RABBIT REARING


Rabbits

Rabbits just like pigs are monogastric or non-ruminant animals. They are medium-sized hopping mammals with long legs, long ears and short tails.
Rabbits are mainly reared for their meat. Rabbit meat is normally regarded as a white meat.

TERMS USED FOR RABBIT

buck An adult male rabbit
doe An adult female rabbit
Kitten/warren A young or baby rabbit
Hutch The house of rabbit
Kidding The act of parturition in rabbit
Pelt The skin of rabbit







Litter – All the young ones (rabbits) produced at the same time by one doe
Sucking – feeding of young ones on the mother’s breast milk
Dam – The mother of a set of young rabbits
Sire – The father of a set of young rabbits

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RABBITS

(i) Rabbits have small medium sized body
(ii) Rabbits are easy to house.
(iii) Rabbits are very prolific animals or can produce many litters
(iv) Rabbits have a short gestation period of 30 -31 days.
(v) Rabbits grow fast and reach maturity weight in about five to six months. They are efficient converter of wide range of vegetable matter into meat. The fur-covered skins can be processed as pelts for sale.
(viii) Rabbits are easy to handle or manage.
(ix) Rabbits have a weaning period of six to eight weeks.
(x) Rabbits make good quality meat, more delicious and nutritious than that of chicken.
(xi) Rabbits are susceptible to stress.
(xii) Rabbits rate of cannibalism is very high.
(xiii) Rabbits have high rate of disease resistance.

BREEDS AND TYPES OF RABBITS

Common breeds of rabbits include:
(i) California white
(ii) Flemish giant
(iii) California red
(iv) Chinchilla
(v) New Zealand
(vi) Champagne white d’Agent
(vii) The Crosses
(viii) Angora
(ix) Lop
(x) Blue Beveran
(xi) New Zealand red
(xii) Beveren
(xiii) Dutch
(xiv) English spot
(xv) Chekered giants

(1) The Chinchilla: It is a grey-bodied animal and it can weigh up to 5kg at maturity. It is one of the best fur or pelt producers and also a meat producer.
(2) The New Zealand White: This is the most popular meat breed in use. It is a fur breed and can attain a mature weight of 4.5kg in eight months. It is a good converter feed to meat with a high dress percentage. It is also a fast maturing breed.
(3) California White: It is a lighter breed and the adults may attain a mature weight of 3.5kg - 4.5kg. it is characterized by black markings the ears, feet, tail and nose. It in high growth rate and good flesh bone ratio.
(4) The New Zealand Red: This breed is bright-red in colour and weight over 3kg. It has a high growth feed conversion characteristics.
(5) The Giant Flemish: This breed weigh over 5kg and it is the large of all the breeds. It is dark steel-g in colour and produces a dense hard pelt. It is a good m producer.
(6) Angora: This breed requires a of care and attention. It is the only rabbit reared for its wool. Its most common is white. It has tuft of wool on its ear and feet








IMPORTANCE OF RABBIT

1. Meat: The meat of rabbit is white, fine grained, tender and nutritious. the meat of rabbit is even more nutritious than that of poultry chicken
2. Rabbit skin or pelt: This can be used for making jackets, head-gear, carpets or rugs and other decorative households or ornaments.
3. Manure: It has been discovered that rabbit manure is high in nitrogen and phosphorus and therefore can be used to improve the fertility of the soil
4. For research purpose: At the National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI), Vom, rabbits are kept largely as laboratory animals.
READ THIS ARTICLE ON DISEASES OF RABBIT AND CONTROL HERE

Problems Militating Against Rabbit

Production in Nigeria
Major problems which militate against commercial production of rabbits in Nigeria include:
(i) Unpredictable breeding behaviour of rabbits.
(ii) Incidence of respiratory diseases, e.g., snuffles and pneumonia.
(iii) Inadequate sanitation and proper sanitation programmes.
(iv) High nest-box mortality of litters.
(v) Lack of ability to embark on mass production, because most operation in rabbitry cannot be automated.
(vi) It is labour-intensive.
(vii) Lack of capital also impedes large investment in rabbitry.
(viii) Inadequate supply and high cost of concentrate feeds.

HOUSING OF RABBITS

(i) Rabbits are usually kept in hutches
(ii) The hutches are arranged in single, double or triple tiers
(iii) The waist-high, single tier hutches are preferable for they save time and labour in feeding and management
(iv) Wooden or metal hutches with wire-netting surroundings are widely used
(v) The hutches are placed under a building usually referred to as rabbitry. The rabbitry must be well ventilated
(vi) The floor of the rabbitry should be made with concrete for easy cleaning
(vii) The roof should be made with corrugated iron sheets or asbestos sheets
(viii) The hutches can also be placed in poultry deep litter-house
(ix) The makes are kept separate from the female within the rabbitry.
(x) Legs of hutches should be placed in disinfectant bowls to keep off termites and other insects attack.

