pest and diseases of yam and their control method

Pests and diseases of yam and their control methods

Pests of Yam
Yam tuber pests makes holes on tubers, resulting in low tuber marketability.

How to Control the spread of yam pest: 
Apply insecticide like BHC at planting to avoid disease spreading around
Dust yam sett with aldrin dust
Practice crop rotation to control disease spread

Yam shoot beetles: 
Young larvae cluster on vine tips. Adult feed on yam leaves and cause vine to die or defoliate. 

How to Control spread of yam diseases
Spray yam plant with insecticides e.g. BHC
By hand picking
Dust with chemical like Agrocide 3 powder.

How to control rodent pests of yam
Rodents: Rats and rabbits eat up tubers
Control: Set traps to catch the rodents.
How to control Diseases of Yam like yam mosaic disease and yam rot disease

Yam mosaic disease: 
It is caused by a virus which is transmitted by a piercing and sucking insect. 

Symptoms: Symptoms include a mosaic pattern and chlorosis of leaves. It cause stunting of affected plant.

Control of yam diseases
Grow resistant varieties
Spray with insecticides

 Causes of Yam rot:
 It is caused by bacteria which are spread by splashes of rain and insects.
Symptoms: Liquid oozes out from infected tuber. White – brown liquid emits with pungent odour.

Destroy all affected yam
Apply aldrin dust
Practice crop rotation

how to control the spread of yam leaf spot disease
Yam leaf spot:
It is caused by a fungus (Cercospora spp) which is spread by wind.
  Symptoms of yam leaf spot:
 Symptoms include dead spots on the leaves 

How to Control the spread of yam leaf spot:
 Spray yam plants with appropriate fungicides. 

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cultural practices in the propagation of yam

<h1>Cultural practices in the propagation of yam</h1>
Here are a list of cultural practices that can be carried out during yam propagation
Mulching as a cultural practice in yam propagation:
This is the covering of the heaps or ridges with dry leaves to reduce soil temperature, conserve soil moisture and prevent rotting of yam setts.

Regular weeding is a cultural practice in propagation of yam :
 This should be done regularly to control pest and reduce weed competition with crops for nutrients.

Application of fertilizer as a cultural practice in yam propagation:
Apply 200kg (four bags) of N.P.K. fertilizer per hectare three months after planting, by ring method.

Staking as a cultural practice in yam propagation of yam:
The yam should be staked with strong sticks or bamboo. It ensures adequate exposure of the leaf surface to sunlight and increases yield.

Training of vine through staking as a cultural practice in yam propagation:
 This is done regularly after staking to ensure even spreading and neatness of the vines to receive sunlight.

<h2>Maturity period of yam after planting:</h2>
Yam matures in 8-12 months after planting.

Harvesting process of yam
 Dig the soil gently with cutlass to remove tuber from the soil. Processing: Yam tubers are processed into yam powder or flour or consumed locally. Storage: Yam tubers are stored in barns. It can also be stored in form of yam flour and in dried peeled yam tubers.

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cultural practices in the production of rice

Cultural Practices in rice production

Supplying and thinning of rice
These can be done where applicable.

Fertilizer application in rice farm:

 Apply 150kg or three bags of N.P.K fertilizer per hectare at planting by broadcasting.

Weeding rice farm:
Weeding is done to ensure rapid growth of rice pests and diseases: these should be prevented or controlled by spraying with appropriate chemicals.

Maturity period of rice:
Rice matures in four to seven months depending on variety.

Harvesting of rice
 Red heads of rice are cut off with knife, sickle or combined harvester.

How to process rice
Sun drying: This is done immediately after harvesting for three to four days.
Threshing: This is the separation of the grains from the stalk by either beating with stick, treading with feet or by the use of mechanical threshers.

Winnowing: After threshing, the chaff or unwanted dust and remains of stalks are removed by winnowing. This is a fanning operation usually done by throwing the grains in the air to blow away the dust and other residues.
After winnowing, the grains of rice remain enclosed by the husk to form what is called paddy.

Parboiling: This process is used to reduce the breakage of grains during pounding. It also brings some vitamins to the outer layer of the grains and it also reduces the labour required to remove the husks. The paddy rice is heated by putting it into boiling water for about 12-15 hours. The rice swells and the husks are forced apart. The parboiled rice is now sun-dried.

Hulling: This is the removal of the husks from the grains. The grains are pounded gently to remove the expanded husks. The husks are then separated from the rice by winnowing

(f)     Polishing: In some cases, the paddy rice is threshed by machine, and polished. Polishing involves the use of specially designed machines to remove the husks and other layers covering the grains. The portion removed is known as rice bran which is very rich in protein and vitamins. Consumption of polished rice may cause vitamin deficiency disease called beri-beri due to the removal of the bran rich in protein.

How to Store harvested rice
Rice can be stored as paddy rice or in processed form in silos or jute bags.

