the characteristics of land tenure system by rent




Land Tenure by Rent and its characteristics
In this system, the farmer rents the land for use over a short period of time during which certain amount of money is paid as rent by its use. At the end of the period, the agreement ma he reviewed, if the landlord so desires.


Advantages of Land Tenure by Rent and its characteristics
(i) It makes use of available land r agricultural purposes.
(ii) The land is efficiently used and maintained for maximum production within the short period.



Disadvantages or Problems of Land Tenure by Rent and its characteristics
(i) The land cannot be used for securing loan.
(ii) It affects long term planning.
(iii) There is limitation in the development of such land.

Land Tenure by Purchase or Free hold Features
In this type of land tenure, a farmer buys a piece of land for agricultural purpose. He pays certain amount of money to the landlord and the land becomes his personal property.
It gives the owner compete freedom on the land. He may sell the land, leave it fallow, farm on the land or rent it out. The owner can use the land as collateral for agricultural loan.


Advantages of Land Tenure by Purchase
The farmer can use the land to secure loan from bank
Perennial crops can be grown
Proper planning in the development of such land can be done


Disadvantages or Problems of Land Tenure by Purchase
The land may be too expensive to purchase
The actual owner may be difficult to establish
The farmer may not have sufficient money to buy the exact size of the land he needs



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land tenure by free gift or through pledge




Land Tenure by Free Gift or Pledge
This is the type of land tenure system in which land is donated or given out of goodwill or free of charge in appreciation or as an incentive. The new owner does not need to pay any money.



Advantages of Land Tenure by Free Gift or Pledge
It ensures the maximum use of the land for increased production.
Plantation agriculture can be practiced.
It can be used as security to obtain loan



Disadvantages or Problems of Land Tenure by Free Gift or Pledge
The ownership of the land can be challenged at any time
There may be disagreement over such gift family members



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diseases of rice and pest of rice and their control method




Pest and diseases of rice and how to control disease and pest of rice in the store and farm


Pests of Rice
Birds: These pests feed on the grains, leading to low yield of rice
Control of bird pests of rice pest
Employ children to scare the bird your rice farm
Use scare crows in rice farm
Practice early harvesting of rice

Rodents pests of rice:
Cane rat and grass cutter cut the plants and seedlings on the field leading to great loss.

How to Control animal pests from attacking rice farm

Set or use traps
Fence the farm round
Rice Weevils: this is a store pest Adults and larvae bore into the grains and reduce them to powder.


How to Control diseases of rice

Fumigate store with phostox in tablets

Diseases of Rice

Rice Smut: It is caused by a fungus (Tilleria horrid) which is spread by wind. The grains turn into a mass of black spores

Control of rice smut disease

Use resistant varieties
Use recommended fungicides to spray the crops


Rice blight disease:
It is caused by a fungus (Piricularia oryzae) spread through the soil. Longitudinal red or yellow spots develop on the leaves, leading to poor yield.


Control of rice blight disease:

Avoid the use of heavy nitrogen fertilizer:
Use resistant varieties in other to cub rice blight disease
Use clean seeds anytime you are planting rice


Brown leaf spot of rice:

It is caused by a fungus. It causes small narrow brown spots which appear on the leaves.

How to Control rice brown leaf disease
Plant resistant varieties
Uproot and burn infected plants

pest and diseases of yam and their control method


Pests and diseases of yam and their control methods

Pests of Yam

Yam tuber pests makes holes on tubers, resulting in low tuber marketability.

How to Control the spread of yam pest:


Apply insecticide like BHC at planting to avoid disease spreading around
Dust yam sett with aldrin dust
Practice crop rotation to control disease spread
Yam shoot beetles: Young larvae cluster on vine tips. Adult feed on yam leaves and cause vine to die or defoliate.

How to Control spread of yam diseases

Spray yam plant with insecticides e.g. BHC
By hand picking
Dust with chemical like Agrocide 3 powder.


How to control rodent pests of yam
Rodents: Rats and rabbits eat up tubers
Control: Set traps to catch the rodents.

How to control Diseases of Yam like yam mosaic disease and yam rot disease

Yam mosaic disease: It is caused by a virus which is transmitted by a piercing and sucking insect.
Symptoms: Symptoms include a mosaic pattern and chlorosis of leaves. It cause stunting of affected plant.

Control of yam diseases
Grow resistant varieties
Spray with insecticides

Yam rot: It is caused by bacteria which are spread by splashes of rain and insects.
Symptoms: Liquid oozes out from infected tuber. White – brown liquid emits with pungent odour.

Destroy all affected yam
Apply aldrin dust
Practice crop rotation

how to control the spread of yam leaf spot disease

Yam leaf spot:
It is caused by a fungus (Cercospora spp) which is spread by wind.

Symptoms of yam leaf spot:
Symptoms include dead spots on the leaves
How to Control the spread of yam leaf spot:
Spray yam plants with appropriate fungicides.


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