FEEDING OF RABBIT

(i) Rabbits are simple stomach herbivores, i.e. they feed mainly on plants
(ii) Rabbits are given concentrates in form of pellets in small quantities
(iii) The pellets given can be supplemented with aspilia Africana, sweet potato leaves, Amarantus, Water leaf, Centrosema spp, Emilia spp, Tridax spp and calopogonium spp MORE ABOUT WEEDS AND THEIR BOTANICAL NAMES
(iv) Rabbits can be given poultry grower’s mash in the absence of rabbit pellets. This should however, be sprinkled with water to prevent wastage and nasal irritation
(v) The protein content of feeds for dry Does and Bucks should be 12 – 15% while that of pregnant does and nursing does is 16 – 20%
(vi) The feed should be served in feeding troughs
(vii) Water should be supplied all the time
HYGIENE/HEALTH
Common hygiene or sanitary measures to be adopted in rabbitry include:
(i) Clean the floor of the rabbitry daily.
(ii) Disinfect the rabbitry at regular intervals to keep it germ-free,
(iii) Clean the feed and water troughs to prevent contamination.
(iv) Remove dusts and cob-webs from the rabbitry.
(v) Isolate any sick animal for treatment.
(vi) Remove and bury dead animal.
(vii) Deworm the rabbits at regular intervals.
(viii) Treat the rabbits with drugs such as antibiotics and coccidiostat (Prophylactic).
(ix) Keep the surrounding of the rabbitry weed-free.
(x) Provide a disinfectant bath or foot dip at the entrance to prevent introduction of germs into the rabbitry by visitors.



Rabbits
Rabbits are used in raising frieat at a shortest possible time with least feed. They may be bred for yarn, fur, pels, as a source of letting and for laboratory experiments in Colleges and Universities. They are also a source of income to the farmers. The meat of rabbit is high in protein and low in fat and caloric content. Its manure is high in nitrogen and phosphoric acid.










(a) Breeds of Rabbits
These are the important breeds of domestic rabbits: the New Zealand white. Flemish Giant, the New Zealand Red and Checkered Giatnt. Some rabbits breeders recommend the New Zealand for Nigeria.
(b) Management practices in Rabbits
(i) Housing: Rabbits are kept in cages called hutches. It is most essential that the hutches are protected from rain and sunlight. READ FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
Each adult rabbit should have its own. hutch, which should be 60cm high 75cm deep and 1 ½ - 2m long. The cage should dry and self-cleaning. The bottom of the cage should be made of wire mesh so that the faeces and urine can drop to the ground. Also, the cages should stand on legs and the total height of each should be waist high. It is difficult to keep cages with solid bottom dry. Wet cages encourage breeding of flies, and coccidiosis. A three unit cage is always recommended, that is, that can hold three adult rabbits; two does (female rabbit) and a buck (male rabbit). The walls of the hutch can be made of split bamboo while the roof is made in such a way mil rain from tickling through. All cages (battery cage system of poultry) must stand in filled with water to keep off ants.

Breeding cages may, be provided with nest boxes. These be built into the cages or they may be removable boxes that can be set in cages several days before the does are ready to kindle (give birth to young ones). A nest box should be 55cm. A few small holes should be drilled at the bottom of the box drainage.
Water must be provided in each cage always and the waterer leaned off every morning before adding new one. The waterer must not be leaking.

(ii) Rabbits are fed twice a day. that is. in the morning - evening. Grains are fed in the morning while green led in the evening. Nursing does require more feeds than dry does or bucks. The best feed is poultry mash either growers layers mash. Since poultry mash is dusty, it should prevent irritation of the nose and lungs.
Alternatively, a mixture of guinea com and groundnut cake can be alter grinding. The best green feeds are Amaranthus.
Aspilia Africana Talinum triangulare and grasses.

(iii) Breeding: Most large breeds of rabbit such as New Zealand white sexually mature in 8-9 months and can be bred then. The smaller breeds like the polish can be used for breeding when four months old. Bucks (male) and does (female) mature about same age. One buck can service about ten does if the breeding spread out. However no buck shouId be used more times a week for service l(g due shows signs of heat, it should be taken to the buck’s cage for mating. This is is because if the duck is brought to doe’s cage, the doe may attack it. If the doe is just placed the hutch with the buck, it will often squat in the corner of hutch and will not accept service. Therefore, holding the will quicken mating. After mating, the doe should be sent ha her hutch. The service date should be recorded and approximate kindling date noted. Gestation period is 31 After two weeks, the doe should be examined for pregnan pressing gently with the hand on her belly. If she is preg one will feel some small marble shaped lumps in the wor uterus. If the doe is not pregnant, it should be sent back to when it comes on heat again.

