HOW TO CULTIVATE YAM (DIOSCOREA SPP)



YAM (Dioscorea spp)

Yam belongs to the family Dioscoreacae. It is a root and tuber crop popularly grown in West Africa
and it is rich in carbohydrates.


Land Preparation of Yam

1. Preparation of the land or soil
If you have about one hectare of land, you will have to prepare the soil for planting the yam seeds. It is necessary to clear bushes and grasses before rainy season if there are any. The weeds would be allowed to dry up with the soil to form organic manure. The months of February and April are best to plant yams when the rainy season is just beginning.
Cutlass is used to clear the bush or vegetation and heaps, ridges or mounds are made with hoe. It can also be done by ploughing, harrowing and ridging mechanically.


Varieties Of Yam or Cultivers

Important varieties include:
(i) Dioscorea rotundata – white yam
(ii) Dioscorea alata – water yam
(iii) Dioscorea bulbifera – aerial yam
(iv) Dioscorea cayenesis – yellow yam
Dioscorea domentorum – bitter yam 1.
Dioscorea rotundata (white guinea yam - common in Nigeria),
Dioscorea alata (yellow yam - common in Nigeria)
Dioscorea bulbifera (aerial yam),
Dioscorea esculant (Chinese yam) and
Dioscorea dumetorum (trifoliate yam).








ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS

37. COCOA
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM

78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON








89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT

112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY

139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS


Climatic and soil requirements for Yam Cultivation :

Yam requires a temperature of 25C – 30C; rainfall of between 100cm – 180cm per annum: abundant sunshine and a well-drained sandy-loamy soil, rich in humus.

Method of propagation of propagation of yam and the propagation materials :

Yam is propagated by the following materials: yam setts, yam seeds or yam mini-setts.

Seed rate of yam:

one seed yam or sett per hole; three to five tones of seed yam per hectare is required.

how to Plant yam :

Open a hole on the heap. Place one yam sett inside with the cut surface turned upward and slantly place at an angle of 45 before covering it with soil. They cut yam sett should be dried under the sun and dusted with chemicals such as aldrin dust before planting. This prevents rottening and pest attack of the sett.








Yam Spacing:

Spacing is 90cm x 100cm, while yam mini-setts is 25cm x 100cm. sprouting occurs three to six weeks after planting.

Cultural practices in the propagation of yam

read details of cultural practices in agriculture here
(i) Mulching: This is the covering of the heaps or ridges with dry leaves to reduce soil temperature, conserve soil moisture and prevent rottening of yam setts.
(ii) Regular weeding: this should be done regularly to control pest and reduce weed competition with crops for nutrients.
(iii) Application of fertilizer: Apply 200kg (four bags) of N.P.K. fertilizer per hectare three months after planting, by ring method.
(iv) Staking: The yam should be staked with strong sticks or bamboo. It ensures adequate exposure of the leaf surface to sunlight and increases yield.
(vi) Training of vine: This is done regularly after staking to ensure even spreading and neatness of the vines to receive sunlight.

Period of Maturity period of Yam:

Yam matures in 8-12 months after planting.

Process of Yam Harvesting:

Dig the soil gently with cutlass to remove tuber from the soil. Processing: Yam tubers are processed into yam powder or flour or consumed locally.

Storage:
Yam tubers are stored in barns. It can also be stored in form of yam flour and in dried peeled yam tubers.
read types farm storage here

Pests of Yam

(1) Yam tuber b makes holes on tubers, resulting in low tuber marketability.
Control:
(i) Apply insecticide like BHC at planting
(ii) Dust yam sett with aldrin dust
(iii) Practice crop rotation
(2) Yam shoot beetles: Young larvae cluster on vine tips. Adult feed on yam leaves and cause vine to die or defoliate.
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS

18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON






90. BEAN BEETLE

107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY

How to Control pests of yam

(i) Spray yam plant with insecticides e.g. BHC
(ii) By hand picking
(iii) Dust with chemical like Agrocide 3 powder.

(13) Rodents: Rats and rabbits eat up tubers
Control: Set traps to catch the rodents.

Diseases of Yam

(1) Yam mosaic disease: It is caused by a virus which is transmitted by a piercing and sucking insect.
Symptoms: Symptoms include a mosaic pattern and chlorosis of leaves. It cause stunting of affected plant.

