PLANTING AND POST PLANTING OPERATIONS IN AGRICULTURE



post Planting operations

These are activities carried out by the farmer after land preparation. They are what the farmer should do or ought to aware of while the seeds, seedlings or planting materials are being put in the soil. Post-planting operations are the series of activities carried out in a farm management system between the period of planting and harvesting. They are necessary to achieve a reasonable yield.

Examples of post-planting operations

are:
Fertilization
Weeding
Crop protection
Harvesting
irrigation and drainage
Capping/mulching
fumigation
staking


1.

Weeding as a post planting opertation

:
Of course, weeding is the most important post-planting operations. If you do not weed your farm on a regular basis, you are likely to have a very low yield. Weeds are unwanted plants that grow alongside with your crop.

Weeds are genetically more viable and aggressive than your crops; they compete with your crops for nutrients, air, and water. They also harbor pests that can reduce the quantity and quality of your crops. Your crops may find it very difficult to outwit the weeds if you do not intervene; your intervention is in the form of manual or mechanical weeding or using herbicides. Herbicides are used to control weeds.

fertilizer application as a post planting operation

Fertilization
Apply fertilizers after every weeding. It gives your crop the full access to the fertilizer, thus, enhancing efficiency.


Crop protection
Harvesting

Before planting:
(i) Planting materials such -as seeds, seedlings, cuttings, sucker and so on should be taken from healthy plant sources.
(ii) They should be free of diseases and pest infestation.
(iii) They should be viable and properly stored before use.read about farm storage here
(iv) Planting materials of high quality should be bought and collected from the Ministry of Agriculture. Agricultural Development Project. Research Centres. Agro-Service Centre or Seed Multiplication Units.

The activities' associated with planting operations include planting dates, planting dates, seed rate, nursery and nursery practices, capping, transplanting and planting depth SEE MORE ACTIVITIES HERE cultural practices in agriculture

Weeding, fertilizer applications, irrigation and drainage and so on...all other operations that will contribute to the well growth or development of planted plants







1. Date of planting
This refers to the period of the year at which a particular crop sown in order to produce well. It is usually after the First rainfall in the year for most crops except where irrigation is practiced. However, planting date varies for different crops. This is due to types of the crops. For example, some grains and legumes require little rainfall for growth and production, and a dry period for the grains and and pods to get dried, Vegetables, especially the leafy types require wet period for their growth and production. This is why specific period of the year is recommended for the growing of various crops in the different parts of Nigeria and West Africa. for example, early maize is planted in the South between late February and April, late maize in August/September while it is planted June in the North. Cotton is planted in June. Late yam is sown between March and yearly June or November around the riverine areas as early crop. Cassava is cultivated between March and October for good harvest.

The actual date of the day planting is done, is referred to as the sowing date. For instance, maize is grown between February and April but the actual day of planting a plot could be 28th of February, which becomes the sowing date.

The observation of correct date of planting enables crops to escape pests and diseases, failure of crops and maintain high yields.
1. Planting distances or spacing
This is the distance given between one stand of cultivated crop and another. It varies from one type crop to another.
When correct planting distance is observed, it enables crops to have high yields, as the nutrients and water available would be enough for the crops. It also allows space for carrying out cultural practices such as weeding, fertilizer application, pest control, and so on.

It ensures that land is not wasted because only the number of plants that the land can take is planted. It prevents over crowding of crops which may result in poor Yields.








The recommended_ planting distances for some common, garden crops are:
(a) Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentun): 40cm to 60cm between rows and 30cm to 50cm between 'plants or stands.
(b) Okra (Abelmoschus): 60cm – 90cm between rows and 30cm between plants or within row.
(c) Cow-pea (Vigna unguiculata): 80cm between rows and 30cm within rows.
(d) Yam (Dioscorea spp): I'm between rows and 1m between plants
(e) Maize (Zea Mays) 90cm between row and 30cm along rows.
(f) Cassava (Manihot esculenta): 1m between rows and 1m between plants or along rows.
(g) Carrot (Ducus carrota): 40cm between rows and I cm to 15cm along the rows,
(h) Rice (Oryza sativa): 30cm between rows and 15cm along the drills or broadcast.
(i) Guinea corn (Sorghum spp): 60cm apart for tall varieties and 20cm to 30cm apart for the dwarf varieties.
(j) Groundnut (Arachis hypogea): 25cm apart and along rows.

