.
(2) Production of trees which are of importance to man are deliberately planted to provide timber and other forest products like fuel, wood.
(3) Rearing of animals: Certain agro-forestry practices do help in the rearing of livestock animals by the deliberate planting of pasture plants.
(4) Production of pasture: Also the practice of certain agro-forestry do assist in the development of pasture where livestock animals can graze
(5) Maintenance of soil fertility: The practice of agro-forestry do assist in the maintenance of soil fertility through the growth of some nitrogen fixing plants.
(6) Provision of wind breaks: The practice of some agro-forestry ensure that planting of certain trees that can serve as wind break in a particular area.
(7) Soil and water conservation: Trees in agro-forestry systems do promote soil and water conservation through cover cropping and growth of leguminous crops.
(8) Provision of living Fences: Some trees are deliberately planted along farm boundaries to serve as living fences as a kind of protection.








ROLES OF TREES IN AGRO-FORESTRY

Trees generally play important roles in agro-forestry practice. Some of the roles of trees in agro-forestry include:
(1) Alley cropping: This is a system of agro-forestry which involves the growing of food crops in spaces between hedge-rows of trees or shrubs which must undergo regul pruning every five or six weeks
(2) Home gardens and other multistory system: Home gardens, mixed planting of annual and tree crops around dwellings are common types of multistory agro-forestry system. Multistory means that there are at least two layers of plants growing to different heights in the system. In home gardens, the lowest level often consists of vegetables or root crops, the second level includes fast growing trees or crops such as banana, spices and cocoa, a third higher level consist of large trees that provide fruits, timber and shades. Home gardens also provide a pleasant shaded living area.
(3) Living fences: In many places, farmers plant multipurpose trees in rows along farm boundaries as “living fences” in addition to providing folder and fuel wood, living gences provide privacy and protection from browsing animals.
(4) Wind breaks: Trees also provide windbreaks. Wind breaks are stripes of trees, shrubs and vines planted closely together along the edges of croplands perpendicular to prevailing winds. Especially in dry areas, windbreaks can provide protection to crops and soils from the detrimental effects of wind.
(5) Improved fallow systems: Trees play important role in agro-forestry through the bush fallow system. In this system, blocks of fast-growing trees, particularly species that fix nitrogen in the soil, can help that soil recover as well as provide fuel, poles and fodder. Farmers can plant stump cuttings in the fields at the same time as the harvest of the last annual crops before the fallow period. The cuttings do not shade other crops until after 4 – 6months.
(6) Trees and raising livestock: Farm system that combine tree plantations with livestock that graze beneath them are found generally in drier areas, where natural grasslands and farm sizes are larger. In such systems, farmers graze sheep or cattle on forage grasses or in stands of trees.


ADVANTAGES OF INTEGRATING TREE GROWING WITH LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION

(i) Increase in production of meat: The combination of tree growing and livestock production help to increase the production of meat protein without sacrificing large tracts of agricultural land.
(ii) Reduction of soil erosion: the system helps in reducing soil erosion by preventing open grazing and reducing dependence on grasses.
(iii) Addition or organic manure: The use of animal manure to fertilize the soils and inter-crops, helps in reducing reliance on in organic fertilizer.
(iv) Provision of income: The system also help to provide additional income to farmers through sale of livestock.
(7) Stabilization of stream banks and gullies: Trees can help to reduce soil erosion along streams and gullies. They should be planted at the medium to high level water mark. Their roots serves to hold the soil in place and reduce the impact of storm water.