How to Control diseases of Yam

(i) Grow resistant varieties
(ii) Spray with insecticides


(2) Yam rot: It is caused by bacteria which are spread by splashes of rain and insects.
Symptoms: Liquid oozes out from infected tuber. White – brown liquid emits with punget odour.
Control:
(i) Destroy all affected yam
(ii) Apply aldrin dust
(iii) Practice crop rotation

BIOTIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION



BIOTIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

Biotic factors that affects agricultural production simply means the living or biological factors that affect the production or practice of agriculture. Seven of the most important factors are listed here for you
The biotic factor like disease, insects and nematodes and abiotic factor like drought waterlogging, heat, could and frost have a negative inpect on crop production I.e. the crop field decrease due to this factors.


1.

SOL ORGANISMS

i. These include bacteria, fungi, earthworm, rodents and termite.
ii. Some, like bacteria and fungi can cause diseases
iii. Some aid the aeration of soil, percolation and fertility
iv. Some, like the root nodule of plants can fix nutrients directly to plants and soil
v. Some open up wounds on plants or animals for other pathogen to enter
vi. Some reduce the quality or quantity of crops
vii. Some help in the decomposition of plant materials to form humus


2

PESTS

i. These include birds, insects, rodents and some mammals
ii. The reduce the quality and yield of crops and animals
iii. The reduce the quality of animal yield
iv. Some are vectors or carriers of diseases
v. They reduce the income of the farmers
vi. The cost of their control increases the cost of production






Biotic factors such as pests, insects and diseases reduce the crop production. A pest causes damage to our crops by feeding. Weeds also reduce crop productivity by competing with the main crop for nutrients and light. Similarly, abiotic factors such as temperature, wind, rain etc. affect the net crop production.




2.

PARASITES

I. they includes ticks, liver-flukes, tapeworm, dodder, mistletoe and lice
II. the transmit diseases
III. they reduce the quantity or yield of produce
IV. they also reduce quality of produce
V. they may cause death of plants or animals
VI. they reduce the production capacity of both plants and animals
VII. cost of control increases the cost of production
VIII. parasites may be external or internal i.e. endo-parasites or ecto-parasites

3.

DISEASES

i. They may be diseases caused by virus, bacteria, fungi, protozoa etc.
ii. They cause reduction in yield of plant and animals
iii. They can cause death of either plant or animals
iv. The cost of control increases the cost of production
v. They cause reduction in farmers income

4.

WEEDS

Competitive and complimentary nature among field crops when grown together
Competition between plants occurs when there is demand for nutrients, moisture and
sunlight particularly when they are in short supply or when plants are closely spaced
5
When different crops of cereals and legumes are grown together, mutual benefit results
in higher yield (synergistic effect)
i. Weeds compete with crops for space, water, nutrients and sunlight
ii. Some weed do harbor diseases and pests
iii. Weeds reduce the yield of crops
iv. Weeds cause poor growth of crops

5.

PREDATORS

i. These are birds, rodents and praying mantis. read animal pests of crop here
ii. Some of these predators are beneficial for agricultural production
iii. Some of these predators are used to control the spread of some harmful pests of crops and animals
iv. Some feed on farm animals, like a hawk feeding on chicks
Soil fauna like protozoa, nematode, snails, and insects help in organic matter
decomposition, while using organic matter for their living
Insects and nematodes cause damage to crop yield and considered as harmful
organisms.
Honey bees and wasps help in cross pollination and increases yield and considered as
beneficial organisms
Burrowing earthworm facilitates aeration and drainage of the soil as ingestion of
organic and mineral matter by earthworm results in constant mixing of these materials
in the soils.

6.

HUMAN ACTIVITIES

i. Human activities includes the influence of man on the production of plants and animals
ii. Man’s activities may lead to soil improvement
iii. There could be increase in yield if he practices crop rotation
iv. There could be increase in yield if he controls pests and diseases
v. There could be increase in yield if he weeds his farm properly
vi. Continuous cultivation, bush burning and inability to control erosion can lead to lower crop agricultural output

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HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE

42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING AND CLEARING
121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING FARM YARD MANURE

125. COMPOST





126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE/a>
149.
PLOUGHS
142. FIELD MACHINES
157. PLANTERS
164. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

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the head pan as a simple Farm implement and its uses in the farm



what is a head pan and the uses of a head pan in the farm

The head Pan is a metal container with small circumference at the bottom but the larger one at the top. The head pan has two handles which are opposite to each other. This simple Farm tool is generally used in so many aspects of life in construction site in the farm road, construction in any other activity done in the farm, for carrying of load, the head pan is a multi-purpose farm implement.

