USES OF FISH PRODUCTS





Use of Fish and Fish Products

Food Fish is eaten by man as part of his diet and is a good source of protein.
1.

Source of income

Fishes are sold for money and this provides a major source of income to fish farmers ad fish traders
2.

Fish watching

Man derive great pleasure from watching fish in private and public ponds, television screen and movies.

3.

documentary and film making



4.

Scientific study

Fish are used for scientific experiments and researches to increase knowledge


5.

Recreation

Sport fishing as a recreation man has played important role in the social lives of people who are engage in it. In other words, it has contributed to their happiness.


6.

Improvement of human health

Some species of tilapia and top minnows have been used to control malaria in the tropics since they prey in mosquitoes.










By-products of fishes

Some by-products of fish are useful to man. Examples include:

(a)

Fish meal:

This is obtained by grinding dried parts of fish. It is in animal protein source, especially in poultry feeds.

(b)

Fish oil:

Oil can be extracted from fish and used by man. There are two kinds of fish oil.

The one that is Extracted from the fishes themselves which is used in making paints, enamels, vanishes, candles, and soap;

and the one which is extracted from fish liver, usually from the cod fish (stock fish) known as cod liver oil.

This contains a lot of vitamins and is used as medicine, especially for babies.


(c)

Fish manure:

The discarded parts of fish as well as those fishes that have gone bad are heaped to decompose and are used as manure for growing crops.


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HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS




(d) Fish skins: The skins from fishes especially sharks, are used as leather for bags, shoes and other leather works.

fishing implements and uses



fishing instruments

there are so types of fishing gadgets but we shall be examining just a few of them.

Use of nets:

Nets are made of nylon and are used for fishing both in large and small bodies of water.

Net fishing is very efficient because many fishes can be caught at a time with a net.

There are different forms of net used for fishing.

These are:

(i) The cast or throw nets

(ii) The gill nets

(iii) The lift nets









(iv) The hand net or scoop net.

(b)

Use of hooks:

A hook is made of metal rod which is curved at the tip. Fishing hooks are of two kinds:

(i) The pole and line hook: This consists of a hook to which a twine is tied, which in turn, is tied to a long pole or stick.
A weight or float (could be a small stone or metal nut) is tied to the rope to enable the hook go down the water.

Fish is attracted to the hook by a bait (e.g. earth worm) attached to it.
an article on tapeworm here
When a fish attempts to eat the bait, its mouth is hung to the hook and the fisher quickly throws out the honk from the water to remove the fish.
read about fish products here
The method is time and labour consuming. Only one fish can be caught with this method it a time.

A Pole and Line Hook.


(ii) Long line hook: This consists of several hooks tied to a long line. The whole line is then tied across the course of the stream.


Baits are attached to each hook. This can be left for a long time, while checking to see if any of the hooks has caught a fish as well as to replace the baits. Many fishes can be caught at a time with this method. DIAGRAM Figure 3.9.12: Long Line Hook.

(c)
Use of baskets
Baskets are mainly used in fish pond. They are placed through the water to catch the fishes in it. Baskets are used in periodic periodic harvesting by selecting only large fishes from tin- entire catch and throwing back the under-sized ones into smaller containers.
Many fishes can be caught with baskets at a time.

(d)
Use of fish traps:
These are woven materials usually with canes, rid, ropes or wires.
They are designed in different shapes and sizes. When placed in water, fishes are attracted into them by baits placed inside.
When the fishes enter, they cannot come out. Hand net Cast net Drag net Fishing trap










Fishing nets and trap.


(e)
Use of spear or harpoon
This is used for large fishes like the shark. It is not however a very common method these days.

(f)
Drainage:
This is common in ponds or shallow streams which can be blocked to drain away water. The fishes are then easily. It is used for total harvesting in ponds.

(g)
Use of fishing trawlers
, boats or canoes: These are means of transportation in water.
They enable the fishermen to go into the water from which they can cast nets or set out hooks to catch fishes

read about aquaculture here
1.
Bad Fishing Methods


The following are considered bad "methods of fishing and should not be used:

1.
Use of poisons, or chemicals such as gamahalin 20

2.
Use of explosives such dynamites

3.
Electric stunning
that is, passing electric current into the water to stun or electrocute the fishes before they are picked.

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HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.