TYPES OF AGRO-FORESTRY PRACTICES

Agro-forestry combines agriculture and forestry technologies to create more integrated, diverse, productive, profitable, healthy and sustainable land use system. The different agro-forestry combination are:
1. Taungya system: Taungya system involves the planting of both food crops and forest trees on the same piece of land. In other words, it is a system which involves the integration of agriculture with forestry. Some of the conditions necessary for the practice of Taungya system include scarcity of land, over-population, unemployment, deliberate government policies.
2. Forestry production on farm plots: Forestry production on farm plots is feasible only if there is demand for the forest products grown on the farm plots, otherwise there will be little incentive to the farmers to plant trees. However, if the gains in soil fertility are clearly demonstrated, farmers may be willing to introduce and maintain trees. The tree species used in these efforts must be fast-growing to produce marketable products in a short time.
3. Food production within the forest ecosystem: This involves the deliberate production of crops in a typical forest environment. However, the type of crops to be cultivated must be able to adapt to the forest environment. The forest canopy must be open up by killing and clearing the tree underneath so that sufficient light is available for the growth of the crops. This system is aimed at food production by increasing the intensity of clearance and by the use of shade tolerant food crops that do not endanger the tree species.
4. Production of livestock: Animals can also be reared in a forest environment. This involves the planting of quality grasses and legumes with the forest belts which provide food for the grazing farm animals especially ruminants.
5. Production of pasture: Animal grasses e.g elephant grasses and some leguminous plants can be planted deliberately within a forest zones. The purpose of this is to produce nutritional feed for livestock such as cattle, sheep and goat

TREE SPECIES, SUITABLE FOR AGRO-FORESTRY PRACTICES

Agro-forestry involves raising trees in combination with other agricultural enterprises including livestock. Different species of trees can be planted with many types of crops in a variety of ways. For examples, fast-growing trees can be planted when the land is fallow or they can be grown at the same time as agricultural crops. In addition to providing fodder, fuel, wood and other products trees in agro-forestry system promote soil and water conservation, enhance soil fertility and act as wind breaks for nearby crops.

WHAT ARE THE BEST MULTIPURPOSE TREES FOR AGRO-FORESTRY?

It is important to select the most suitable trees since it is not easy to replace them once they have been planted. The following factors should be considered when selecting species.
1. Environmental adaptation: A multipurpose tree must be able to adapt to the climate, soil, topography, plant and animal life of the area.
2. Need of the farmers: the species should meet the needs of the farm families. For this reason, it is important to involve farmers both men and women in selecting species to plant.
3. Ease of maintenance: Farmers should consider the ease of maintenance of selected species to that little time and skill will be needed to take care of the plant species.
4. Availability of genetic materials: seeds or seedling of the species being considered must be easy to obtain. If vegetative propagation is required, farmers should receive training on how to do this.

Some example of tree species suitable for agro-forestry

Some tree species are purposely used for agro-forestry such trees can also be used for other purposes as follows:
Tree species Other uses
1 Acacia nilotica Beverages, fuel wood
2 Acacia tortillas Fuelwood
3 Azadiracha indica Timber, lumber, manure, fuelwood
4 Casuarinas equisetifolia Fuelwood timber
5 Eucalyptus camaldulensis Fuelwood timber
6 Gliricidia seplum Food, fuelwood, poles, fodder
7 Grevillea robusta Timber, fuelwood, building materials
8 Leucaena leucocephala Fuelwood, poles, timber, fodder
9 Sesbania grandiflora Fodder, fuelwood, food
10 Albizia Lebbak Fuelwood, timber
11 Calliandra Calothyrsus Lumber, fuelwood
12 Dalbergia Sissoo Timber, fuelwood
13 Proppis cineraria Wind break
14 Zizphus mauritiana Food, shade
15 Paraserianthes falcataria Water and gully break








HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.

42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES

66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
75. SOIL WATER
80. SANDY SOIL CLAY SOIL LOAMY SOIL
83. SOIL TEXTURE









FLORICULTURE AND FLOWERING PLANTS



FLORICULTURE

MEANING OF FLORICULTURE

Floriculture is simple defined as the production and management of ornamental plants such as trees, shrubs and flowers. In other words, floriculture involves the growth, care, uses and marketing of some flowering plants, trees and shrubs. Beautiful trees or flowering plants which can be used to decorate our environments are called ornamental plants. Ornamental plants could be trees, shrubs or flowers.

The person who grows and sells flowers is called a florist.

