HOW TO MANAGE POULTRY FARMING



1 POULTRY

What is Poultry?

The word Poultry refers to all birds that man has been able to rear over the years.
He has decided to rear or domesticate them because of their economic value to him.
Such birds include:

(a)

fowls or chickens








(b)
turkey

(c)
ducks

(d)
guinea fowl

(e)
pigeons

(f)
geese

(g)
ostriches

(h)
game birds, e.g. parrot.

Importance of Poultry:


Poultry provides the following:

1. Money - through
the sale of eggs and its meat

2. Eggs - source of protein

3. Meat (chicken) - source of protein

4. Poultry Feathers - for making high quality pillows and mattresses dropping and it is very rich in plant nutrients.

5. Poultry manure (Guano) – this is obtained from the birds dropping and it is very rich in plant nutrients

6. Poultry Game - some birds such as the parrot and cocks are used for games.

to read more about egg and other poultry management, follow here


Some terms associated with poultry



Cock– Adult male fowl


Drake – Adult male duck


Guinea cock – Adult male

guinea fowl or guinea hen- Adult female

Gander - Adult male geese









Tom - Adult female turkey


Hen - Adult female fowl


Duck - Adult male duck


Goose - Adult female geese


Turkey hen - Adult female turkey


Chick – A young fowl


Duckling – A young duck


Guinea Chick – A young guinea fowl


Gosling – A young geese


Poultry – A young turkey


Layer - A laying hen


Broiler - A meat producing bird


Cockerel - Young male fowl


Pullet - Young female fowl


Capon - A castrated cock











Management of Domestic Fowl



The different breeds of domestic fowls include:

(a) Rhode Island Red (R.I.R)

(b) Plymouth Rock

(c) Harco

(d) White leghorn

(e) Brown leghorn

(f) Babcocks

(g) Ancina

(h) Cornish Dark

(i) Light Sussex

(j) White Wyandotte

(k) Native fowl, etc


Fowls can be managed for any of the purposed stated below:


(i)
Egg production (Layers)

(ii)
Meat production (broilers)



DUAL PURPOSE BIRDS


In this case, the fowls are breed for both meat and eggs. However, the management practices for all birds whether reared for meat or eggs have some similarities.

(a)
Housing:

The size of the house depends on the population of the birds. check out farm buildings and structure
The foundation should be made of solid blocks with concrete floor. The wall should be made of solid blocks with concrete floor.
The wall should be short for good ventilation and adequate supply of light.

CULTIVATION OF COCOA (THEOBROMA CACAO)



COCOA (Theobroma cacao)

Cocoa is a beverage crop used for the preparation of many food drinks like Ovaltine, Bournvita, Pronto, etc. in Nigeria. 
It belongs to the plant family called Sterculiaceae. The fruit is called cocoa pod. cocoa is mainly found in the southwestern part of Nigeria.

Land Preparation for cocoa planting

: (i) Select well- drained deep soil, heavy clay-loam with slightly acidic or neutral pH.
(i) Keep the area protected from strong winds.
(ii) Clear the area manually or mechanically.

(iii) Avoid clean-clearing. Some forest/big trees may be left to provide shade for seedlings.
(iv) Leave some plant refuse behind to provide mulch and reduce evaporation.






Cultivars or Varieties of cocoa



(a)

Amelonado:

This prx1uces pods that are lightly furrowed with a round end. The pods are green when unripe and become yellow when ripe.


(b)

Amazon:

This produces pods with long, rough and thick hard walls, deeply furrowed with a pointed end. The pods are green when mature and become yellow when ripe.
(c)

Criollo:

This produces a high quality bean but the pods are liable to attack by black pod disease.


Climatic and soil requirement for the cultivation of cocoa

(i) Cocoa is a humid tropical crop. (ii) Grows best in areas with 1140 - 2000 mm annual rainfall, well distributed most of the year. (iii)Needs constant supply of moisture. (iv) Should be protected from strong winds. (v) Temperature requirement not below 17°C.

Method of cocoa propagation:

(i) This is mainly by seeds (ii) Vegetatively by budding and stem cutting.


Planting dates Of COCOA:

Nursery is done October to January. Field (transplanting) between April and June.
Spacing: Nursery: 20cm x 20cm;
Field: 3m x 3m.

Nursery Practices in cocoa production

Loamy soil containing matter are used to fill up polythene bags.
(ii) Seeds are sown in the polythene bag (one seed per bag).
(iii) Shade is provided to prevent direct heating by the sun.
(iv) Watering is done twice daily every morning and evening.
(v) Regular weeding is also carried out
(vi) Transplanting: Cocoa seedlings are transplanted to the field as from A during the rainy season, i.e. five to months after planting in the nursery. The seedlings are carefully removed from t polythene bag with ball of earth and are placed in a hole which is about 45cm deep.. The hole is covered gently and firmly round the seedling. Some crops like banana and coco-yam
are allowed to grow alongside with cocoa seedlings to provide a temporary shade for the cocoa plants.