48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS


126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION






you can read my other article on modern system and techniques in fishing here

METHODS OF FISH PRESERVATION


Processing and Preservation of Fishes

The following are ways of processing and preserving fishes:
(a)

Smoking:

Fishes are smoked by putting them over a fire and covering them on top.
read about simple farm tools and implements
(b)

Drying:


This can be done by using fire or sun. Drying helps to reduce the water content in the fish and it can preserve the fish for a very long time.

(c)

Canning:


Fishes are processed and canned for export. This method .provides a long lasting means of fish preservation.
Examples of canned fishes are sardine, Geisha, Queen of the Coast.

(d)

Salting:

Fish can be preserved by.rubbing salt on the body. It keeps the fish for a short time unless it is followed in drying.









(e)

Chilling or freezing:


Fish can be preserved in fridges, deep freezers and cold rooms.
This method helps to keep fishes for a long time provided there is constant power supply.

(f)

Icing:


This is done by putting blocks of ice round fishes usually in cooters. The fishes can be transported with this method and can last so long as the ice remains.

other methods include steaming, cooking, frying and roasting.



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HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT

60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING

80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION







87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS

FARMING AS A CAREER IN AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE




FARMING AS A CAREER

Advantages of choosing farming as a career

Many people often think that agriculture means farming.

This is not entirely true.
As it has been seen in the preceding discussions, agriculture is academic, it is a business and it is a vocation or an occupation.

Farming comes under vocation or occupation in agriculture

Agriculture is mainly concerned with the cultivation of crops and the rearing of animals on the farm.

Farming therefore is an important component or sub-sector of agriculture because it is the source of food for mankind.


other aspects of agriculture are geared towards improving farming and hence increasing available food for human consumption.

Therefore, agriculture cam toe regarded as the mother of all professions, occupations or businesses. If agriculture flourishes, every other aspect of human endeavor will flourish, but if the land is allowed to lie fallow, every other thing is at a stand still.










The following are some benefits that are derived from farming activities

:

1.

Provision of Food

Farming provides the food we eat. A good farmer and his family are well fed. They are never hungry. They have access to varieties of food and usually in. their natural forms. This makes farmers and their families healthier and stronger than the non-farmers.

2.

Job Opportunity

Farming provides jobs for farmers and their families: In farming communities, no one is unemployed.

3

Income

Through farming, farmers get money which they use for other purposes, like provision of shelter, children's education, health care, etc. Farmers arc rich because they spend less money on food since they produce most of the food they eat by themselves.

4.

Self-Satisfaction

There is joy and satisfaction in seeing and utilizing what one" produces. The psychological satisfaction a farmer has during harvest time cannot be equaled.

5.

Source of Satisfaction

Farming activities afford farmers sources of exercising themselves. The farmer can never be idle any time of the year. He uses his brain as well as his hands often. This helps him to overcome emotional stress and build good body physique. Farmers fall sick less often, they are not hypertensive or obesed. They live longer than other average non-farmers.


6.

Contribution to National Development

The farmer is the key person in the life and economy of any country. Through the provision of food which sustains life, raw materials for industries and foreign exchange earnings, the farmer helps to build the nation and save it from hunger and diseases. you can read the importance of agriculture here

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Agricultural biology topics







HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION

126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

STUDY QUESTION

1. (a) List five different courses in Agriculture which one can study in the university. (a) What possible jobs would one engage in after completing each course listed

2. State four benefits that could be derived from choosing farming as a career
3. List five possible vocations one could engage in after studying agriculture. 4. Write short notes on the following:
Agricultural education
Agricultural extension
Agricultural economics
Agricultural engineering


summed up as importance of agriculture

ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION


ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION

The practice where by semen obtained from a male animal or organism may be preserved and transported over long distances and Finally deposited The genital tract of the female is described
as artificial insemination

The collection is done by stimulating the male with the aid of an artificial vagina.

Alternatively, an electro-ejaculator that uses mild shocking system could be used to induce or stimulate ejaculations

Artificial insemination makes it possible for
a single male to be able to service a large number of females

It permits a widespread of superior quality males for genetic improvement, read the Mendelian law of genetics, selection and breeding here

It offers a reduction in the risks of infectious and venereal diseases.

It is a very cheap means of reducing the herd of male animals

It mak3s it possible to test the performance the offspring of an individual animal

It makes good the continued use of sperm from a particular male even after the might have died.

It is an economical means of upgrading the variety of indigenous stock with improved breeds.

Worthy of note is that the difficulty in detecting heat period in Animals could also affect the success of artificial insemination.