IMPORTANCE /USES/BENEFITS OF ORNAMENTAL PLANTS

Ornamental trees, shrubs and flowers are very important in a number of ways. These include:
(1) Sources of employment of Income: Ornamental plants and flowers provide employment or income to horticulturists of florist.
(2) Expression of Love: Flowers are used for the expression of love and as gifts on special occasions.
(3) For Decoration: Shade loving ornamental can be used for decoration in porches, verandahs and halls.
(4) For Fencing: Densely branched ornamental shrubs can be used for fencing.
(5) For visual screening: Some ornamental plants are used for visual screening or concealing views, to provide privacy.
(6) Sources of compost materials: Pruning and clipping from hedges can be used as compost materials or mulch.
(7) For medicinal preparations: Some ornamental plants have medicinal value and are used in herbal preparation
(8) Sources of Food: some ornamental trees have edible fruits for human consumption.
(9) Nitrogen fixation: Some leguminous manure, e.g farmyard manure can be added to the soil to improve its fertility.
(10) Regular watering: Flowers should be watered at least twice a day-morning and evening
(11) Regular weeding: The florist should ensure that unwanted plants (weeds) are removed so as to provide nutrients, space, light, etc. For the normal growth of ornamental trees and flowers without competition.









SOURCES OF PLANTING MATEREALS

Sources of planting materials like seeds, cut stems, leaves and stolons or rhizomes, include:
(i) Established private horticultural gardens;
(ii) Higher institutions botanical gardens
(iii) Government-owned horticultural centres
(iv) Private houses and offices
(v) Imported ornamental trees and flowers
(vi) Resort or recreational centres


MAINTENANCE OF HORTICULUTRAL PLANTS/FLOWERS

(i) Provision of shade: Shade should be provided for the seedlingsto protect them against excessive rainfall and heat of the sun
(ii) Regular Watering: Horticultural plants and flowers should be watered at least twice a day – early in the morning and late in the evening.
(iii) Regular weeding: The florist should ensure that unwanted plants (weeds) are removed so as to allow for adequate nutrients, space, light, etc for the normal growth of ornamental trees and flowers.
(iv) Fertilizer Application: Fertilizers and manure can be applied to the soil to improve the soil fertility for this growth of ornamental trees, shrubs and flowers
(v) Fencing: Ornamental plants should be protected from being eaten up by animals like cattle, sheep, goat, etc
(vi) Regular Pruning: Old leaves, stems and side branches should be pruned with either shears or secateurs.



What does Floriculture mean?

Floriculture refers to farming, plant care, propagation, and cultivation with one goal in mind, the maximum production of flower buds and flowers. Growers who focus on floriculture also generally experiment with creating new strains, cultivars, and varieties to improve bud and flower development.

Floriculture is an entire gardening spectrum that is geared towards understanding and improving all aspects of bud and flower creation, including indoor lighting, growroom requirements, greenhouse needs, plant nutrition, irrigation, pest management, and breeding new cultivars/strains. The goal of floriculture is always to improve the plant so it yields larger buds, more abundant buds, and optimal flowering times.

Growing with a floriculture objective means having a strong focus on the plant’s spacing, pruning, ideal flower harvest time frame, and post-harvest chores such as storage and packaging of buds, flower heads, and other parts of the plant.


Floriculture encompasses all realms of successful growing, growth habits, and harvesting of a flowering plant. Growers usually center their goals around the plant’s health, branching, growth size, bud formation, flowering, harvest, the plant’s distinct desirable characteristics, and its overall flower and bud yield at the time of harvest.

All plants have two stages: the vegetative stage and the flowering stage. Floriculture singles out the flowering stage of the plant as being the most important aspect of the plant’s life.

Floriculture growers work to make the plant’s transition from the vegetative to the flowering stage an easy change in the hopes of boosting the plant’s bud and flower growth to greater and newer heights.
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Floriculture, or flower farming, is a discipline of horticulture concerned with the cultivation of flowering and ornamental plants for gardens and for floristry, comprising the floral industry. The development, via plant breeding, of new varieties is a major occupation of floriculturists.

Floriculture, also known as flower farming is a branch of horticulture that deals with cultivating ornamental and flowering plants. The flowers and plants cultivated are meant for sale. These can be used in the cosmetic industry, the perfume industry and even the pharmaceutical industry.