3. Seed rate
This is used to describe the amount of planting materials required to plant one hectare of land. It is usually expressed in kilogrammes per hectare, when seeds are used for planting. If plant parts are used. it is expressed in numbers of stands per hectare.



4. Planting depth
This refers to the depth of the holes in which a seed or seedling or planting material is put or planted. It is advisable not to allow the holes to be too deep, as it will affect the emergence of the planting materials. If too shallow, seeds could be picked and eaten up by pests such as rodents READ ANIMAL PESTS OF CROPS HERE •

5. Capping/mulching
The practice of using dry grasses or pieces of wood to cover the spot where yam sett or seed yam is planted either on ridge, mound or1 flat is called capping or mulching.

It prevents, direct heat of the sun. from diving up planting materials, and conserves moisture and optimum heat for germination.
6. Nursery and nursery practices
A nursery is an area where seeds are first grown and tended till the seedling are strong or grown enough to be planted out in their permanent beds or fields. Consideration is usually given to crops with small seeds and those with less viability in nursery establishment.

Crops such as African Spinnach, Amaranthus spp, tomatoes lettuce cabbage, garden egg, pepper, citrus, oil and cocoa can be grown in a nursery. you can read more about botanical names of crops here

Advantages of nursery establishment
1. Seeds loo small to be planted directly or at stake or in the situ are produced through nursery.
2. Seedlings too weak at tender age to compete with weeds are cared for in the nursery
3. Proper care is given to crops so as to escape pests and diseases attacks.
4. Only healthy plants are transplanted thereby reducing spread of diseases in crops.
5. It gives uniformity in growth of field crops.
6. As a result of the good start given to the crops, high yield is obtained.

Types of nursery: These include:
1. Ground nursery or seed bed
2. Seed trays or boxes
3. Polythene bags
4. Baskets
5. Carton nurseries
The ground or nursery beds are not different from root beds used on the field to grow vegetables mostly, to maturity. A standard nursery bed is 1,20m by 7.50m in size. In preparing the nursery bed. i omposl manure is added. About six (6) head-pans are added to every 9m2 of the nursery bed. The compost should be well rotted or properly decomposed. Poultry droppings (Guano) can also be used. I his' should be mixed thoroughly with the soil. Where fertilizer is used, it should be mixed with the soil at the rate of 500g per 9m". I lie bed should be mulched properly thereafter to avoid loss of essential nutrients and conserve moisture.

Seeds are planted after a few days in drills. The drills should be \\ell spaced to avoid root destruction during lifting for transplanting.

Good spacing in the nursery prevents the spread of diseases.

The method of nursery bed preparation also goes for root beds where the crop will grow to maturity. The nursery is watered morning and evening during dry season. A nursery should he mulled but not too thick to avoid the development tiny seedlings. Avoid excessive watering in the nursery as this produces tiny seedlings which are easily attacked by diseases.

Seed boxes or trays could be used as nursery. The boxes or trays are perforated below to allow in air and excess water to drain out. To provide a suitable growth medium, thee parts of good top soil, two parts of properly decayed compost (not hot) and one part of river sand are mixed together and put in each box. The boxes are sometimes made to specification of 53cm by 9cm either with wood or metal.

Seeds are planted in drills or broadcast as the case may be. The boxes are kept under shade. Where polythene bags are used, seedlings are easy to transport to the permanent plot. Root destruction is reduced too.

Which ever method used in nursery preparation, even in green house, optimum condition for growth should be provided before transplanting is done.







7. Transplanting
This involves lifting seedlings from the nursery and planting them out in their permanent plot or field. Most tree crops and vegetables are raised in the nursery before transplanting.

Transplanting is done when seedlings are grown up to four or five leaves stage. It is advisable to transplant in the evening or during a dull day. Water the nursery before transplanting. Transplanted seedlings should not he allowed to wilt. Therefore, water immediately after transplanting to enable the soil get in contact with the roots. The soil is checked to about 7.50 cm deep from the top soil. If not moist, then more, water should be applied. Only healthy seedlings should be lifted and ensure that the roots of seedlings are not damaged.