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HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE

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FISHERY AND IMPORTANCE OF FISH FARMING

Importance of fish farming

Fish farming is important to man in the following ways
1. It is a source offish for food. Fish is a good source of protein in human diets.
2. It makes good use of the land that would have otherwise .Milable for arable farming.
3. It serves as a source of employment for fish farmers,
4. It reduces the pressure of fishing in natural waters e.g. rivers, and lakes.
5. It serves as a source of income to fish farmers and traders.
6. Fish farming can lead to the improvement of natural fish stocks Likes, rivers etc. since the young ones can be raised in It heries and used for restocking, trips in the production of sports fish, ii Fish can be produced for use in industrial fishing.
EXCLUSIVE INDUSTRIAL USES OF FISH, READ HERE

Classification of Fishes

Fishes can be classified according to their:






(a) Habitat
(b) Morphology

NEED A GREAT BUSINESS IDEA ON FISH FARMING? FOLLOW HERE
1. According to Habitat.. read more here
Habitat refers to the living environment of an organism. Fishes water. There are three kinds of water habitat HI which fishes are fresh water, salt water and estuarine habitats.
(a) Fresh water habitat: This refers to water which contains no salt. Such water is found in springs, rivers, ponds, lakes, etc.
Fishes that are found in fresh water habitat are called fresh water fishes .read more on fresh water fishes here Examples include electric fish, moon fish, cat fish as clarias and heterobranchus longifilis, gymnarchus niloticus, and tilapia spp.


DIAGRAM
Figure 3.9.2: Tilapia galilaeus (St. Peter's Fish).

(b) Salt water or marine habitat: this refers to water body that has salt taste. Its salt content is about 3% per volume of water. Such water can be found in seas and ocean. Fishes found in salt water or marine habitat are called salt water or marine fishes. Examples include shark, mackerels, herring, sardine, cod (stock fish)

(c) Estuarine habitat: this refers to water found in estuarine where rivers flow into the seas or ocean. Examples is the Niger Delta are of Nigeria. That salt content of this habitat is in between the content of fresh water habitat and marine habitat.
Fishes may not permanently line in this kind of habitat as some do migrate from fresh water or from salt water into the estuaries and go back thereafter. An example of such fishes is mudfish.

According to morphology
This has to do with the form or structure of the fish. There are two categories in this class
(a) Nature of bone: Fishes can be classified according to the nature of bobe
(i) Bony fishes; These posses bony skeletons or hard bones. Examples include Tilapia, mudfish, catfish.
(ii) Cartilaginous fishes: These possess solid bones or what is called cartilage (Biscuit bone). Examples include shark; dogfish.


(b) Nature of body covering: Based on this, fishes can be classified into:
(i) Scaly fishes: These have their body, parts of their head and tail covered by scales which overlap, pointing towards the tail end of the fish. Example is the tilapia galilaeus (See figure 3.9.2).
(ii) Non-scaly fishes- These have no scales. They have smooth shiny skins. Examples are dogfish, mudfish, mackerels.

Other Aquatic Food Organisms
There are many other organisms that live in water







2. Molluscs such as river snail, periwinkle, oyster. They usually covered with shell and these shells serve some useful purposes to man, in addition to their meat.

3. Reptiles such as river snake, turtles, etc.
4. Mammals such as Hippopotamus

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HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL





79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

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Pathogenic diseases and transmission in farm animals


Pathogenic diseases:

These are caused by living organisms, These organisms include:
(i) Viruses
(ii) Bacteria
(iii) Fungi
(iv) Protozoan
(v) Larger organisms such as ticks, lice, worms, etc.


(b) Nutritional deficiency diseases such as rickets, ketosis.
(c) Diseases caused by inanimate objects such as environment nnd chemicals.

How does disease get to animals?

This is through:
1. Droppings or faeces of infected animals
2. Contaminated feeds and water
3. Contact with infected animals
4. Air
5. Insects, feed or water troughs, etc.






How to identify a diseased/sick animal

The following signs help in identifying a sick or diseased animal:
1. Loss of appetite
2. Persistent coughing
3. Fever (high temperature)
4. Watery, bad smelling or blood stained faeces.
5. Inability to rise and sluggishness.
6. Rough skin/coat, and drooping of tail or wings in case of birds,
7. Discharges from the eyes, nostrils, mouth, or anus.
8. Emaciation
9. Death


11.5

Summary of some common diseases of farm animals

The table below shows a summary of common diseases of animals:

Name of disease, Causative agent, Animal affected Symptoms, Mode of transmission, Effects, Control measures.