Summary of planting of Cocoa

(i) Cocoa trees are usually raised from nurseries
(ii) Seeds to be planted in the nurseries must be selected from those fleshly harvested pods because seed viability reduces rapidly if kept for long time
(iii) Seeds are planted in small baskets hued with good loamy soil and should be well-watered but not water-logged
(iv) Keep the baskets with the seeds & under shades protected from strong wind&
(v) Can use plastic buckets instead of basket though their bases should be cut and sides slit, open when transplanting.
(vi) Transplanting is ready within 5 – 9 months after sowing the seeds
(vii) Planting is usually done at the beginning of the rainy season
(viii) Spacing is usually 3m x 3m, though this varies with the cultivar
(ix) When transplanting, dig sufficiently deep and large holes to accommodate the whole ball of earth from basket or plastic bucket
(x) After removing the basket/plastic pot put good loamy soil around the seedling.
(xi) Apply mulch the seedling.
(xii) Water and provide shades.
(xii) Cocoa seeds may also be planted directly in the field, using initial spacing of 1m x 1m, later thinned down to 2m x 2m; and finally 2m


Cultural Practices in cocoa cultivation

(i) Weeding: This should be done regularly.
(ii) Shading: Some crops like banana, cocoyam should be grown to provide shades to cocoa seedlings.
(iii) Fertilizer application: Urea or sulphate of ammonia is applied at 3000kg/ha, when the plant is about 8-12 weeks old on the field.
(iv) Mulching: This should be done by growing cover-crops like calopogonium to cover the soil
(v) Pruning: This is also done by removing the lower branches. Pruning encourages better canopy formation, more light penetration, and improved air movement


Maturity period of cocoa

: Cocoa plant matures within three to five years.

How to Harvest cocoa

: Ripe or mature cocoa pod is harvested by carefully cutting off the pod from the tree, using sharp cutlass, harvesting knife or sickle, without damage to the flower cushion.




Processing of cocoa

(1) Breaking of pods: The pods are carefully opened with a blunt cutlass or by hitting them with heavy rod to remove the cocoa beans.
(ii) Fermentation: Cocoa beans can be fermented by using the sweat box or tray method for about five days. During the fermentation process, cocoa beans undergo chemical changes brought about by the action of heat. The beans change to a red brown colour and develop the characteristic chocolate flavour. Theobromine is one of the properties of fermentation. This substance gives cocoa its stimulating property.
Drying: After fermentation, the bean seeds are now dried under the sun for 6-10 days or dryers may be used.
Storage: Properly dried beans are stored in sacks or jute bags ready for export. read farm storage systems here


Pests of Cocoa and their control methods

(1) Cocoa capsids: These insects pierce and suck-- piercing and sucking insect, sap from young shoots. causing reduced yield.
Control: Spray with insecticides like Gammalin 20 or Didimac 25.
(2) Mealy bugs: They are vectors or carriers of the virus that cause swollen shoot disease through their biting and sucking of shoots and fruits.
Control: Spray with insecticides, e.g, Gammalin 20.


Diseases of cocoa and control

(1) Black pod disease: It is caused by a fungus (Phytophthora pulmivora) which is spread by rain splash. Symptoms include brown spores on fruits covered by soaked, powdery spores which result in rotten black pod.
Control:
(i) Remove and destroy infected pods.
(ii) Apply regular weeding.
(iii) Spray with fungicides. e.g., Bordeaux mixture or Perenox;
(iv).

Burning of infected pods

.
(2)

Swollen Shoot Disease:

It is caused by a virus which is transmitted by mealy bugs.
Symptoms: include the swelling of branches, malformation of leaves and premature defoliation.
Control:
(i) Destroy and bum infected plants.
(ii) Spray with insecticides to kill the vector (mealy bugs).
(iii) Plant resistant varieties.


COCOA (Theobroma cacao)
Cocoa is a beverage crop used for the preparation of many food drinks like Ovaltine, Bournvita, Pronto, etc. in Nigeria. It belongs to the plant family called Sterculiaceae. The fruit is called cocoa pod.

Land Preparation for cocoa planting

: (i) Select well- drained deep soil, heavy clay-loam with slightly acidic or neutral pH.
(i) Keep the area protected from strong winds.
(ii) Clear the area manually or mechanically. read pre-planting operation
(iii) Avoid clean-clearing. Some forest/big trees may be left to provide shade for seedlings.
(iv) Leave some plant refuse behind to provide mulch and reduce evaporation.