(iv) Kindling: Kindling is the act of giving birth to the young. A nest should be placed in the hutch about 24 days after the has been mated. If it kindles on wire floor the litter (a gro young ones born at the same time) may perish. No strtl bedding is to be placed in the cage. The cage must be The doe will pull out enough hair from her belly to cover litter. As each infant is delivered, the doe licks it. After kindling the litter should be inspected and dead or deformed removed. The cans on which the hutch is standing must be with water to prevent ants from entering to kill the young of Rabbits are nervous animals and are more nervous during kindling periods. Therefore, keep the doe as quiet as poi during this period, keep off all natural enemies like do cats. Keep people and children away from her hutch. Avoid the doe as much as possible on the day before and after kin Excitement also causes abortion.
Some does kill their young ones. This may be a sign under feeding. Some kill for no purpose. Such does should called.
Hygiene: With good housing, it is not difficult to maintain hygiene in rabbits house. It is important to clean hutches and waterers regularly and remove droppings from the floor to build up of disease organisms.
Major diseases of rabbits are pneumonia and diarrhea. These should be controlled when they occur by consulting the nearest veterinary doctor.

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HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF
44.
RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE

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list of pests



LIST OF PEST AND THEIR CLASSIFICATION

A pest is an organism which causes damage to crops. Insect pest are those insects that cause physical damage to crops. Insects belong to the group arthropod. Generally insect pests reduce crop yield both in quality and quantity.
1. Classify insect pests into feeding groups
2. Name important field and storage pest of crops
3. Identify nature of damage to crops
4. State preventive and control measures
5. State other important pests of crops
6. Identify the nature of their damage to crops
7. State the preventive and control measures

Classification of crop insect pest into main feeding groups

A pest is an organism which causes damage to crops. Insect pest are those insects that cause physical damage to crops. Insects belong to the group arthropod. Generally insect pests reduce crop yield both in quality and quantity.






1.

Biting and chewing insect pest:

The mouth parts of pests in this group are especially adapted to biting and chewing of various plant parts.
The mouth parts are made up of two hard biting jaws (mandibles). In addition to these, they also have two jaws (maxillae).
They have two lips – flat upper lip (larum) and lower lip (labium) while the maxillae are used to push the crop parts into the mouth, the mandibles are used for the biting and chewing since they are very strong.

These insects can feed on any part of the plant including leaves, fruits, stems, flowers and even roots. Some common biting and chewing insect pests are:
beetles, grasshoppers, termites, crickets, caterpillars of moths and butter flies, locust, army worms and so on.

They feed on many crops such as okro, maize, rice, vegetables, cassava and fruit trees.

2.

Piercing and Sucking Insect Pests:

The mouth parts of these insects are shaped tike injection needles and are thus adapted to piercing (that is penetrating into the plant part) and sucking (that is removing plant fluid).
These piercing and sucking habits of the insects lead to] destruction of plant tissues, development of holes through which disease organisms can enter into the plant system and transfer or harmful germs from diseased plants to healthy ones.
All these lead to weakening and eventual death of the plants affected.

Good examples of piercing and sucking insect pests are aphids (plant lice), cotton stainer, mealy bugs, capsid bugs, and scali insects DIAGRAM Figure 2.8.2A: Cotton Stainer DIAGRAM Figure 2.8.2b: Aphid






AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND UNDERSTANDING BASIC AGRICULTURE AND FARMING FOR SCHOOLS
Agriculture, farming, agricultural products and crops classification, cultural practices in agricultural science

3. Boring insect Pests:
These are insects that bore into plant tissues and seeds, kamples are stem borers of cereals and weevils such as beans, rice M maize weevils. Other insects pests which may not fall into the above groups have been found to affect crops. An example is the weaving insect fftich causes the folding of the leaves of crops particularly vegetables. DIAGRAM Figure 2.8.3: Bean Weevil NO.

list of pest

NAME OF Pest,
CROPS AFFECTED
NATURE OF DAMAGE TO CROPS
PREVENTION AND CONTROL MEASURES

1 Stem borer
(Sesamia spp) Cereals e.g. rice, maize sorghum
this Pest eats up the juicy centres of stems thus causing the crop to collapse and die
Burn all crop remains in the farm after harvest, uproot and burn affected crops.
Spray with gammaling 20 or DDT.