uses of a head pan in the farm

The head pan as a multi-purpose implement of Farm tool used in the farm is used for the collection of harvested crops
A typical head Pan is used for transplanting seedlings from the nursery bed to the main site
This simple Farm tool called headPan is also used for carrying and mixing manure and fertilizers
Head pan is also used for carrying Farm inputs and outputs.


how to maintain a head pan so that it can last longer

The following are some of the simple ways to maintain a head pan to give it a longer lifespan
After use of the head pan in the farm to carry loads or other implement you should endeavour to wash it and clean it properly
Make sure that you paint or oil the pan before storage for a longer.
Generally the head pan should be stored in a cool and dry place to avoid rust
Generally as a way to preserve anything metal in nature it is advised that we should keep away metals from the rain, so after the use of the head pan and you want to store it please make sure it is not kept in a place where it is going to be receiving Direct rainfall.


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functions and the general uses of pickaxe or digger


functions of pick axe or digger

The pick axe or a digger as a simple Farm tool consist of a long wooden handle and a metal blade or head with double blades. One blade is shaped to form a short and rather narrow hoe while the other side of the head is shaped into a small narrow axe like Blade

Here is a little function of the uses of a pick axe digger
Th pick axe or digger is used for the removal of roots of trees and stamping of routes during pre-planting operation
The pick axe or bigger serves as a local tillage implement used for tilling of the soil
This simple Farm tool known as a digger is also used for making ridges
The digger pick axe is used for tilling soil or digging of holes of Farm building erection

how to maintain and store a pick axe or digger for longer usage

To prolong the effectiveness of the use of digger or pick axe then you must sharpen it regularly
Make sure you store the digger or pickaxe in a dry and cool place
Please avoid the storage of the pick Axe in a place that is termite infested
Keep the pick axe or digger away from rainfall or moisture
Above all of the storage methods to preserve the longer use of a pickaxe please paint grease, or oil the metal parts of a pick Axe regularly to avoid rust

These are some of the ways to make sure that the thick ass is usable for a longer period of time so if you have any further questions or details that you want to know concerning the use of pick us as a simple Farm tool please do endeavourl to reach me through the comment box below
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functions of pick axe or digger
The pick axe or a digger as a simple Farm tool consist of a long wooden handle and a metal blade or head with double blades. One blade is shaped to form a short and rather narrow hoe while the other side of the head is shaped into a small narrow axe like Blade

Here is a little function of the uses of a pick axe digger
Th pick axe or digger is used for the removal of roots of trees and stamping of routes during pre-planting operation
The pick axe or bigger serves as a local tillage implement used for tilling of the soil
This simple Farm tool known as a digger is also used for making ridges
The digger pick axe is used for tilling soil or digging of holes of Farm building erection

how to maintain and store a pick axe or digger for longer usage

To prolong the effectiveness of the use of digger or pick axe then you must sharpen it regularly
Make sure you store the digger or pickaxe in a dry and cool place
Please avoid the storage of the pick Axe in a place that is termite infested
Keep the pick axe or digger away from rainfall or moisture
Above all of the storage methods to preserve the longer use of a pickaxe please paint grease, or oil the metal parts of a pick Axe regularly to avoid rust

These are some of the ways to make sure that the thick ass is usable for a longer period of time so if you have any further questions or details that you want to know concerning the use of pick us as a simple Farm tool please do endeavourl to reach me through the comment box below
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functions and uses of cutlass


Uses of a cutlass as a simple Farm tool
The cutlass is the most commonly used simple Farm tools in Africa
Most farmers that don't have money to buy mechanized Farm tools simple Farm tools like cutlass is the best they could lay their hands on. The use of cutlass in the farm is very broad ranging from clearing of grass cutting of trees feeling of victories during of firewood and so and so forth even is also used for transplanting but here I'm going to mention functions of cutlass and the maintenance practices of how to keep your call is very clean and so that it will last long for you as a farmer

All over Africa there are two types of cutlass that are used in farming activities
These types of cutlass are as follows


Types of cutlass

1. This type of cutlass has a slightly curved blade with a short wooden handle. Most of this type of cutlass is used for clearing of grass is weeding majorly