Cultivars or Varieties of cocoa

(a)

Amelonado:

This prx1uces pods that arc lightly furrowed with a round end. The pods are green when unripe and become yellow when ripe.
(b)

Amazon:

This produces pods with long, rough and thick hard walls, deeply furrowed with a pointed end. The pods are green when mature and become yellow when ripe.
(c)

Criollo:

This produces a high quality bean but the pods are liable to attack by black pod disease.

Climatic and soil requirement for the cultivation of cocoa

(i) Cocoa is a humid tropical crop. (ii) Grows best in areas with 1140 - 2000 mm annual rainfall, well distributed most of the year. (iii)Needs constant supply of moisture. (iv) Should be protected from strong winds. (v) Temperature requirement not below 17°C.

Method of cocoa propagation :

(i) This is mainly by seeds read seed propagation of crops here(ii) Vegetatively by budding and stem cutting.

Planting dates for cocoa cultivation:

Nursery is done October to January. Field (transplanting) between April and June.
Spacing: Nursery: 20cm x 20cm;
Field: 3m x 3m.

Nursery Practices in cocoa production

Loamy soil containing matter are used to fill up polythene bags.
(ii) Seeds are sown in the polythene bag (one seed per bag).
(iii) Shade is provided to prevent direct heating by the sun.
(iv) Watering is done twice daily every morning and evening.
(v) Regular weeding is also carried out
(vi) Transplanting: Cocoa seedlings are transplanted to the field as from A during the rainy season, i.e. five to months after planting in the nursery. The seedlings are carefully removed from t polythene bag with ball of earth and are placed in a hole which is about 45cm deep.. The hole is covered gently and firmly round the seedling. Some crops like banana and coco-yam are allowed to grow alongside with cocoa seedlings to provide a temporary shade for the cocoa plants.

Summary of planting of Cocoa

(i) Cocoa trees are usually raised from nurseries
(ii) Seeds to be planted in the nurseries must be selected from those fleshly harvested pods because seed viability reduces rapidly if kept for long time
(iii) Seeds are planted in small baskets hued with good loamy oil and should be well-watered but not water-logged
(iv) Keep the baskets with the seeds & under shades protected from strong wind&
(v) Can use plastic buckets instead of basket though their bases should be cut and sides slit, open when transplanting.
(vi) Transplanting is ready within 5 – 9 months after sowing the seeds
(vii) Planting is usually done at the beginning of the rainy season
(viii) Spacing is usually 3m x 3m, though this varies with the cultivar
(ix) When transplanting, dig sufficiently deep and large holes to accommodate the whole ball of earth from basket or plastic bucket



(x) After removing the basket/plastic pot put good loamy soil around the seedling.
(xi) Apply mulch the seedling.
(xii) Water and provide shades.
(xii) Cocoa seeds may also be planted directly in the field, using initial spacing of 1m x 1m, later thinned down to 2m x 2m; and finally 2m

Cultural Practices in cocoa cultivation

(i) Weeding: This should be done regularly.
(ii) Shading: Some crops like banana, cocoyam should be grown to provide shades to cocoa seedlings.
(iii) Fertilizer application: Urea or sulphate of ammonia is applied at 3000kg/ha, when the plant is about 8-12 weeks old on the field.
(iv) Mulching: This should be done by growing cover-crops like calopogonium to cover the soil
(v) Pruning: This is also done by removing the lower branches. Prunning encourages better canopy formation, more light penetration, and improved air movement

Maturity period of cocoa

: Cocoa plant matures within three to five years.

How to Harvest cocoa

: Ripe or mature cocoa pod is harvested by carefully cutting off the pod from the tree, using sharp cutlass, harvesting knife or sickle, without damage to the flower cushion.

Processing of cocoa

(1) Breaking of pods: The pods are carefully opened with a blunt cutlass or by hitting them with heavy rod to remove the cocoa beans.
(ii) Fermentation: Cocoa beans can be fermented by using the sweat box or tray method for about five days. During the fermentation process, cocoa beans undergo chemical changes brought about by the action of heat. The beans change to a red brown colour and develop the characteristic chocolate flavour. Theobromine is one of the properties of fermentation. This substance gives cocoa its stimulating property.
Drying: After fermentation, the bean seeds are now dried under the sun for 6-10 days or dryers may be used.
Storage: Properly dried beans are stored in sacks or jute bags ready for export.


Pests of Cocoa and their control methods

(1) Cocoa capsids: These insects pierce and suck sap from young shoots. causing reduced yield.
Control: Spray with insecticides like Gammalin 20 or Didimac 25.
(2) Mealy bugs: They are vectors or carriers of the virus that cause swollen shoot disease through their biting and sucking of shoots and fruits.
Control: Spray with insecticides, e.g, Gammalin 20.