Transplanting could be carried out in two ways:
1. The ball of earth system.
2. The naked root system.

The ball of earth involves lifting seedlings with earth or soil around the roots. This helps to preserve the roots and minimize shock in seedlings. A hand trowel is used in this method for transplanting. Before transplanting the stands are marked and opened on the field. Put in the seedlings and firm the soil around the roots. It is necessary to water immediately.

The naked root system involves lifting seedlings without soil attached to the roots. This is used mainly in rubber, fruits, and tree production. Though, a farmer may choose to use it in vegetable production, but the ball of earth system is more advisable, root system may be necessary if seedlings are to be transported to far places.
Where die polythene bags are used, they should be cut off carefully before putting the plant into the ground.

5.3 Post planting operations
These are activities carried out on the farm after planting has been done. These include thinning, supplying, mulching, manuring and fertilizer application, watering, weeding, pest and disease control, harvesting, farm level processing and storage.

1. Thinning
This is the reduction in the number of plants per stand. extra seedlings are removed from a stand where man) viable seeds germinated. Thinning should be done when the soil is moist. The weakest of the plants on the stand is usually the one to be removed. ( are should be taken not to damage the remaining plants on the stand. Press the soil around the roots of the remaining plants. It is practiced with vegetable crops and cereal such as maize.

Thinning practice reduces over crowding and crop competition for nutrients, space and sunlight.
he
2. Mulching
This involves the covering of the surface soil with any material to prevent loss of water or keep.down weeds. Sawdust, manure, straw, leaves, paper, plastic arid^her materials are used. It is an effective way of checking evaporation in the soil or home garden. It helps to keep down weeds, thereby reducing transpiration from their leaves. When organic mulches decay, they add to the nutrients in the soil thereby increasing production.

The decayed products increase the water-holding capacity of the soil. Mulching provides ways of utilizing waste products from crop production, e.g. stubble mulch. Mulching reduces surface run-off and increases water infiltration and percolation. It also limits t effect of temperature fluctuation on crops.


3. Supplying
After planting pure stands at any species and some do not germinate, the ungerminated stands are replaced with some more of the same species. This is called supplying or beating up in forest management Supplies may be from the nursery or stored viable

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You can read some of most interesting topics below

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42.
CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
. COMPOST





126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

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DISEASES OF CROPS


Important diseases of major crops

NAME OF DISEASE CAUSATIVE PATHOGEN CROPS AFFECTED MODE OF SPREAD SYMPTOMS NATURE/EFFECT OF DAMAGE PREVENTION & CONTROL
Smut Fungus (Ustilago spp) Maize, Rice, grain sorghum and other cereals By wind Grains are covered with large mass of spores The wole cob may be covered with mass of black spores thereby rendering them valueles Use clean seed s to plant. Treat seeds with fungicide
2 Streak Virus Maize By piercing and sucking insects Discoloured leaf surface forming streaks Reduces crop yield Early planting spray with insecticide. Rogue the affected plants
3 Blast of Rice Fungus (Pyricularia oryzae) Rice By wind Dead areas sho on lead surface Crop yield is reduced Grow resistant varieties. Treat seeds with fungicides
4 Leaf Rust Fungus (Punccinia spp) All cereals Wind and water Rust-coloured pustules develop on the leaves of the plant The leaves die resulting in poor production Early planting. Dress seed with fungicides.
5 Bacterial Blight Bacteria Sorghum cowpea, etc Wind and water Yellow leaves followed by defoliation and death of stem Yield is affected Grow resistant varieties. Use clean seeds.
6 Cercorspor a leaf spot Fungus (cercospora spp) Legumes By wind Yellow leaves followed by defoliation Yield is reduced 1. Plant early
2. Uproot affected plants and burn.