Foot and Mouth disease Virus Cattle Sores on feet, lips, tongue, cheek, salivation and foaming, inability to eat, weakness, lameness and death Transmitted by contact with infected animals or bv contact with contaminated feed materials from diseased herd.
Serious loss of animals through death.
Vaccination. Isolation ol diseased animals from healthy ones. Bury dead animals deeply. No treatment.

Rinder pest Virus Cattle High fever, blood stained shooting diarrhea. Difficult breathing and animals grind their teeth. Death rate is very high Through contamination with infected animal and eating contaminated food.
Death of animals.


Vaccination. Isolation of diseased animals. Kill and bury deeply infected animals. No treatment.

Newcastle disease (NCD) Virus Poultry Drop in feed intake, severe respiratory difficulties. Neck twisting and paralysis of the legs or wings. Laying of soft shelled eggs, water greenish diarrhea Through contact with faeces of infected birds, nasal and oral discharge from diseased birds and materials, contaminated by the virus.

Low egg production in layers. High mortality rate resulting in loss of birds.
Routine vaccination using freeze dried NCD vaccine given either intra-occular in young birds or inter-muscular in older birds. Good sanitary practices. No treatment.


BRUCELLOSIS (Contagious abortion)
Bacteria (Brucclla Abortus)
Cattle Irritation and catarrhal conditions in the womb of the pregnant cow. This results in the expulsion of foetues at about the 5th – 7th month of pregnancy as still birth Contacted when animals feed on contaminated pasture or other feed. Also servicing by infected bull and flies that have rested on the foetus of affected animals can transmit the disease Loss of foetus.

Reduction in the level of an animal’s production. The disease is zoonotic. That is can affect human beings. Vaccination.

Report any occurrence to the nearest veterinary officer.


ANTHRAX Bacteria (Baccilus anthracis) Cattle, sheep and goat In acute cases, the first sign is death. In less acute cases, there may be blood stained discharges from nostrils and mouth and swelling in the neck, genitals and lower abdomen. Through contact with infected animals and their products Loss of animals. Note: Do not open carcass of infected animals as the disease is also zoonotic. Vaccination. Burn or bury deeply any diseased animal. Disinfect properly after disease has occurred in a herd.

TUBERCULOSIS Bacteria (Mycobacterium spp) Occurs in most animals Infects lungs resulting in persistent cough, emaciation, loss of condition and finally death Contact with infect animal. It can also be through contact with discharge or sputum from cough.

Milk infected with the bacterium can equally transmit the disease. Lowers productivity and also results in loss of animals.

The disease is also zoonotic. No treatment.

Kill and bury deeply infected animal.
Routine checking by a veterinary doctor is important. Good hygien


Vaccination.
FOWL THYPHOID Bacteria Poultry Birds become dull and pass out yellowish diarrhea Contact with the dropping from infected bird or contaminated food, water or soil. Loss of birds Proper sanitation. Vaccination. Contact a veterinary doctor
CHRONIC RESPIRATORY DISEASE (CRD) Not yet identified. Could be bacteria or virus Poultry Nasal discharges rattling sopund during breathing, loss in weight. Through contact with infected birds and their nasal discharges Lowers production in birds and also results in loss of birds Good sanitation. Avoid use of saw dust as litter. Use antibiotics. Consult a veterinary doctor or officer
RINGWORM (Favus in Poultry) Fungus All animals and birds Lesions or scab on the skin of the animals, usually irritating and causing the falling off of the animal’s hair. In Poultry, the disease is common on the combs and wattles producing grey patches The fungus is usually spread from infected to healthy one through contact Results in loss of hair in animals resulting in low market value due to poor appearance of the animal Maintain clean conditions. Isolate infected animals and treat with iodine as surface dressing
TRYPANOSOMIASIS Protozoa (Trypanosoma spp) Mainly Cattle. Also attacks goat and sheep Intermittent fever. General weakness. Hair on tail often pull out. General loss of condition and finally death. Transmitted by tse-tse flies (Glossina spp) by biting infected animal, sucking the protozoan and injecting it into the blood of a healthy animal. Drop in level of animal production death Use drugs e.g. trypanosomide. Rear resistant breeds. Also use chemical to kill the flies and clear bushes around animals pens to ward off the flies


COCCIDIOSIS Protozoa (Coccidia Parasite-E imeria spp) Poultry Blood stained watery droppings. Ruffled feathers. Loss of weight due to fall in feed intake. Death of birds. By taking contaminated food and water from the droppings of infected birds Drop in egg production. Death of birds Maintain high hygienic conditions. Disinfect poultry house before stokcing. Use cocci-diostats e.g. Sulphamethazone added to drinking water.
SCABIES Fungus Cattle, Goat, Sheep It causes very itchy little lumps that can appear all over the body of the animal. It is very common on the udder of femal animals and the genitals of the male. Scratching can cause infection, producing sores with pus and some times swollen lymph nodes or fever. Spreads by touching the affected parts of animals or by beddings. Causes loss of animal hair and destruction of skin. Could affect level of production. Maintain high level of cleanliness in the animal houses. Dip animals in solution lindane.