Diseases of cocoa and control

(1) Black pod disease: It is caused by a fungus (Phytophthora pulmivora) which is spread by rain splash. Symptoms include brown spores on fruits covered by soaked, powdery spores which result in rotten black pod.
Control:
(i) Remove and destroy infected pods.
(ii) Apply regular weeding.
(iii) Spray with fungicides. e.g., Bordeaux mixture or Perenox;
(iv).

Burning of infected pods

.
(2)

Swollen Shoot Disease:

It is caused by a virus which is transmitted by mealy bugs.
Symptoms: include the swelling of branches, malformation of leaves and premature defoliation.
Control:
(i) Destroy and bum infected plants.
(ii) Spray with insecticides to kill the vector (mealy bugs).
(iii) Plant resistant varieties.

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE





1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS

WEEDS AND THEIR BOTANICAL NAMES ALSO KNOWN AS SCIENTIFIC NAME

WEEDS AND THEIR BOTANICAL NAMES 
The names of these weeds are as follows in detail


Wild potato or moring glory--Striga senegalensis

Broom weed-- Ipomea spp

Emilia --Sida acuta 

Giant star grass-- Emilia sonchifolia 

Stubborn grass-- Cynodon nlemfuensis

Sensitive plant-- Sporobolus pyramidalis

Bur weed --Mimosa pudica 

Weeds compete with crops for water, light, and mineral nutrients

Those with broad leaves over-shadow the crops from direct light intensity and in turn reduces photosynthesis. They utilize nutrients and water in the soil thereby preventing the crops from getting nutrients
 Because of their ability weed to grow fast, weeds can suppress growth of crops on the farm thereby reducing their development and yield.
you can learn about fish production here fish farming and management


IDENTIFICATION OF WEEDS
WEED DISPERSAL METHODS
Some common garden weeds

IDENTIFICATION OF WEEDS AND THEIR BOTANICAL NAMES

1 Guinea grass-- Panicumm maximum
2 Elephant grass --Pennisetum purpureun
3 Tridax --Tridax prociimbem
4 Carpet grass-- Axonopus compressus
5 Goose grass --Africana Cynodon dactylon
6 Siam weed --Eluesine indica

7 African or bush marigold --Chromoleana odorata

8 Pig weed --Aspilia Africana

9 Goat weed or blue top-- Boerhavia diffusa

10 Water leaf
Ageratum conyzoides

11 Soft weed-- Talinum triagulare
12 Wild green-- Erogratis tenella 
13. Stubborn grass --cida acuta 
14. Igbologi/water leaf
15. "Ichtei" 16. Dolukegu 17. Ebeleogu 18. Okpalieziza-Ike


BOTANICAL NAMES OF WEEDS

13 Tropical kudzu Amaranthus spinosus

14 Centro-- Calapogonium mucunoides

15 Blue flower or water grass --Centrosema pubescens 

16. Spear grass --Imperata cylindrical 


17 Striga -- Commelina spp

18 Wild potato or morning glory-- Striga senegalensis

19 Broom weed --Ipomea spp

20 Emilia--Sida acuta
21 Giant star grass --Emilia sonchifolia
22 Stubborn grass --Cynodon nlemfuensis

23 Sensitive plant --Sporobolus pyramidalis


24 Bur weed --Mimosa pudica 

25 Acanthospermum hisidum

READ THE FULL LISTS OF WEEDS 

1. Blue feather--------------------------------Commelina nudiflora

DONT FORGET YOU CAN MAKE COOL MILLION ONLINE HERE IN THIS GUIDE

2. BAHAMA GRASS-----------------Cynodon dactylon

BUR WEED-----------------------------Triumfetta rhumboidea

CALAPO---------------------------------Calapagonium mucunoides

CARPET GRASS----------------------Axonopus compressors



to understand the effect of leaching and liming, read
 here

READ ABOUT POULTRY FARMING AND BIRDS HERE

science and its usefulness. read here
ECOLOGICAL AND VEGETATIVE ZONES IN NIGERIA
CELOCIA--------------------------------Celosia rotundus

CENTRO-----------------------------------Centrocema pubescens

DESMODIUM-----------------------------Desmodium Spp

DODDER----------------------------------Cascuta americana

ELEPHANT GRASS----------------------Pennisetum purpurium
CLASSIFICATION OF CROPS
EMILLIA-----------------------------------Emillia sognifochia

you can read my post on bush fallowing here

here is my detailed article on the botanical names of crop

you can read more about weed control methods here


FOXTAIL GRASS--------------------------Setaria barbata

GOAT WEED-----------------------------------Ageretum conyzoides

GUINEA GRASS----------------------------Panacum maximum

GIANT STAR GRASS=============Cynodon plectostachyus

GUATEMALA GRASS------------------------Tripsaum laxum


100 names of weeds
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING AND CLEARING
121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING FARM YARD MANURE