Rosette of groundnut Virus Groundnut By aphids, piercing and sucking insects Leaves are closely packed, wrinkle and mottled The leaves curl, turn yellow and this reduces yield. 1. Plant early
2. Use resistant varieties
3. Rogue affected plants
8 Mosaic Virus Cassava
Yam By Bemisia fly Yellow pale areas on leaves Leaf distortion and stunting of plant leading to reduced yield 1. Use resistant varieties
2. Use insecticide to kill the insects
3. Destroy the affected plants.
9 Tuber Rot Nematode, fungus Yam Through soil Yam tuber becomes brown in the tissues and later becomes soft. Renders the tuber valueless 1. Destroy affected tubers
2. Use Aldrin dust
3. Use Nematicide e.g. Mucap.
10 Roo knot Nematode (Root knot eel worm) Tomato and okra Through soil borne Nematode Knots in the roots of plants Wilting and retardation of growth and low yield. 1. Crop rotation
2. Use nematicides
11 Downy mildew Fungus Onion Airborne fungus White coating on leaves Underdeveloped or small bulbs 1. Spray with sulphide of potassium
12 Sigatoka Fungus Banana and plantain Airborne fungus Chlorosis of leaves Small bunches and few fingers in bunches 1. Clean weeding and good spacing
2. Use appropriate fungicids
13 Damping off Fungus Okra Airborne-disease and soil borne fungus Rotting of roots and wilting of leaves Yield is reduced 1. Treat soil with fungicides
14 Leaf blotch Fungus Pineapple By airborn fungus Streak on the entire leaf surface Yields are reduced Use copper fungicide to spray affected plants
15 Black arm Bacteria (Xanthomonas malyaccarum rain fungus (Phytophthora palmivora) Cotton Through the stoma Angular sports on leaves Cotton bolls rot. Use resistant varieties
16 Black pod of Cocoa Rain splash, insects and animals Brown spots on pod leading to rotten and black pods The pods become useless leading to reduction in yield 1. Regular weeding of farm
2. Remove and bury all affected pods
3. Spray with fungicide like perenox and Bordeaux mixture
17 Swollen shoot Virus Cocoa By Nymphs or meaty bug and white flies Swelling on the growing parts of the stem and roots Distorted leaves and reduced growth in plants. There is underdevelopment of pods and low yield 1. Destroy all affected plants
2. Use resistant varieties






18 Freckle Fungus Oil palm By wind insects Brown spots on leaves which later dry and die Growth of palm is affected and maturity is delayed 1. Spray with fungicides such as captan, or diethane M45
19 Collar Rot Fungus (Ganoderma Lucidum) Oil palm Soil and wind borne fungus Rotting of old palms near the base of truck The disease can kill the palm tree 1. Disinfect with fungicides
2. Burn all infected trees
20 Antrannose Fungus Oil palm By wind and insects Leaves show clear spots. Spots turn dark-brown or black later and with yellow halo. Growth is affected in the nursery 1. Space germinating seedlings properly
2. Cut off affected parts of leaved and burn
3. Spray with fungicides, Cumin, Dithane M45, cAptan or Ziran in pre-nursery
21 White root Fungus (Fumes lignosus) Rubber Through the soil Leaf defoliation Taproots are attacked by fungi leading to the breakdown of their tissues. Plants die eventually 1. Burning farmland especially old trunks after clearing before planting of seedlings.
22 Mould Fungus Grains and seed By wind Formation of whitish spores on stored produce Grains or seeds are rendered useless 1. Proper drying of produce
2. Avoid dampy stores
3. Protect store from rain or flood.
23 Gummosis Fungus (Phytophhthrora spp) Citrus Through the soil and sided by moist condition The cortex of the citrus plant is killed Gum pockets occur in the cambium. There is exudation of gum from the stem The stem tissue collapse and plant may fall and die 1. Plant resistant varieties e.g. stocks or four orange and rough lemon
2. Bud citrus plants 45cm from the ground and allo no branch below 1m
3. Proper farm drainage and sanitation reduce incidence
24 Tristeza Virus Citrus Through aphid (Toxoptera citricida) Yellowing of terminal shoots in plants; there is stem pitting Growth and yield are affected. The disease can kill the citrus plants. Control by budding plants on Cleopatra tangerine, lake and Sampson. Tangelo stocks and rough lemon


7.3 Nature and Effect of Disease Damage to Crop
The nature of damage caused by a disease on crops depends on the type of disease causing organism.
It also depends on the crops being affected.
Generally, there is a reduction in, the yield of crops affected by the disease. The market value of the product is also reduced. It is estimated that crop diseases account for about 20% loss of yield in il crops all over the world. Disease attack also leads to i of planting materials.