Other diseases include

(a) Rabbit coccidiosis: This is caused by a protozoan. The signs of the disease include blood-stained faeces and diarrhoea.
Prevention is by separating young animals from old ones. Diseased rabbits should also be separated. Rabbit hutches should be cleared always. Treatment is by the use of sulphonamide drugs.
(b) Swine fever or hog cholera: This affects pig and is caused by virus. The virus is usually present in faeces and blood. The signs are shivering, loss of appetite, vomitting, fever and diarrhoea.

11.6 Animal Parasites
A parasite is a living organism which establishes itself on or in another organism called host, from which it gets its food. parasites are found inside the host. These are called Endo-Parasites, e.g. Tape Worm, Round Worm, Liver Fluke and Trypanosome. Those found on the body of animals are called Ecto-Parasiles. e.g. Ticks, Lice, Mites.

Some parasites of farm animals include:
1. Ectoparasites
(a) Ticks: These are eight-legged organisms belonging to the group arachnida. They feed on farm animals by sucking blood from them. Animals mostly affected by ticks are cattle, sheep, goats and dogs.

The effects of ticks on the farm animals include
(a) Anaemia
(b) Irritation leading to sore formation on the skin
(c) Destruction of skin
(d) Transmission of diseases such as red water, etc.

Ticks can be controlled by:
(i) using clean environment for animals
(ii) practicing rotational grazing
(iii) spraying pens and animals with chemicals such as malathion.

(b) Lice: These are small wingless insects which live under the hair of animals or feathers of birds. They also feed by sucking blood from animals, just like the ticks. Lice cause irritation which results in sore formation and creates avenues for disease agents. They also cause anaemia. Lice can be controlled by:
(i) maintaining clean environment
(ii) avoiding over crowding
(iii) dipping animals in water containing chemicals such, as lindane and DOT.

2. Endoparasites
(a) Roundworms: These are elongated, cylindrical, smooth-skinned, whitish worms, which are pointed at both ends. They are common parasites of cattle, pigs, and poultry. Roundworm is found in the animal's intestine where it gets its food. This parasite deprives the animals of their food thereby reducing their weight. It can also result in slow growth and loss of appetite. The parasite could cause stomach disorders such as diarrhoea, vomitting, etc. Control is by:
(i) maintaining good hygienic conditions in animal environment, and
(ii) use of dewormers such as piperazine.
(b) Liver fluke: This is a short flat worm which attacks mainly cattle and sjheep". It sucks blood from the animal thereby causing emaciation and reducing productivity. It may lead to the death of the animal.

Control can be achieved by:
(i) the use of appropriate drugs
(ii) supplying clean drinking water, and
(iii) destruction of snails on grazing land because they helo to harbor the pest


(i) Tapeworm: This is a long segmented flat worm which looks like the tape of the tailor. The parasite mainly affects pigs and cattle.
The tapeworm possesses hooks and suckers in the scolex and these help to attach the parasite to its host while the suckers assist in feeding. In animals, the presence of tapeworm in tissues or organs could cause some physiological disorders, such as anaemia, abdominal pains, weakness and loss of weight.

The parasite can be controlled by:
(i) maintaining good hygienic conditions (ii) use of drugs
(iii) proper cooking of meat before eating by man which serves as primary host.

General methods of controlling animal diseases
Diseases can be:
(i) Prevented, and






(ii) Controlled.

(a) Prevention: This involves the following practices:

(a) Good sanitation/hygiene
(b) Good feeding .
(c) Vaccination
(d) Quarantine
(e) Breeding
(f) Separation
(g) Rotational grazing.

(b) Control: This involves;
(i) Treatments The use of drugs which may be in the form ot powder, liquid or solids, given in ` water, feeds or as injections.
(ii) Destruction of diseased animals. They arc either burnt or buried.

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You can read some of most interesting topics below

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

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