GRAGOSTIC GRASS------------------------Gragrostic aspera

LEMON GRASS---------------------------Cymbopogon citratus

here is a post on propagation of crops here

here is a post on agricultural practice

MILK WEED--------------------------------Euophorbia hirta

MISLETOE--------------------------------------LORANTHUS PENTAGONPENTAGON


MONEY WEED--------------------------------accanthospernum hispidum

NORTHERN GAMBA GRASS-------------------Andropogon gayanus

GLORIOSA PLANT-------------------------Gloriosa superba

PARA GRASS--------------------------------Pernicum barbinode

PANGOLA GRASS---------------------------Digitaria decumbens

PIG WEED-----------------------------------Boerhavia diffusa

SOME OF THESE WEED ARE VERY USEFUL TO MAN. YOU CAN READ MORE HERE


read how weeds can be used as mulching materials


1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST


Weed control measures

There are several methods used in weed control. They can BE classified into:
(a) Mechanical or physical method of weed control.
(b) Cultural method.
(c) Biological method of weed control.
(d) Chemical method of weed control.
(a) Mechanical or physical method of weed control

(i) Hand pulling: 1 This is the pulling of weeds by hand in the farm. Though it is efficient, but only useful in small gardens and not large farms.

WEEDS CONTROL METHODS

(ii) Hoeing: The short or small hoe is very useful in weeding. It is used to cut the weed below the crown of the plant which gives, complete destruction of the shoot system. It is effective in the control of weeds either in pasture, home garden or row crops. Hoe can be used to weed from the furrow to the top of a ridge. Its use is however on a limited and it requires plenty of labour.





118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION



147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE


BOTANICAL NAMES OF SOME AFRICAN WEEDS

IDENTIFICATION OF WEEDS
PUERO----------------------------------------Pueraria phaseoloides

RUBBER WEED-----------------------------Mimosa pudica

RHODES GRASS-----------------------------Chloris guyana

SOUTHERN GAMBA GRASS------Andropogon tectorum

SUNHEMP----------Crotelaria juncea

SPEAR GRASS---------Imperata cylindrica
IDENTIFICATION OF WEEDS
STYLO-------Stylosanthes gracilis
IDENTIFICATION OF WEEDS
SENSITIVE PLANT-------Mimosa pudica

SEDGE PLANT---------Cyperus rotundatus

SIAM WEED----------Chromolina oohum

STUBBORN GRASS------Sida acuta

GREEN-TETE-WITH THORNS---------Amaranthus spinos

you can read about the use of herbicide and its application here

Weed control measures

There are several methods used in weed control. They can BE classified into:
(a) Mechanical or physical method of weed control.
(b) Cultural method.
(c) Biological method of weed control.
(d) Chemical method of weed control.
(a) Mechanical or physical method of weed control

(i) Hand pulling: 1 This is the pulling of weeds by hand in the farm. Though it is efficient, but only useful in small gardens and not large farms.

WEEDS CONTROL METHODS

(ii) Hoeing: The short or small hoe is very useful in weeding. It is used to cut the weed below the crown of the plant which gives, complete destruction of the shoot system. It is effective in the control of weeds either in pasture, home garden or row crops. Hoe can be used to weed from the furrow to the top of a ridge. Its use is however on a limited and it requires plenty of labour.



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Important topics related to the above article

1. Recognizing living things










(vii) Culural method: This involves the use of cultural practices of crop production to reduce the growth of weeds on the farm. Such cultural practices include
YOU CAN READ DETAILS OF CULTURAL PRACTICES HERE
i. Burning of farmland: This kills weed parts, seeds and fruits both in the soil and on the surface.
ii. Tillage: Tillage helps to expose weed parts for destruction by sun or herbicides. They can also be hand picked and destroyed.
iii. Early planting: This ensures that crops are well established before the weeds start growing.
iv. Good spacing: Proper spacing of crops helps in the reduction of weeds along the crop rows. It also makes it easy for weeding to he done.
v. Mixed cropping: Planting or two or more crops, together oil the same farmland can help to reduce the intensity of weeds on the larm
(c) Biological method






This involves the use of living plants and animals to control weeds. They include:
(i) Use of suppressive plants: Crops that grow fast and large too can be used to overshadow weeds thereby reducing their growth, Also, cover crops such as melon and legumes like groundnut can be used to control weeds on the farm.
(ii) Use of insects: This involves the use of identified insect pests weeds in controlling weeds on the farm. Insects which have been found to feed on a particular weed can be multiplied and introduced to the area to feed and destroy such weed species.
(iii) Pasturing: This involves the grazing of farm animals on weeds usually in plantations such as rubber and oil palm. Animals like i cattle, sheep or goat are commonly used in this method.
(d) Chemical method
This is the method that is used on a large scale. It makes use of chemicals in the control of weeds. These chemicals are known as herbicides. They are sprayed either on the leaves of weeds or applied to the soil. They are classified into:
(i) Selective herbicides: These are chemicals that can kill certain groups or species of plants. Example is 2, 4 -D (Dichlorophen-oxyacetic acid). IDENTIFICATION OF WEEDS-They can be used in cereals, sugar cane and soya beans farms to reduce weeds.