7.4 Stages of Diseases Development and Transmission
There are four major stages of disease development and Ission in crops. These are:
1. Invasion: This is the stage where 'the disease causing agent comes in contact with the host plant.
2. Establishiment
At this stage the disease causing agent enters and establishes llf in the crop tissues.
3. Injury
This is the stage where the disease pathogen multiplies itself leading to the actual attack of the host.
4. Mission/Spread
This is the stage where the disease organism spreads from one plant to a healthy one. The process is aided by wind, water, insects contact and others.










Prevention and Control of Crop Diseases
It is better and more economical to prevent a disease from, crops than to control it when it has occurred. The sure way of cuting diseases, in farms is to prevent the disease causing organism from reaching the crops. This is possible through regular removal of rotten materials from the farm, routine spraying of crops planting resistant varieties and so on.

However, crop diseases can be controlled in the following ways:

1. Cultural Control
The techniques adopted in this control measure include:
(i) Proper care for plants such as regular weeding. This practice reduces the amount of disease attack on the crops.
(ii) Bunting, of farmland: This involves setting farmland on fire before cultivation. The fire helps to kill disease causing agent such as bacteria, fungi, virus and others in the soil.
(iii) Karly Planting: Early planting enables the crops to escape the outbreak of some crop diseases.
(iv) Practicing Crop Rotation: This practice, ensures that crop which suffer from similar diseases do not follow each other in the same rotation. This is to make sure that the cycle of the disease development is disturbed.
(v) Removal of dead plants and other disease harboring agents from the farm. The source of the disease is removed when this is done.
2. Biological Control
This involves the use of good resistant crops varieties to plant. It is a very successful method of controlling most serious plant diseases. Over the years, scientists have developed crop types which have great resistance to some deadly crop diseases. The use of which helps to control most diseases of crops.

3. Chemical Control
This involves the use of chemicals to kill the disease organism affecting the crops. For example: (i) Fungicides such as perenox. Bordeaux mixture, and copper sulphate are used in the
control of fungus diseases.
(ii) Virus diseases can be controlled by using appropriate chemicals such as vetox 85 to kill the vectors e.g. aphids. mealy-bugs white flies, etc. that transmit the virus diseases.
(iii) Most bacterial diseases can now be treated using appropriatle chemicals (bacteriacides) such as Agrosan 5W mercurial duss and acid.
(iv) Nematodes can be controlled by using nematicides such a nemagoiu and DDT.


1. Suite the main groups of disease organism giving examples in each group.
2. What are the confirmatory symptoms of disease affecting grains both in the field and in the store?
3. Explain with a diagram the stages of disease development
4. List four diseases of named crops. Describe the damages done by each disease to the crops.
5. List and explain the different methods by which crop disease can he controlled.
6. Suite three ways bacteria can be useful to man in his activities.
7. List three ways a farmer could prevent a disease from affecting his crops
NATURE AND EFFECT OF DISEASE
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You can read some of most interesting topics below

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS







126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

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TYPES OF FEEDING HABITS IN LIVING ORGANISMS


FEEDING HABITS

The term eating habits refers to why and how people eat, which foods they eat, and with whom they eat, as well as the ways people obtain, store, use, and discard food.
Different organism exhibits different types of feeding habits. These habits are FILTER FEEDING, FLUID FEEDING, PARASITIC FEEDING, SAPROPHYTIC FEEDING, FEEDING IN PROTOZOA, FEDDING IN MAMMALS, FEEDING IN HYDRA
In order to understand these terms of feeding habit one after the other, you have to read on patiently and if there is anything you seem not to understand, please feel free to use our comment box






1.

FILTER FEEDING

Filter feeders which are also called MICROPHAGOUS feeders feed on very tiny organisms which cannot be easily picked to the satisfaction of the feeder.
Filter feeders are mainly aquatic animals
and they have to wallow in water through sieve-like structure into their body in order to collect reasonable quantity of their prey or food.
Typical examples of Filter feeders are the mosquito larva, mussel, ducks and prawns


FILTER FEEDING IN MOSQUITO LARVA

The mouth of mosquito larva, for example has horny jaws and two small ciliated appendages or mouth brushes adapted for feeding. These feeding adaptation is used to create a current of water. The small colloidal particles or plankton, small plants and animals are filtered from water and ingested into the mouth as food
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING

27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY



74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS

83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES






2.