2 Army worms
Grain crops e.g. Rice, Maize, Sorghum
They eat up the leaves and stems of the crops leading to mechanical damage of crops.

Plant early. Spray with an insecticide such as gammalin 20.

3 Ear worms
Maize
These larvae bore into the cobs or ears of maize thereby eating up the fresh grains
Early planting and spray with gammalin 20

4 Aphids
Cocoa, groundnut, cowpea
They bite and pierce through the outer texture of growing plants. Sucking out the sap leading to stunting, distortion and defoliation in affected plants
Spray affected crops with insecticides

5 Pod Borers
(Maruca tesulalis) Legumes e.g. Cowpea
They cause damage to the tender parts of the plants, by eating up the flower buds and pods.
This leads to reduction in yield.
Plant with resistant varieties.
Spray with gammalin 20 or diagram.

6 Variegated Grasshopper
(Zonocerus variegates) Yam, vegetables, rice, cassava, etc.
Eats up leaves of plants.
Growing point and stem may be eaten too. Spray with gammalin 20 or vetox 85

7 Yam Beetle
(Heteroligus meles)
Yam Feeds on tubers of yams in the soil causing holes on them.
Dust yam planting materials with aldrin dust before planting.


8 Cassava mealy bug
(phenacoccus Manihoti) Cassava

Affected plants become stunted since the inter-nodes are reduced.

The tip begins to develop bunchy tops, the leaves die off finally, the whole plant looks like a candle stick.

AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND UNDERSTANDING BASIC AGRICULTURE AND FARMING FOR SCHOOLS
Agriculture, farming, agricultural products and crops classification, cultural practices in agricultural science

Plant early. Dip cassava cuttings in 0.1% Rogor or Ultrasuede solution for 1 minute before planting

9 Capsids Cocoa;
The insects attack young shoots of cocoa and introduce toxic saliva into the plant.
This kills the plant Spraying with gammalin 20

10 Cotton stainer (dysdercus superstitutious)
Cotton strainer Attacks opening cotton bolls thus staining the lint
Spray with insecticide

11 Weevils
Rice, maize, beans.
Eat up the cotyledons of stored products
Spray with insecticide

12 Fruits worm
The larva eats up the fruits Spray with vet-ox 85

13 Termites-Oil palm, cassava, sugar cane, yam, etc
They destroy roots and seedlings of plants especially when young Spray with aldrex 40.
Water crops regularly in the dry season.

14 Boll worms Cotton
They eat up succulent boll. Bolls drop off prematurely.
Pick and burn affected bolls.
Spray with insecticides


8.3 Other Pests of Crops

1. Bird
These attack mainly grain crops such as maize, rice, sorghum and barley.
They also attack fruits in the field. Examples of these birds are Weaver birds (Quela), parrots, etc
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND UNDERSTANDING BASIC AGRICULTURE AND FARMING FOR SCHOOLS
Agriculture, farming, agricultural products and crops classification, cultural practices in agricultural science


A Bird.

(a) Nature of Damage: They peck out planted seeds, eat up grains on the field and destroy leaves of some plants such as oil palm.
They also eat ripe fruits such as pawpaw, mango, and cashew.

(b) Control:
1. Use of scare crows
2. Spraying chemicals such as furadan with aircraft,
3. Shooting with catapult or gun. Scare Crow for birds and mammalian pest in farms.


2. Rodents
These include rats, grass-cutters, African rabbits and hare.

A Rodent (Grass-cutter)
(a) Nature of Damage:
They cut down and eat various parts of the crop especially cereal and tuber crops. Grass-cutters eat up rice, young palm seedlings and maize plants.
Rats eat up stored produce like tubers and grains. Hare eat up planted grains.

(b) Control:
(i) Use of poison baits (ii) Use of traps (iii) By shooting with guns, (iv) Use of rat gums.

3. Other Mammalian Pests
These include monkey, deer, antelopes and bush pig.
They do a lot of damage to crops in the farm by uprooting eating them up.
For example,
monkey eat up plantains, banana maize and cocoa pods.

Control:
(i) Trapping (ii) Shooting with gun.

7b: Giant Rat (Cricetomys gambianus).


AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND UNDERSTANDING BASIC AGRICULTURE AND FARMING FOR SCHOOLS
Agriculture, farming, agricultural products and crops classification, cultural practices in agricultural science

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You can read some of most interesting topics below






HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

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STUDY QUESTIONS
1. How can insect pests be classified using their feeding habits?
2. (a) Name 10 insect pests you know. (b) For each one, slate the crop it affects, the damage done to the crop and control measure of the pest.

3. (a) Apart from insect pest, name three other pests you
(b) Which crops do they affect? (b) how can they be controlled?