IDENTIFICATION OF WEEDS
read about types farming systems


1. Blue feather--Commelina nudiflora


2. BAHAMA GRASS

BUR WEED-------Triumfetta rhumboidea

CALAPO--------Calapagonium mucunoides

CARPET GRASS-----Axonopus compressors





find my article on how to identify a weed here


read about piercing and sucking insects


CELOCIA------Celosia rotundus

CENTRO-------Centrocema pubescens

DESMODIUM----Desmodium Spp

DODDER--------Cascuta americana

ELEPHANT GRASS------Pennisetum purpurium

EMILLIA------Emillia sognifochia


IDENTIFICATION OF WEEDS

FOXTAIL GRASS----Setaria barbata

GOAT WEED------Ageretum conyzoides READ MORE ABOUT THE USES OF GOAT WEED HERE

GUINEA GRASS----Panacum maximum

GIANT STAR GRASS-----Cynodon plectostachyus

GUATEMALA GRASS------Tripsaum laxum

GRAGOSTIC GRASS----Gragrostic aspera
IDENTIFICATION OF WEEDS
LEMON GRASS---Cymbopogon citratus
IDENTIFICATION OF WEEDS
MILK WEED-------Euophorbia hirta

MISLETOE------LORANTHUS PENTAGONA

MONEY WEED--------accanthospernum hispidum

NORTHERN GAMBA GRASS--Andropogon gayanus

GLORIOSA PLANT------Gloriosa superba

PARA GRASS---------Pernicum barbinode

PANGOLA GRASS -Digitaria decumbens

PIG WEED-------------Boerhavia diffusa
rabbit-weed RABBIT WEED-------- Gutierrezia

IDENTIFICATION OF WEEDS

Flixweed Sisymbrium sofia

floating marsh marigold Caltha natans

Floating Mud-rush Scirpus

Floating Sweetgrass Glyceria fluitans

Florence Fennel Foeniculum vulgare var. azoricum

Florence Fennel Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce

Florentine Iris Iris x germanica var. florentina

Floss Flower Ageratum houstonianum

Flossflower Ageratum conyzoides

Flower of An Hour Hibiscus trionum
IDENTIFICATION OF WEEDS
Flowering Maple Abutilon grandifolium

Flowering Maple Abutilon hybr.

Flowering Rush Butomus umbellatus

Flowery Senna Cassia corymbosa

Fool's Parsley Aethusa cynapium

Forget-me-not Myosotis

Forget-me-not Myosotis scorpioides

Formosa Lily Lilium formosanum

Formosa sweet gum Liquidambar acerifolia:

Formosa sweet gum Liquidambar formosana

Formosa sweet gum Liquidambar maximowiczii:

Fountain Grass Pennisetum alopecoroides

Fountain Grass Pennisetum setaceum

Fountains Lobelia Lobelia erinus

four-leaved mare's tail Hippuris tetraphylla
IDENTIFICATION OF WEEDS
Fox Sedge Carex vulpinoidea


for other sources of the types of weeds read here

IDENTIFICATION OF WEEDS
PUERO----------------------------------------Pueraria phaseoloides

RUBBER WEED-----------------------------Mimosa pudica

RHODES GRASS-----------------------------Chloris guyana

SOUTHERN GAMBA GRASS---------------Andropogon tectorum

SUNHEMP-------------------------------------Crotelaria junc-Imperata cylindrica

STYLO--------------Stylosanthes gracilis

SENSITIVE PLANT----Mimosa pudica

SEDGE PLANT--------Cyperus rotundatus

SIAM WEED----Chromolina oohum

STUBBORN GRASS-----Sida acuta

GREEN-TETE-WITH THORNS-------Amaranthus spinosis

Abscess Root Polemonium reptans
Acanthus-leaved Thistle Carlina acanthifolia
Accocha Cyclanthera pedata
Aconite Aconitum
Aconite Aconitum columbianum
Aconite Aconitum fischeri
Acroclinium Helipterum roseum
Adam's Needle Yucca filamentosa
Adder's Tongue Erythronium americanum
Adder's Tongue Erythronium tuolumnense
Aden Senna Cassia holosericeae
Adriatic bellflower Campanula elatines
Adzuki Bean Phaseolus angularis
African Ammoniacum Ferula communis
African Bdellium Balsamodendron africanum
African Bdellium Ceradia furcata
African Blackwood Peltophorum africanum
African Cedar Cedrus atlantica
African Cucumber






lists of weeds in details

Cucumis metuliferus
African Daisy Arctotis breviscapa
African Daisy Arctotis hybrida
African Daisy Arctotis venusta
African Daisy Dimorphotheca barberiae
IDENTIFICATION OF WEEDS
African Daisy Dimorphotheca ecklonis