Floriculture not only includes the cultivation of plants but also their marketing. Flowers are marketed to local as well as distant markets. Cut flowers are also exported long with its products like scents, medicines and oils. The commercialization of flower cultivation has been a result of changing lifestyle of people.

Various forms of floriculture plants include bedding plants, foliage plants, cut flowers, flowering plants and cut cultivated greens. Flowering plants are used indoor and are sold in pots. Foliage plants are also used indoor and are sold in pots or hanging baskets. Cut flowers are sold in bouquets and bunches.
IMPORTACE OF FLORICULTURE

Flowers are considered a symbol of love, grace and elegance. We use flowers on religious occasions too. Flowers are given as birthday gifts, wedding gifts, at funerals and also when one goes to meet a sick person. Many Hindu ladies use flowers to style their hair in the form of gajras and veni. Apart from beautification and decoration, flowers have industrial importance too. Flowers like rose, jasmine give essential oils which are used in making perfumes and scents.


Floriculture has tremendous potential in India. The different types of climatic conditions provide for the possibility of growing almost all the major cut flowers. Species of the world, whether of tropical, sub-tropical or temperate climate origin. However, flowers in India are produced in open field conditions, mostly during the mild winter months without use of any advanced technology. As a result, the quality and quantity available for marketing are heterogeneous and vary according to the prevailing weather conditions

India has better opportunities in the development of the floriculture sector due to the following reasons:

Diverse climatic conditions and locations suited for growing different types of flowers
Skilled manpower to absorb the technology and implement the same at a relatively low cost
Soil and water supply at most locations
Good radiation/ sunlight leading to healthier plant growth and better quality flowers
Good period of sunlight even during the heavy rains leading to continued plant growth and yield







HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE

44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION









55. IGNEOUS ROCK

67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING




SENSE ORGANS OF THE BODY


THE SENSE ORGANS

The sense organs are the organs which receive stimuli and with the help of the brain (voluntary action), the message is received and interpreted. Hence, such organs enable animals to respond to stimuli within the environment.
SENSE ORAGNS OF FARM ANIMALS
Organs of farm animals include the eyes, ears, kidney, liver, skin, nose, tongue, lungs and heart. Most of these organs have already been discussed in this chapter. However, the structure and functions of the skin, kidney and liver are discussed below in detail.

The sense organs include: (i)nose – sense of smell (ii)Eyes – sense of vision(sight) (iii)Ears – sense of sound (hearing) (iv)Tongue – sense of taste (v)Skin – sense of touch and heat







HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.


1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL





79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION


CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS




CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS

INTRODUCTION TO THE CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS
Classification of living things consists of placing together in categories those living things that are similar in nature. It involves placing living things into groups that have certain features in common, which distinguishes them from others.

This system of classification of living things, used today in our world is based on that by the introduced by the Swiss scientist, called Car Von Linne (1707-1778)
His name was Latinized to CAROLUS LINNAEUS. He published the classification of plants in the year 1753 and the publication of animal classification in the year 1758. So according to his book living things are classified as follows
All living things are first classified as kingdoms
1. KINGDOMS
The kingdoms are further split into a large number of smaller groups called phyla (singular-phylum) for animals and division for plants.
All the members of a phylum or division have certain features in common. Each phylum or group is broken down into orders, orders into families, families into genera (singular, genus), and genera into species.
The arrangement of living things in these hierarchy the highest to the lowest is summarized bellow
THERE ARE SEVEN MAJOR GROUPS GENERALLY USED IN THE CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS. THESE ARE
1. KINGDOMS
2. PHYLUM- ANIMAL OR PLANT DIVISION
3. CLASS
4. ORDER
5. FAMILY
6. GENUS
7. SPECIES







The basic unit of classification of living things is the species. Species is the smallest unit of organism containing members which has a greater number of features in common and can inter-breed amongst themselves.
A member of a particular species cannot inter breed with a member of another species. For example, all humans belongs to the same species while all monkeys belongs to a different species, so humans and monkeys cannot inter breed together.