2. This second type of cutlass is is slightly straight without a curved blade.
1 edge of the blade is very sharp. In fact this is the most commonly used type of cutlass in Africa both young and old alike uses this one for farming activity
3. Another type of complex that is worth mentioning here is the type that has two eggs shape sharpen in on both sides this one is not commonly used in farming work it is found everywhere in Africa has blade that are sharp on each side. This type of class is used for clearing of open field probably a football field of field that does not contain trees

functions and uses of cutlass

Most effective use of condolence is that it is used for cutting down and clearing bushes and trees. This function of cutlass is the most prominent one among other functions of cutlass and its uses in the farm.
Sometimes we also use a cutlass for transplanting of seedlings in the farm mostly from the nursery bed to the planting site during pre planting operation
A cutlass can also be used for planting of seed. A class can also be used for harvesting of crops like cocoa and maize, tomato, Millets and sorghum
A simple cutlass is possible used for weeding the Farm. If the farm is a type of Farm whereby plants or crops are planted successively then the use of massive of big cutlass for reading is not needed so you look for a smaller type of cutlass of the same brand that will be easy for you to navigate the farm clearing the grasses to change the Farmland


how to maintain a typical cutlass

In order to prolong the durability of a cutlass should be sharpened regularly to avoid being blonde and giving headache to the farmer
A typical cutlass used for farming activity should be kept in a dry and cool place to avoid rust
The metal part of a cutlass should be old and lubricated before being stored. In this way even if the court last stage for a year or two in the store room it will not rust
One major way to keeping a cutlass for proper use later is to keep it in a safe place where it is not easily accessible to children with in the house or in the farm in order not to cause hazard to the Farmers or his children

So in any case the cutlass is an important part of Farming activity all over the world. the use and uses of cutlass is not overemphasize when we say that every single simple tools used in the farm that cutlass is more prominent and most useful apart from those who are into commercial farming like mechanized agriculture even in mechanized agriculture the most commonly used Farm tools is also the cutlass. There is this adage in my place that says you cannot go to a farm without a cutlass nobody is asking if you're going to find with a file or with a hole but you're asking that as a farmer the first farm tools you're going to acquire is your cutlass, reason is because the simple cutlass is used for clearing of grass stomping of root of trees and then for planting. This makes the cutlass have a lot of things to do within the Farm


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difference between sandy soil and clay soil




Difference between sandy soil and clay soil

Sandy soil is coarse grained in nature
Clay soil is fine grained


Sandy soil is gritty while clay soil is smooth to touch
Sandy soil has no capillary action while capillary is very low in clay soil

Sandy soil has high percolation rate while circulation rate is very low in clay soil

The rate of leaching is high in sandy soil and leaching is not easily carried out in clay soil

When it comes to feet sandy soil get easily hot and cold but clay soil does not easily get hot and cold

Sandy soil is never together in fact of the day green of sandy soil is miles apart while clay soil is Sticky

Sandy soil has low plasticity which means it cannot be moulded into shapes of any kind unless there is additional material but clay soil is in plasticity when wet

Sandy soil has low water holding capacity while in clay soil is very high in water holding capacity

Sandy soil is well-drained and poorly aerated but clay soil are well drained and poorly aerated

Sandy soil has large spaces between the grains but clay soil is well articulated fine particles of sand

A typical sandy soil is easy to work on but clay soil is difficult to work on when wet


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classification of soil



Classification of soil
Soil is classified into three major groups namely
Zonal soil
Intra zonal Soil
Azona soil


Zonal soil. This type of soil is mature soil and is responsible or recognisable through soil profile as a result of the influence of climatr and vegetation... the zonal soil is subdivided into two major group lemley pedalfers and pedocals
The pedalfers is a non lime accumulation soil
Pedocals is lime accumulating type of soil. Balls of zonal soil include pofso soil, grey brown soil, chemozen Soil, sierozem soil, latosol or red soil such as laterite

2. Intrazonal soil. This type of soil is formed under special circumstances and conditions such as inadequate drainage which results in water logging or sort out Malaysian leading to alcohol at this may result in different types of soil

Intra zonal soil is grouped into three aspect one hydromorphic soil, holomorphic soil and calcimophic soil

3. This type of soil is formed by the nature of parent material and not by climate. This soil type is young and does not exhibit any profile

There are three types of Arzona soil
Litosols. This type of soil is formed around mountainous area
Regosol. This type of soil are soil formed on deep soft unconsolidated area with deposit of mineral matter
Alluvial. These are soil types formed through the deposition of materials by rivers

These are just a few excepts of the classification of soil, if you have any further question or something bothering you concerning soil classification feel free to leave us a comment below and we'll be glad to answer you on time. You so much for coming to our side today they are blessed you can never share this article through your social media handles.

the uses and maintenance of a hand trowel as a simple Farm tool


What are the uses of hand trowel in agriculture

The hand trowel as you can see in the image below is a simple Farm tool used with a hand consisting of a short metal handle and a scoop shaped like Blade. The hand throw away like the hand fork is mainly used in squatting position because of a small size.
The small metal blade makes it possible for a small ball of Earth to be carried with the seedling during transplanting process.