African Kino Pterocarpus erinaceus

African Lily Agapanthus africanus

African Marigold Tagetes erecta

African Valerian Fedia cornucopiae

African Valerian Valeriana cornucopiae

African Valerian Valeriana cornucopiae:

African violet Saintpaulia ionantha

African wormwood Artemisia afra

Agar-agar Gelidium amansii

IDENTIFICATION OF WEEDS
Agave Agave americana

Agrimony Agrimonia eupatoria

Agrimony Agrimonia pilosa:

Agrimony Agrimonia viscidula:

Aji Colorado Chile Capsicum pendulum

Aji Habanero Chile Capsicum baccatum

Ajo lily Hesperocallis undulata

Ajowan Carum copticum

Ajowan Trachyspermum ammi

Ajwan Carum copti

Alaska Oniongrass Melica subulata

Alaska willow Salix alaxensis

Alaskan blueberry Vaccinium alaskaense

Alaskan mountain-heather Cassiope stelleriana

Alba Semiplena Rose Rosa x alba

Albany Beech Drops Pterospora andromeda

Alexanders Smyrnium olusatrum

Alfalfa Medicago sativa

Alkanet Anchusa

IDENTIFICATION OF WEEDS

Alkanet Anchusa tinctoria

Alkanet Pentaglottis sempervirens

Alligator Juniper Juniperus pachyphloea

All-seed Radiola linoides

Allspice Pimenta dioica

Allspice Pimenta officinalis

Allspice Pimenta officinalis:

Allwood's Dianthus Dianthus x allwoodii

Almond Geranium Pelargonium quercifolium 'Pretty Polly'

you can read the following related posts

1. weed dispersal methods
2. importance of weeds
3. botanical names of crops
4. crop classification
5. weed control methods
6. scientific names of weeds
7. general importance of weeds
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING





18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA


39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON







90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY

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AGENTS OF WEED AND SEED DISPERSAL



WHAT IS WEED DISPERSAL?

Weed dispersal is simply the transporting of weeds from one place to another through several means and agents. When we see agent of weed dispersal it is generally assumed of anything that takes the seed of plant or crops from one destination to another for the sole purpose of propagation This dispersal agent of weeds is not limited to the ones listed on this blog post so we can assume that there are different types of weed dispersals depending on which angle you as a writer is looking at it from. so many dispersal methods can have different names from different field of endeavour

Dispersal of weeds

Weeds are mainly dispersed by gutter, animals, explosion and man, there are also times when wind erosion can also be a distinct method of disposing weeds. so on this very blog post I am going to discuss that little metals that are unique and that can be found in every country the process by which seeds are dispersed from one destination to another invariably this weed disperses are not limited to the ones I am going to leave below so here are a list of the various with these passes as outlined in this very blog post.
the following agents:
wind.

1.

Mechanical method of weed dispersal

Whenwhen speaking of mechanical methods of seed dispersal we are talking about the various ways through mechanical means like motor vehicles caterpillars and moving of heavy-duty machinery along Bush parts that resource and the dispersal of weeds and their seed People spread many weeds around through their machines.
For examples of weed and seed dispersal method
Motor vehicles such as (automobiles and trucks) raise gusts of wind as they travel up and down highways.
As a result, small small seeds or seeds with tufts of hair are easily carried by the wind and blown along the motor paths and highways with each passing motor vehicle.
In this way, many weeds are distributed along roadsides. Similarly, heavy-duty vehicles and their freight cars generate even stronger gusts of winds as they travel up and down railroad tracks.
here are typical examples of weeds and seeds that are transported or dispersed which is moving them from one place to another through mechanical methods of weed dispersal. As a result, weeds having tiny seeds or seeds with tufts of hair are distributed up and down railroads. For example, Dwarf Snapdragon








2.

WIND DISPERSAL OF WEEDS

The structures of some weed seeds enable their distribution by wind. Such features as being winged, having parachute make them easily carried about by wind. Examples of weeds dispersed by wind and Tridax procumbens and Ageratum conyzoides (Goat Weed). Agrostemma
Nemophila
Dianthus
Poppy
Columbine
Thistle
Felicia
Bulrush
Bulrush

1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS

40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING

112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES

147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE


3.