Here is a little table showing the classification of humans and lions

CLASS---------------HUMAN-------------LION
Kingdom----------Animalia------------Animalia
Phylum-----------Chordata------------Chordata
Class--------------Mammalia----------Mammalia
Order-------------Primate-------------Carnivora
Family-----------Hominidae----------Felidae
Genus-----------Homo-----------------Panthera
Species----------Sapiens--------------Leo

BINOMIAL SYSTEM OF NOMENCLATURE
Carolus Linnaeus also introduced a system of naming living things which is popularly by Biologists today.
This system is better known as the BINOMIAL SYSTEM OF NOMENCLATURE. In this system, organisms or living things are (is) given two names, hence binomial nomenclature.
The first name is the generic name while (common name) and always begin with a capital letter.
The second name is the specific name which begins with a small letter.
These scientific name are normally written in italics or are underlined. Here is a list of how the binomial system of nomenclature is used,
1. MAN—Homo sapiens
2. Lion—Panthera leo
3. Maize—Zea mays
4. Rat—Rattus rattus
5. Dog—Canis domestica
6. Housefly—Musca domestica
7. Rice—Orza sativa
8. Orange—Citrus sinensis
9. Cocoa—Theobrama cacao


YOU CAN READ MY POST ON BOTANICAL NAMES OF WEEDS HERE

KINGDOMS
Carolus Linnaeus classified living things two major kingdoms under the binomial system of nomenclature, which are PLANTS AND ANIMALS KINGDOM.
Under this classification or methods in binomial system of nomenclature, so many so-called one celled organisms weren’t able to fit properly. So many Biologists then decided to place all living things into five kingdoms instead of the normal binomial system of nomenclature, which are as follows
1. MONERA
2. PROTISTA
3. FUNGI
4. PLANTAE
5. ANIMALIA

IN THE CLASSIFICATION OF LIVINGTHINGS THROUGH BINOMIAL SYSTEM OF NOMENCLATURE, OR IN WHATEVER METHOD IS EMPLOYED, VIRUS AS AN ORGANISM, CANNOT FIT INTO ANY OF THE FIVE KINGDOM CLASSIFICATIONS LISTED ABOVE. SO WE SHALL TAKE A SEPARATE STUDY OF VIRUS AS AN ORGANISM
VIRUS
Virus is a microscopic organism which cannot be seen with the aid of an ordinary microscope unless with the aid of an electron microscope.
A VIRUS does not have cell structure, but it is just made up of a coiled strand of nucleic acid (ribonucleic acid-RNA) or deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) enclosed within a protein coat.
Virus is seen as being on the borderline between living and non-living thing. When it is outside the living cells crystals and becomes non-living thing but it is within the cells, it becomes a living thing by exhibiting reproduction.






CHARACTERISTICS OF VIRUS
1. Virus is microscopic in nature
2. It possesses either a RNA or DNA
3. It cannot reproduce by binary fission
4. It does not have structures used in the synthesis of protein
5.
6. It does not respire, feed, excrete etc.
7. It is responsible for the causes of so many chronic diseases like small pox, influenza, AIDS and measles

VIRUS AS A LIVING THING
Virus is generally regarded as a living thing or animate thing because of the following characteristics
1. Virus can reproduce when inside another living cell
2. It possesses characteristics that can be transferred or transmitted from one generation to another
VIRUS A ON LIVING THING
1. When a virus is extracted from a living cell and placed on a non-living medium, it assumes a crystalline form thus becoming a non-living.
2. Virus cannot respire-breathing
3. Virus cannot respond to stimuli
4. Virus cannot excrete
READ MORE ABOUT VIRUSES HERE

THE KINGDOM: MONERA
Characteristics of organisms found under the kingdom MONERA
i. They are unicellular, though some form filaments of cells
ii. The cells are prokaryotic
iii. The cells have no organized nucleus, with nuclear membrane
iv. They do not have complex chromosome
v. The cells do not have mitochondria, no chloroplast, no endoplasmic reticulum
vi. The cell walls does not contain cellulose, polysaccharides and amino acids
vii. There is no sexual reproduction
viii. They may possess autotrophic or heterotrophic mode of feeding(nutrition)

THE MONERA KINGDOM IS DIVIDED INTO TWO PHYLA, THEY ARE
a. Schizophyta
b. Cynophyta