FLUID FEEDING

Animals which feed on any fluid materials are classified as fluid feeders. And these fluid feeding organisms are as follows
i.

WALLOWERS FLUID FEEDING ORGANISMS

: these organisms known as Wallowers fluid feeding organisms rest within or wallow in their food, e.g. the tapeworm is an example of fluid feeding organism in the human intestine. The tapeworm lives within the digested food of its host and absorbs the food directly into its body and that because it has no elementary canal. The tapeworm uses its entire body to absorb already digested food of the host. so it is called fluid feeding organism because it practically lives inside digested food materials of it's host
ii.

SUCKERS FLUID FEEDING ORGANISMS

: suckers feeding organism are organisms mainly insects, which feeds by sucking fluids from plants and animals. Typical examples of these group of sucking organisms are bugs, mosquito (mosquito is the chief cause of malaria), butterfly, tse-tse fly (tse-tse fly causes sleeping sickness for animal and humans), aphid and housefly. Follow this link to read the full article the feeding mechanisms of holozoic organisms such as mosquito, house fly and butterfly


3.

PARASITIC FEEDING

Parasitic feeding is found both plant and animals. Examples of animal parasitic feeders are tapeworm, roundworm, liver fluke, louse, tick and guinea worm while plant parasitic feeder organisms are Cassytha, dodder and mistletoe.
Parasites are structurally modified organisms that depends wholly or partially on other organisms for their food and survival
. The structural adaptation of tapeworm for example demonstrating parasitic feeding had been discussed in this post here PARASITIC NUTRITION.


4.

SAPROPHYTIC FEEDING

Saprophytes are mainly non-green plants which do not have or possess chloroplasts and therefore cannot manufacture their own food.
Saprophytes are plants, fungi, and microorganisms that feed on dead or decaying matter (or, in more current and specific usage, they feed on the fungi that feed on the decaying material). A plant that is a saprophyte is the ghost plant or Indian pipe (Monotropa uniflora),
So they feed on dead and decayed organic matter from which they derive their food. Typical examples of saprophytes are Rhizopus and mushroom, and mucor
The bodies of saprophytes are adapted in the following ways
i. They have hyphae instead of roots through which they pour out enzymes for digestion
ii. They are capable of carrying out extracellular digestion, i.e. digestion of food out the body cells of the plant.
iii. The digested food portion of the organic matter is later reabsorbed into the body






What are some examples of saprophytes?
What are 10 examples of saprophytes?
What is an example of a saprophytic?
What is an example of a saprophytic nutrion?
What is saprophytism and what are some examples?
What is saprophytic bacteria in sewage?
What is an example of a saprophytic organism?
Are bacteria saprophytic?
What are the examples of saprophytic and parasitic nutrition in plants?
What are the different types of saprophytes?
What is an example of a saprophytic bacteria?
What are examples of saprotrophic organisms?

list of saprophytes

1. Rhizopus (bread mould)

2. Mucor

3. Yeast

4. Agaricus

living organisms can also be classified according to the following characteristics

By mode of ingestion
== filter feeding=obtaining nutrients from particles suspended in water
==deposit feeding= obtaining nutrients from particles suspended in soil
==fluid feeding habit=obtaining nutrients by consuming other organisms' fluids,Animals which feed on any fluid materials are classified as fluid feeders

By mode of digestion
By food type
Storage behaviours
in other words living things are mainly grouped into plants and animals
Plants are able to make their own food but animals are not. Different animals have different eating habits. They eat either plants or the flesh of other animals.Some animals feeds on plants. Other animals eat the plant-eating animals. while a host of others eat both plants and animals. so all animals depend on plants for food and so they are called heterotrophs. Now we discuss about different animals and its feeding habits.
According to this we have herbivorous,carnivorous and omnivorous. you can take your out and follow the various links on this page for more information

The following are related link and posts to this topic

1. Modes of nutrition in animals
2. Saprophytic nutrition
3. Parasitic nutrition
4. Forages and farm animal nutrition
5. Water as a food substance