4. Classify the following into biting and chewing piercing I and sucking, and boring insect pests:- Beetles, Aphids. Stem borer, caps ids, weevils, locusts, mealy bugs, crickets, cotton Steiner,


5. Itemize what you would use for rodents attack on your farm.

WAYS THROUGH WHICH SOIL NUTRIENTS ARE LOST


Ways through which soil nutrients are lost

Soil nutrients are lost in many ways. The most common ways of soil nutrient loss 
1. Leaching 4. Erosion
2. Crop removal Burning 5. Oxidation and reduction

(a) Leaching: This is the removal of nutrients out of the reach of lant roots by percolating water. It is common in areas wilh heavy rainfall, loose soil particles and sparse vegetation. 

Primary nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are lost under hash rainfall condition. they dissolve easily in water. So leaching is a natural way whereby the soil losses it's nutrient

(b) Crop removal: Soil nutrients are used by crops for growth and development. Farmers harvest the crops as tubers, seeds, fruits and vegetables. These are used by man for food and other purposes. The nutrients taken up by plants are lost completely from the soil. This is because the harvested parts of crops are not returned to the soil through decay. So harvesting crops and not trying to turn the residue of the crops that are harvested into organic manure or compost farmyard manure tends to lose the nutrients of the soil

(c) burning: The burning of vegetation reduces soil fertility. This is because it exposes the surface of the soil to the agents of erosion such as water and wind. 
Soil micro-organisms of agricultural importance are killed during burning. There is also break down of volatile nutrients like sulphur and nitrogen.








However, burning during farmland preparation can be used to control weeds. It eases the working condition of new farmland. The soil is sterilized. Soil acidity is reduced due to the presence of ash that contains alkali metals such as potassium, calcium, and magnesium.
(d) Erosion: Soil erosion causes loss of soil nutrients. When the top soil of farmland is removed by water or wind, the available plant nutrients are lost. Erosion is common in soil that is not covered by vegetation.

(e) Oxidation and reduction: Oxidation and reduction reactions in the soil lead to loss of soil nutrients. For example ammonium radicals in the soil can be oxidised to give ammonia gas. Nutrients such as nitrates may be reduced to nitrogen gas or nitrogen dioxide gas. The gases go into atmosphere resulting in loss of fertility.




2. Factors that determine the degree of soil nutrient loss
These are agents or circumstances that hasten or fasten the loss of nutrients from the soil. The Factors affect the ways the nutrients in the soil can be removed. The factors are:
1. The nature of the land or slope of the land.
2. The nature of soil, and
3. Vegetative cover.
4. Cultivation practices.
(a) Slope of the land: The slope determines the speed at which water carries away particles. Soil particles contain nutrients which are used by plants. The nutrients arc removed faster in areas with steep slope than tho'se with gentle slope. In most cases, the nutrients are washed to the lowland or valleys.

(b) Nature of soil: The nature of soil in an area plays a role in the extent of nutrient losses that mav occur. The soil in an area may be sandy, clayey or loamy. Sandy soil has loose particles and little organic matter and therefore easily leached by rainfall Erosion is higher where the soil is sandy.
Clay and loamy soils have more organic matter and cohesion. The nutrients in these soil are not easily leached wind and water erosion are less.

(c) Vegetative cover: When the soil is covered by plants, the rate of nutrient loss is less. This is because the vegetation reduces the impart of rain-drops and wind. The speed of run-off water is reduced thereby preventing the development of gullies. The roots of plants help to bind soil particles. The temperature of the soil is also regulated as a result of the cover. Above all, the dead vegetative cover crop adds organic matter to the soil, which is a major source of plant food. Where the soil lacks vegetative cover, it is exposed to wind and water that can carry away soil particles and nutrients. Micro-organisms in the soil are reduced because of lack of organic matter. The soil is subjected to wide temperature fluctuation.


(d) Cultivation practices: Continuous cropping leads to exhaustion of soil nutrients while over tillage exposes the soil to easy erosion hy water and wind.

3.2 Soil erosion
Erosion is the removal or wearing away of the surface soil by different agents. These agents are:
1. Water 4. Ice
2. Wind 5. Man.
3. Animals
However, water is the major agent of erosion in Nigeria.


The process of erosion involves three stages.

 The detachment of soil particles, transportation and deposition.

1. Types of soil erosion
There are four types of soil erosion depending on how the erosion occurs. These are:
1. Splash or raindrop erosion.
2. Sheet erosion.
3. Rill erosion.
4. Gully erosion.







(a) Splash or raindrop erosion: This is the first stage of the erosion caused by rainfall. It is the removal of soil particles by little raindrops. The soil particles scattered by raindrops block the soil pores. This will make it difficult for the rain water to the soil. The result is that the water will begin to flow gradually on the surface of the soil.