CHARCTERISTICS OF SCHIZOPHYTA
i. They are simple living things that belong to monera
ii. They are procaryotic cells with no definite nucleus
iii. They are microscopic and non-green plants
iv. The reproduce by asexual means known as binary fission
v. They are unicellular organisms
vi. They lack mitochondria
vii. The cell walls have rigid cell wall which is complex
viii. They lack cellulose but consist of consists of Polysaccharide of amino acids

An example of organisms that belongs to this group or phylum
Bacteria

CHARACTERISTICS OF CYNOPHYTA
i. They are microscopic in nature
ii. They do not have cilia, flagella or other locomotive organelles but most often some of them move by gliding
iii. They reproduce by cell division
iv. They are unicellular, other are filamentous with individual cells joined end to end while very few of them form colonies
v. Their cells contain chlorophyll, but not in chloroplast
vi. Their cell walls do not contain cellulose like that of a bacteria
vii. Example of organisms in this group is blue-green alga(Nostic)

KINGDOM PROTISTA
Characteristics of this group of organisms
i. They are unicellular organism.
ii. The organisms are all eukaryotic
iii. They move either by cilia, flagella or may be amoeboid by nature
iv. Some of the Protista are heterotrophic including parasitic forms while some are both heterotrophic and photosynthetic
v. Mode of reproduction is usually asexual by mitosis while some have sexual reproduction by fusion of gametes
There are four phyla in these kingdom. They are
1. Euglenophyta
2. Protozoa
3. Chrysophyta
4. Pyrrophyta
Protozoa and Euglenophyta can be used as representative of this group
PROTOZOA
CHARACTERSTIC OF PROTOZOA
i. They belong to the group of organisms called Protista
ii. They are microscopic organisms
iii. They have Eucaryotic cells, meaning cells with membrane
iv. They reproduce asexually by binary fission
v. They are mainly aquatic organisms while a few are parasitic
vi. They are unicellular
vii. Organisms In this group moves by different organelles, e.g. Amoeba and paramecium
EXAMPLES OF PROTOZOA INCUDES AMEOBA, PARAMECIUM AND TRAPENOSOMES
2. CHARACTERISTICS OF EUGLENOPHYTA
EUGLENA
Euglena virisis is a protist and a typical example of an organism sharing both the characteristics of plans and Animals. However, it is a microscopic, unicellular and an aquatic organism

ANIMAL CHARACTERISTICS OF EUGLENA
i. Possession of flagellum used for movement
ii. Possession of gullet food passage and for reservoir
iii. Possession of contractile vacuole used for osmo-regulation
iv. Presence of eye spot which enables it to respond to stimuli
v. Possession of pellicle which makes its body flexible
vi. Presence of myonemes which aids its movement
vii. It has the ability to carry out holozoic mode of feeding(nutrition) in the absence of sunlight
PLANT CHARACTERISTICS OF UEGLENA
1. Possession of chloroplast which enables it carry out photosynthesis
2. Possession of pyrenoids where starch is stored
3. Presence of paramylum granules forms in which starch is stored
4. It has holophytic (autotrophic) mode of nutrition


KINGDOM FUNGI
The fungi where for a long time classified with the plants. They however defers from the plants in the composition of their cells. Most of their cell walls are made up chitin instead of cell walls
CHARACTERISTICS OF FUNGI
i. They are Eucaryotes. Cells with membrane
ii. Some are unicellular. E.g. yeast while the multicellular example is mushroom
iii. They have no true roots, stem or leaves
iv. They are non-green plants, that means they lack chlorophyll
v. They are mainly saprophytes while some are parasites
vi. They store excess food in form of glycogen
vii. Their cell walls are made of chitin instead of cellulose
viii. The vegetative parts are made up of fine and delicate threads called hyphae.
ix. They reproduce asexually by formation of pores and some sexually by conjugation
x. They are mainly found in moist areas or environments
xi. Examples of fungi are BREAD MOULD RHIZOPHUS, MUSHROOM, MUCOR, MILDEW, YEAST AND TOAD STOOLS


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HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

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