WATER DISPERSAL OF SEEDS

when we talk about water dispersal methods of weed we are invariably talking about running Waters after a heavy downpour or through irrigation method in the farm majorly through surface irrigation water as an important agent to human activity serves as one of the key ways by which seed or weeds on the farm are dispersed from one location to another Weed seeds can be carried by moving water such as surface run-oft, streams, irrigation and drainage water. They have adaptation lenluus (hat enable movement by water such as membranous sacs containing air of corky protuberances. These make the seeds buoyant on water so that they can float. They can also stay in water for a period without losing viability. Example of weed dispersed by water is pig weed.

.4

ANIMAL DISPERSAL OF WEEDS

Animals also help in weed dispersal. For instance, weeds that have hooks can be distributed by animals with hairy body because such weeds can attach themselves to the hair of the animals. Example of weeds dispersed by animals is Erogratis tenella. Also seeds of some weeds pass through the digestive tracts of animals, particularly birds without loosing viability. On defecation, these seeds can germinate into new plants.









5.

MAN AS AN AGENT OF WEED DISPERSAL

Man can transport weed seeds over long distances as a result of movements of agricultural seeds, foodstuff, nursery stock and others. Some weeds or their seeds could cling to the wears of the farmers and these are deposited elsewhere. Good examples are Boerhevia diffusa (Pig weed) and Acathespermum hispidium.
Man Disperses Numerous Weed Seeds And Fruits With Raw Agricultural Produce. Weeds Mature At The Same Time And Height Along With Crop. Due To Their Similar Size And Shape As That Of Crop Seed, Man Unknowingly Harvest The Weeds Also, And Aids In Dispersal Of Weed Seeds.

Such Weeds Are Called “Satellite Weeds


6.

Self Explosion or Explosive Mechanism

This is brought about by the forces set up in dry walls of weeds fruits which cause explosion. This scatters the seeds in the fruits away from the parents plants. Such weeds are said to be self dispersed. Examples are Sida acuta and Desmodium.


MANY WEEDS HAVE SEEDS OR SEEDPODS THAT CLING TO THE FUR OR BODY OF ANIMALS AND THE CLOTHING OF HUMANS AS A RESULT OF STICKY HAIRS, HOOKED SPINES, OR BARBED AWNS.

EXAMPLES OF WEEDS USING THIS METHOD OF DISPERSION INCLUDE

LAPPA MINOR (LESSER BURDOCK),
TORILIS ARVENSIS (COMMON HEDGE PARSLEY),
AND BIDENS FRONDOSA (COMMON BEGGAR'S TICKS).

SEVERAL OTHER WEEDS HAVE SEEDS THAT BECOME STICKY WHILE WET,

THESE ENABLES THEM TO CLING TO THE BOTTOM OF HOOVES, WEBBED FEET, OR SHOES.
TYPES OF WEEDS USING THIS METHOD OF SEED DISPERSAL INCLUDE PLANTAGO LANCEOLATA (ENGLISH PLANTAIN) AND SEVERAL CHAMAESYCE SPP. (PROSTRATE SPURGES).

weed Dispersal by machinery

Weed seeds often are dispersed by tillage and harvesting equipment.
Seeds move from field to field on the soil that sticks to tractor tires, and vegetative structures often travel on tillage and cultivation equipment and latter dropping them in other fields to start new infestation. Disc-type cultivation equipment is less likely to drag vegetative plant parts than are shovels or sweeps.


Some common garden weeds,Common names and Botanical names

1 Guinea grass Panicumm maximum
2 Elephant grass Pennisetum purpureun
3 Tridax Tridax prociimbem
4 Carpet grass Axonopus compressus
5 Goose grass or Africana Cynodon dactylon
6 Siam weed Eluesine indica
7 African or bush marigold Chromoleana odorata
8 Pig weed Aspilia Africana
9 Goat weed or blue top Boerhavia diffusa
10 Water leaf Ageratum conyzoides



11 Soft weed Talinum triagulare
12 Wild green Erogratis tenella
13 Tropical kudzu Amaranthus spinosus
14 Centro Calapogonium mucunoides
15 Blue flower or water grass Centrosema pubescens
16 Spear grass Commelina spp
17 Striga Imperata cylindrical
18 Wild potato or moring glory Striga senegalensis
19 Broom weed Ipomea spp
20 Emilia Sida acuta
21 Giant star grass Emilia sonchifolia
22 Stubborn grass Cynodon nlemfuensis
23 Sensitive plant Sporobolus pyramidalis
24 Bur weed Mimosa pudica
25 Acanthospermum hisidum

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for further study on weed dispersal you can reed more here


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You can read some of most interesting topics below

Agricultural biology topics

4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.






39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING

43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON


90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM

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