Below I am going to give you some details of how the hand trowel is used in the farm

uses of hand trowel in the farm

1. Hand trowel is used for transplanting seedlings from the nursery bed to the main site in planting operation
2. Another use of this hand trowel is during fertilizer application when we use it to apply fertilizer or manure
3. Hand trowel is used for nursery practices or light wedding
4. The hand trowel as it is well known, popularly as hand trowel is also useful for digging holes for planting of melon seed, maize dzerds and okra
5. Another important use of the hand trowel is for soil sampling, mixing of soil and fertilizer mixing

How to maintain a hand trowel for longer use

We can maintain the hand trouble by always cleaning it, washing and drying after use
Whenever the blade of a hand trowel is bend you should always endeavour to straighten it
If you must enjoy the use of hand trowel as a farmer then the blade must be sharp all the time
Definitely this is one of the most important aspect of the storage of hand trowel to avoid termite eating up the wooden handle then it should be stored in a place that is free of termite
Last of all if we as farmers really want to enjoy the longer use of a hand trowel then it should be stored in a cool and dry place within the farm or at home

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farm uses of a typical garden fork




The garden fork and its uses

What is a garden fork? a garden fork is usually a simple Farm tool that has four prong or teeth which taper to a point.

The prong of a garden fork is made of hard metal of about 20 cm long mounted on a long wooden handle of about 72 to 80cm long.

The major functions of a garden fork

One of the main functions of a garden fork is that it is used for turning manure during compost making in the farm
The garden fork is also a tool used for loosening the soil top for transplanting
Garden fork is a perfect tool as a farm implement used for loading manure
During loading of hail the garden fork is the best implement to use to load hay

how to maintain a garden fork

The application or applying of Grease to avoid rusting in the Iron surface of garden fork is very necessary
A typical garden fork should be cleaned after use
The garden fork should be stored in a dry and cool place to avoid rust
If you want to store the garden fork for a long period of time before using again please and I want to paint the metal parts before storage


In a nutshell the uses of garden fork can be more than I am listed on the very article so she have any other point or usefulness of a garden fork please reach out to our comment box and we'll be glad to hear from you


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ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE in a growing economy


Commercial agriculture

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE

Definition: commercial agriculture is defined as the type of agriculture which is concerned with the production of food, animals and cash crops in large quantities for sole purpose of sales and export.


characteristics of commercial agriculture

The major characteristics of commercial agriculture are outlines as follows
Sole cropping system of agriculture is usually practiced
Commercial agriculture involves the cultivation of large hectares of land
Commercial agriculture involves huge capital investment or money
It involves the use hired labour
Most operations of commercial agriculture involves agricultural mechanization
Commercial agriculture employs the use of skilled labour
Output is usually very high
Only rich farmers are engaged in commercial agriculture
Improved varieties of crops and animals are used
Irrigation system may be practice where necessary
Because of high capital investment, records of daily activities are kept for the purpose of balancing profit chart
In commercial agriculture, the use of agro-chemicals such as fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides are often used.









advantages of commercial agriculture

commercial agriculture has so many advantages which includes the following
Commercial agriculture increases yield: owing to the fact that a large area of land is cultivated, couple with the use of fertilizers and chemicals, these increase yield of crops and animals
Specialization of labour: commercial agriculture does lead to specialization of labour because all operation are mechanized
Encouragement of research work: commercial agriculture encourages research works into marketing and production
Provision of cheap products: as a result of mass production of livestock or crops, the sale prices of these products are usually very low and affordable
Provision of quality products: most products obtained from commercial agriculture are generally very high in quality