(b) Sheet erosion: Sheet erosion follows splash. It occurs when raindrops cause soil particles to block soil pores. Rain water hen Hows slowly over the soil surface. The soil particles are then removed or carried away evenly. This can also be caused by wind. The wind blowing over the soil that is exposed can carry away soil particles uniformly and deposit them somewhere else

(c) Rill erosion: Sheet erosion develops into rill erosion. This occurs when raindrops on the soil surface cause gradual removal of soil particles in suspension along narrow channels.

The channels may be existing before^They could be caused by the rain water itself. The size of the "channels, or rills becomes larger because of downward cutting. This eventually leads to gully erosion.

(d) Gully erosion: Channels that cannot be smoothened out by ordinary cultivation are referred to as gullies. Gully erosion takes place when rain water does not sink into the soil, it therefore runs off over the land. The soil panicles being carried by the rain water help to cut deeper and deeper into the soil. Sudden drop in slope or channel increases the cutting power of the water. Where the land is very slopy and the soil loose, large gullies are easily formed.

2. Prevention and control of erosion
Prevention and control of erosion can be achieved through the following practices:
(a) Covering the land with vegetation: Covering the soil with plants prevents'the soil from being exposed to agents of erosion such as water and wind. The planting of cover crops is to maintain adequate ground cover. Soil fertility is also increased because of leaf fall. Water infiltration is encourage and run-off is reduced because of the vegetative cover.
(a) Crop rotation: A well designed crop rotation ensures that the land is always protected against erosion. Where legumes are included in the rotation, they help to control erosion because they Miirad over the soil surface.
(c) Application of organic and inorganic manures: The addition of compost and farm yard manures make the soil cohesive and absorb water.' They also add plant nutrients to the soil. The addition of lime fertilizers such as calcium triococarbonate (IV) to the soil causes loose soil particles to be bound together. This improves the structure of the soil and the soil cannot be carried a|way easily whether by water or wind.

(d) Mulching: This involves covering the soil with mulch materials such as papers, grasses and stones. It prevents direct contact tween the soil and raindrops.

Mulching increases water infiltration and reduces sheet erosion. Where mulching is done with plant materials, organic is added to the soil. This helps to bind loose soil particles together.
(e) Preventing bush burning: Setting the bush on fire destroys the coverings for the soil. During bush burning, organic matter and many agriculturally important living organisms are destroyed. The soil is therefore exposed to agents of erosion. Where bush burning is avoided, the organic matter and micro-organisms present help to improve the soil structure and control erosion.
(f) Preventing overgrazing: Overgrazing of pasture or field could occur if animals are allowed to remain for a long time on the same land. Almost every vegetation in such a place is eaten up stud will not have time to grow again. Such land is exposed to piosion agents. The feet of animals also destroy soil structure and cause the formation of hard layers or hard pans below the soil surface. This makes infiltration difficult and increases surface run-off. Overgrazing by farm animals should therefore be avoided.
(g) Establishment of wind breaks: The planting of trees prevents pitision by acting as wind breaks. This is a good erosion preventive measure especially in the Savannah regions and where the soil is sandy.
(h) Contour strip cropping: This involves the growing of close ginning plants such as grasses and row crops such as maize in alternate strips across the slope of the land. This ensure adequate cover for the land. It therefore reduces the speed of moving water and its load.

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HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE

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HOW TO CONTROL WEEDS USING PHYSICAL AND NATURAL METHODS


Weed control measures

There are several methods used in weed control. They can classified into:
(a) Mechanical or physical method of weed control
(b) Cultural method of weed control
(c) Biological method of weed control
(d) Chemical method of weed control
(a) Mechanical or physical method of weed control


Cultural method of weed control

(i) Hand pulling: 1 this is the pulling of weeds by hand in the farm. Though it is efficient, but only useful in small gardens and not large farms.

(ii) Hoeing: The short or small hoe is very useful in weeding. It is used to cut the weed below the crown of the plant which gives, complete destruction of the shoot system. It is effective in the control of weeds either in pasture, home garden or row crops. Hoe can be used to weed from the furrow to the top of a ridge. Its use is however on a limited and it requires plenty of labour.

(iii) Mowing: This method helps to prevent seed production in till of weeds. It removes all unsightly weed growth especially where weeds are too much for effective cultivation to take place. The method can be used to control weeds in lawns, plantation or fields. The mower is normally attached to a tractor or pulled by hand to move over the area to be cleared.

(iv) Flooding: This is done by keeping the area to be weeded Hooded up to 20 cm of water for 3 to 8 weeks. This practice kill, the weeds because they can no longer receive air for a-.piration.