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cultural practices in maize crop production

Cultural Practices in maize production
Supplying: Replanting of seeds to replace those seeds that did not germinate.
Thinning: Removal of weak plants from a stand to give rise to one or two vigorous crop plants.
Fertilizer Application: Apply N.P.K 15:15:15 (200kg/Ha) (four bags) at planting. Also apply 250 kg (five bags) or 150kg (three bags) of urea per hectare, five to six weeks after planting. Farmyard manure, poultry droppings/organic manure can also be applied as side dressing or by broadcast method.
Weeding: this is done three to four times at regular intervals. Weeding can be done manually by hoeing, cutlassing, etc: or chemically with the use of specified herbicides with the use of specified herbicides; or mechanically with machine.
Control of pests and disease: This is done anytime at regular intervals or prevent it completely, using appropriate chemicals.

Maturity period of maize
This takes up to two to three months (60-90 days) for wet maize, three to four months (90 - 120 days) for dry maize after planting.

Harvesting time maize:
Maize can be harvested by hand, sickle or corn picker by combined harvester. Maize matures 90-120 days after planting. It is harvested either green or dry. It is mostly harvested green for consumption when the silk dries and turns brown. Maize is harvested by plucking the cobs on a small scale and by machine.

Processing and uses of maize
Maize can be eaten either boiled or roasted or processed into corn flour, corn flakes or used for corn meal, beer, baking flour and livestock feed.

Storage methods of maize
Dried maize cobs can be stored either in cribs, rhumbus or in a fireplace, on a small scale or in silos, on a large scale.

classification of crops based on their uses

In this classification, crops are divided into the following categories:
Cereal crops: These crops belong f to the grass family and they provide carbohydrate, e.g, maize, rice, millet, guinea corn, wheat, barley and oats.

(2)     Pulses (grain legumes): These crops are rich sources of protein, e.g. cowpea, soya beans,
groundnut, lima bean and pigeon pea.

(3)     Roots and tuber crops: These crops produce tubers under the ground and they provide
carbohydrates, e.g., cassava, yam, cocoyam, sweet potato, beets and carrot.

(4)     Vegetable crops: These crops provide vitamins and minerals e.g amaranthus, onion, okra,
cauliflower, spinach, bitter leaf and talinum.

(5)     Fruit crops: These also provide vitamins and minerals, e.g., orange, banana, pineapple, mango, pawpaw and cashew.

(6)     Beverage crops: These provide food drinks when processed, e. cocoa, coffee and tea, kola nut.

(7)    Spices: These also provide vitamins and minerals. They also add flavour to our stew or soup, e.g. ginger, pepper and onion.

(8)    Oil crops: These are crops which can provide oil when processed both for domestic and industrial uses, e.g., oil palm, groundnut, melon, coconut, soya bean, cotton.

(9)    Fibre crops: These are crops used for making clothing materials, ropes and bags, e.g. cotton, sisal, hemp, kenaf and hibiscus.

(10)    Latex crops: These are crops which provide some white sticky liquid or latex used in plastic industries, e.g., rubber.

advantages and disadvantages of land use decree

Advantages and Disadvantages of Land Use Decree

Advantages of Land Use Decree
It has made land acquisition relatively easier for new entrants into agriculture.
It has reduced the number and frequency of court cases over land ownership
It has facilitated borrowing of capital for further investment in agriculture
It prevents fragmentation of land since land acquired under the decree cannot be shared into bits
There is reduction in boundary disputes since survey of acquired land is mandatory for occupancy right to be granted.

Disadvantages of Land Use Decree
It leads to escalation in the cost of land survey
Land acquisition process has become bureaucratic and often meets with bottlenecks
It has impoverished communities whose main assets were their lands.
It has encouraged dishonesty through illegal sale and backdating of ownership or title deeds after 1978
Land is not necessarily allocated to every potential agricultural developer
Land may be acquired by influential people for non-agricultural purpose
Before the land use decree, customary laws governed the right of individuals on land, regulating alienation of land, inheritance and succession, freehold and leasehold, and co-ownership of land.

(i)     Security of Tenure: It is to safeguard farmers against unreasonable eviction.
(ii)     Ensuring Proper Land Use: This is ensure that agricultural land is not unnecessarily diverted to non-agricultural purposes.
(iii)     Government Projects: This is to make large tracts of land available for government-sponsored development of large scale farms or resettlement schemes.
(iv)     Land Improvement: It is to carry out large scale improvement such as irrigation, drainage and soil water conservation in order to ensure a reasonable standard of efficient production for a long time. Such requirement should be obligatory, irrespective of land tenure system.
(v)     Influence on Size of Holdings: It is to prevent land fragmentation and encourage the consolidation of small holdings into large units.
(vi)     Freedom of Enterprise: This is to encourage freedom of farming in cases where there are regulations or traditional views that militate against such freedom.
(vii)     Control of Production: It is to encourage the production of certain produce and curtail the production of others through the control of land use.
(viii)     Land Litigation: This is to reduce number of land litigation among the citizens.

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