disadvantages of commercial agriculture

The problem usually associated commercial are as follows
Inadequate supply of improved varieties of crops and animal: this simply to say, there is inadequate supply of improved varieties of crops and some breeds of animals
Unfavourable land tenure system: unfavourable land tenure system in some part of the world does not allow the practice of commercial agriculture
High capital investment: high cost of most agricultural machinery makes commercial agriculture very difficult to be engaged in
Inadequate marketing channels: marketing channels for agricultural products are grossly inadequate in most developing countries
Inadequate technical know-how: inadequate technical know-how on the proper maintenance and usage of farm machinery makes commercial agriculture very difficult
High cost of spare parts: spare parts of farm machines such as tractors, harvesters, etc. Are very expensive to purchase
Inadequate processing facilities: processing facilities for agricultural products from farms are grossly inadequate
Inadequate skilled manpower: the skilled manpower needed to operate commercial agriculture is also in short supply or invariably not enough
Inadequate credit facilities: Commercial agriculture cannot strive very well as a result of inadequate credit facility or subsidies available to farmers
Inadequate storage and processing facilities: processing facilities are grossly inadequate in most developing countries of the world

Improved application of farm inputs: inputs such as fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides used for commercial farming could pose health hazard to man and the entire environment if not properly applied
Displacement of scale farmers: the practice of commercial agriculture could to the displacement of subsistence agricultural farmers from their land
Unfavourable government policies: unfavourable government policies directly or indirectly makes the practice of commercial agriculture very difficult in most cases which may the result of TAX or direct CREDIT laws
Commercial agriculture can led to soil erosion: the practice of commercial agriculture can lead to soil erosion due to the use of heavy machines.










CONCLUSION
Commercial agriculture is very important to the development and growth of the economy of any nation as it serves as a means for foreign exchange. Another importance of commercial agriculture is that it provides employment for the teaming population of any country. When we talk about commercial agriculture this is the form of Agriculture that provides solid employment for youth it is also the backbone of any nation that wants to grow its economy in the sense that commercial agriculture helps to boost the export capacity of any economy commercial agricultural involved in plantation farming such as pineapple cocoa rubber tree coconut you can read details of the importance of agriculture here
You can also read my article on subsistence agriculture here.
Other relative relevant links to this post are listed below for more study on the subject of farming. Feel free to read and share with friends and families and don’t forget to leave a comment using our comment box, thanks for your time
Don’t forget to use the comment box and leave a message or suggestion and we will get back to you within seconds.
You can read some of most interesting topics below

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPIC ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY AND LINK TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE

5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34. FORESTRY

42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE







48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS

57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
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what is the cell theory and how to understand the cell theory

What is the cell Theory? When talking about the cell Theory what does it really mean we all know that the cell is the smallest living unit of a living organism and exist independently. So naturally the cell Theory exist in the following form One of the main structural issues of the cell Theory is that the cell is the structural and functional unit of life what this implies is that without the cell there will be no life anywhere so it is said that the cell is the basic unit, a foundation of every life The number four aspectct of the cell theory that all living organisms are made up of cells. This very part of the cell Theory implies that every living organisms that ever existed on the earth is made up of cell. this organisms may be plants or animals microscopic or otherwise it it number three parts of the cell Theory is very simple. this theory states that all cells come from previously existing cells what this implies is that there is no new cell formed anywhere but that each cell that is seen on plant or animal comes from a previous existed cell. The fourth part of the cell Theory is very simple this cell Theory states that there is no life apart from the life of cell that means cell is the definition of life, like I said earlier that a cell is capable of an independent life in The classification of cell states that all living things are the single cell which is in cellular or group of cells which is multicellular which means there are two types of cells unicellular cells or multicellular cells It is worthy of note that the cell Theory is taken from pre-existed theories being put forward by a lot of scientist scientist like Robert Hooke an English scientist which could be seen as the father of cell he was the first human being to discover the Honeycomb structure of the cell in 19 in 1665. Another scientist that is worthy of mentioning when it comes to the the theory of cells is the French biologist in 1835 Felix Dujardin who discovered that cell was made up of living substance and he however named the living substances as protoplasm Ok now you understand the theory of the cell as put forward in this blog post and then you will also understand this part that the cell is very small and cannot be seen with the aid of naked eyes except with the use of a microscope and then why we say microscope we are talking about an instrument used in the laboratory to observe tiny structures of living organisms which cannot be seen or observed by the naked eye. organisms which can only be seen with the aid of microscope are call microscopic organisms and so another words to observe the cell in its natural state you have to make use of the microscope Don't forget that in this very website I have written articles about the cell Theory theories about living cells or the cell as a living organism have also articles on the classification of living organisms based on the number of cell, in that article I talked about the history of the cell as to how scientists came about sell those who discovered the theory of cell and I talk about multicellular organisms and unicellular organisms so if you have any question as to how this can be achieved or how this can be put into PDF feel free to reach me through my email

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