(v) Heat treatment: Heal can be used in controlling weeds. For instance nursery soil is sterilized to kill all weed parts and seeds. Fire ran be used to burn dry weeds on cultivated land before cultivation starts








(vi) Smothering with non-Living materials: Weeds can be Followed by the use of mulch materials such, as papers, hulls from rice, manure, plastic materials or cellophane. These materials help to exclude sunlight and prevent shoot growth. The weeds then become etiolated (lose chlorophyll) and die off.

(vii) Cultural method of weed control:
This involves the use of cultural practices of crop production to reduce the growth of weeds on the farm. Such cultural practices include
i. Burning of farmland: This kills weed parts, seeds and fruits both in the soil and on the surface.
ii. Tillage: Tillage helps to expose weed parts for destruction by sun or herbicides. They can also be hand picked and destroyed.
iii. Early planting: This ensures that crops are well established before the weeds start growing.
iv. Good spacing: Proper spacing of crops helps in the reduction of weeds along the crop rows. It also makes it easy for weeding to he done.
v. Mixed cropping: Planting or two or more crops, together oil the same farmland can help to reduce the intensity of weeds on the farm
(c) Biological method
This involves the use of living plants and animals to control weeds. They include:
(i) Use of suppressive plants: Crops that grow fast and large too can be used to overshadow weeds thereby reducing their growth, Also, cover crops such as melon and legumes like groundnut can be used to control weeds on the farm.
(ii) Use of insects: This involves the use of identified insect pests weeds in controlling weeds on the farm. Insects which have been found to feed on a particular weed can be multiplied and introduced to the area to feed and destroy such weed species.
(iii) Pasturing: This involves the grazing of farm animals on weeds usually in plantations such as rubber and oil palm. Animals like i cattle, sheep or goat are commonly used in this method.
(d) Chemical method
This is the method that is used on a large scale. It makes use of chemicals in the control of weeds. These chemicals are known as herbicides. They are sprayed either on the leaves of weeds or applied to the soil. They are classified into:
(i) Selective herbicides: These are chemicals that can kill certain groups or species of plants. Example is 2, 4 -D (Dichlorophen-oxyacetic acid). They can be used in cereals, sugar cane and soya beans farms to reduce weeds.
(ii) Non-selective herbicides: These arelthe herbicides that can kill any plant which they come in contact with. Examples are arsenicals chlorates, petroleum oils and carbon disulphide.
Herbicides can also be classified as contact herbicides, systemic or translocation herbicides.
The contact herbicides are applied as foliage sprays (that is on the leaves), dust or granules: They scotch the tissues of the plants already growing on the farm. Examples are sodium chlorate and arsertates.
The systemic or in trans-located herbicides are carried in the tissues of the plants after the ingredients have been absorbed by the roots in the soil. These chemicals must first enter the soil and then absorbed the roots of the weeds into their tissues. They are applied as dust or granules onto the plants or used as soil treatments. When used as soil treatments, they control all weeds that are still to emerge from the soil, hence, they are sometimes called pre-lltrgencc herbicides. Examples are 2,4,5-T(2,4,5-Trichlorophen-oxyyacetic acid), Atrazine and others.

Quality of good herbicide





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Quality of good herbicide

A good herbicide recommended for use should have the flowing qualities:
1. It should be able to kill the weeds easily and at a small dosage rate. That is, it should be phytotoxic.
2. It should kill the weeds and not the growing crops. That is, it should be selective in its action.
3. It should have low toxicity on animals that use weeds as food and on man.
4. It should be easy to compound or formulate.
5. It should be easy to use.
6. It should be cheap and easy to get.

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HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL








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SEXUAL AND SEED PROPAGATION OF CROPS


Methods of seed propagation.

1. SEXUAL and 2. ASEXUAL PROPAGATION OF SEED
1. Sexual or seed propagation
This method makes use of seeds. It is common with both se pollinated and cross-pollinated crops. It is sometimes the only possible way to propagate some crops like tomato, maize, rice, beans and groundnut.
Seeds can be collected from healthy, vigorous and high yielding plants. These are sown either directly on the farm or first in nursery before they are transplanted to the farm. Examples of crop that are propagated by seeds are maize, rice, tomato, okro, cocoa, palm, rubber, mango, cashew and guava.

Seed and fruit formation: The main reproductive organ flowering plants is the flower. The flower consists of two major parts - the male and the female parts. The stamen is the ' reproductive organ and it is made up of filaments carrying anthers which contain the pollen grains. The pistil is the female rcproductive organ. It consists of the stigma which receives the pollen grains during pollination; style which connects the stigma to the ovart through which the pollen tube grows during the process of fertilizers: and the ovary which contains the ovules which develop Into seeds.
After fertilization, a zygote is formed from the ovule. This develops to form an embryo. The ovule eventually develops into the seeds, while the ovary which contains the ovule develops into a fruit. Therefore, a fruit can be described as fully grown, fertilized ovary containing fully developed ovules the seeds.







Classification of fruits:
Fruits may be classified as simple, foot pound, and aggregate. Simple fruits are those formed from a flower with a monocarpous pistil. Examples are beans, lemon and mango. Compound/multiple fruits are formed from an inflorescence or bunch whose fruitlets are fused together to form a , jingle large fruits. Examples are pineapple and jack fruit. Aggregate joints are formed from a single flower with an apocarpous pistil, carpel constitutes a fruittet. An example is kolanut.
Again fruits can also be divided into two: fleshy and dry fruits.
(i) Fleshy or succulent fruits: This group includes:
1. Berry: This has a fleshy pericarp with hard seeds which are embedded in the fleshy and pulpy endocarp. Examples are tomato and guava.


DI

2. Hesperiditrm: This class of fruit is made up of distinct chambers of separated sheets of endocarp. The epicarp and mesocarp are fused together to form the skin. Seeds are embedded in each chamber. Examples are orange, lemon, lime, tangerine.
3. Drupe: this consists of a thin epicarp. fleshy or fibrous mesoearp and a stony or hard endocarp surrounding the see Examples are mango, coconut and palm fruit.
4. Pome: This consists of an outer covering and a fleshy edible part which are formed by the swelling of the receptacle. Examples are pear and apple.
5. Sorosis: This is a fleshy multiple false fruit which develop from a dense inflorescence. Every part of each flower forms part of the fruit while the peduncle swells to form the core. Example
are pineapple and Jack fruit.


(ii) Dry fruits: These are fruits which have hard, dry pericarp. They include:
1. Legume: This has one carpel which can split along two edges. Examples are cowpea, groundnut.
2. Capsule: This has many joined carpels which split along all structures from base to the apex. Examples are okro, cotton.
3. Caryopsis: This is a simple dry one seeded fruit which does not split open (indehiscent). Examples are maize, guinea corn, millet and other cereals.
4. Nut: This has a hard pericarp which can be broken or cracked. Examples are cashew nut, walnut, almond.








Advantages of sexual or seed propagation
1. It is very easy to practice. That is seeds can be carried conveniently to the farm
2. It brings about easy multiplication of pfarrt population.
3. Well stored seeds can remain viable for a long time.
4. It is a sure way to start a disease free crop.
5. It can be used to improve crops through cross-breeding.

Disadvantages of sexual or seed propagation
1. Some crops take long time to mature and fruit when planted by seeds. Example is orange.
2. Some seeds are lost in the soil during propagation because of termites, rats and hare.
3. It is difficult to grow crops that are seedless with this method

Seed treatment before sowing:
1. Pre-soak the seeds. This is to allow some very hard secdi to absorb water that will aid germination.
2. Scarification is carried out to loosen the surface of the seeds for easy emergence of the radical and plmule.
3. Chemical dressing of seeds. This is done so that disease organisms do not affect the seeds. It is also to prevent pests from destroying the seeds.

2. Asexual or vegetative propagation
This involves the use of parts of plant in multiplying the plant, parts of plant such as roots, stem and leaves can be used instead of seeds. For example, the root can be used to grow breadfruit and potato. The leaf can be used to multiply the plant Bryophyllum. Crops such as cassava and sugar-cane can be grown from stem.

Methods of Asexual or Vegetative Propagation: There are several methods of asexual or vegetative propagation. These are:
1. Budding 4. Layering
2. Grafting 5. Marcotting
3. Cutting 6. Others.








Budding: This is the bringing together of the bud and stock. The bud is taken from a tree already producing or matured. This forms the bud stick or slip. The stock is a young plant of about a vear old.

During budding, a T-shaped cut or inverted T-shaped is made at about 45 cm from the ground on the stem of the stock plant. The cut shape is slightly raised to expose the cambium. The bud is carefully slipped into the raised bark and pressed firmly to ensure that the cambia of both bud and stock unite together.

It is tied with plastic material, or any device to hold it in place. This should be done quickly to prevent the bud from drying. Air and water should be prevented from the cut until the bud lias taken' or heal together with the stock. This wtll show when the bud remains green. The bud then shoots after some days. When it becomes well established, the part of the stock above the bud should be cut-off. The cut surface should b'e to avoid fungal or bacterial infection. It is commonly used in citrus.

1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE

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