13. What is Kwashiokor?
14. How to test for food
15. Vitamin deficiency symptoms
16. Mineral deficiency symptoms
17. Types of carbohydrates
18. Food substances
19. Classification of food substances

importance of Agricultural Mechanization



Meaning of Mechanisation

Mechanization is concerned with the use of machines in farm work.
In Nigeria or any other country farm work is carried out using simple farm implements.
For example, clearing of land is done with the cutlass, digging of the land with hoe and, planting with cutlass and trowel.
The introduction of machines into farming has enabled, for instance, land clearing to. be carried out more easily with the bulldozer.
Digging of the land before seeds are planted can now be done with either the disc or mouldboard plough. Different machines called planters are now available to plant different crops.
In addition, different crop harvesters are now in existence for the harvesting of mature crops.








Advantages of farm mechanisation


(a) It removes the difficulty in farming. Farm work is considered by people to be very hard. The use of machines therefore makes farming enjoyable.

(b) Large areas of farm Ind can be prepared within very short time. This means that mechanization saves time.

(c) It allows the farmer to perform some difficult jobs easily; for example, the felling of trees is easily done with the motor-saw instead of the axe and cutlass.

(d) Mechanization saves labour. Very few labourers are required when machines are employed on the farm.

(e) It increases farm productivity because of large cope operation. Increased productivity leads to higher farm income and standard of living. (

f) The cost of using machines on the farm is cheaper in the long run compared with the cost of farm-labour that is always rising

(g) It prevents bad agricultural practices such as complete burning all vegetation on new farmland. In addition, large areas of farm land can still be cultivated by the farmer during one cropping season

(h) It enables the farmers to use surplus farm products profitably, For example, the crop dryer allows quick and easy drying of crop product such as rice, maize, sorghum and wheat.
Crop product can be processed into different products, more acceptable to consumers. In addition, surplus perishable products such as tomatoes, vegetables, milk and meat can be stored for a long time using the refrigerator for cold storage.

(i) The use of machines in farming may attract young and educated persons to take up farming as an occupation.

(j) The mechanisation of farming may release some workers formerly engaged in farming to take up jobs in Agro-allied industries in urban centres.
Disadvantages of mechanization

Disadvantages of farm mechanization

(a) Many of the farm- workers will be jobless.
With the use of machines, the work that can be done by many workers be carried out by very few farm hands.
The others need to be retained before they can fit into new jobs.

(b) The use of heavy machine. such as the bulldozers and tractors destroys soii structure. This may result in soil erosion caused by water.

(c) The environment is polluted because of the use of machines. The exhaust from motor-vehicles and scraps from machines and Blirinenls result in environmental pollution

(d) The use of heavy machines leads to soil compaction. The continuous use of tillage implements results in the development of hard soil layer below the soil surface. This reduces water inhiliation in the soil as well as crops roots penetration.

(e) Mechanization has direct production to those crops that are mechanized such as rice, maize, and few others.

The production of crops such as coco-yam and yam that are not easily produced with the aid of machines is therefore declining yearly.

(f) Machinery requires large capital investment. Only farmers that have enough money will be able to acquire machines.

(g) The use of machines in farming requires adequate and continuous supply of energy from fuel and electricity. Problems will arise if the supply is not enough, or is lacking.


Problems of farm mechanization in Nigeria









(a) Farm holdings are very small: farm mechanization is only suitable with large farm holdings.

(b) Most of the farmers poor. Tractors and other farm machines are costly and many farmers cannot buy them.

(c) Nigerian soils contain large tree stumps, roots and stones. These breakdown farm machines and render them useless. Also the presence of small hills, pits and moats makes the land rugged and unsuitable for machines.

(d) There is lack of adequate facilities for the maintenance of farm machines. The result is that machines can be rendered useless because of minor faults.

(e) The people that have skills to operate the tractor and other farm machines. Many farmers do not have the money to employ those that are trained in the use of farm machines.


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You can read some of most interesting topics below

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE







126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

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list of land tenure system in West Africa and Nigeria



LAND TENURE SYSTEM IN NIGERIA
Land tenure is defined as the system of land ownership or acquisition by individual, family, community or government agency either for temporary or permanent use.
The land tenure system in West Africa varies with tribes, communities and states. It can be classified into the following groups:



Communal land tenure
Land tenure by inheritance
Leasehold system
Land tenure by tenancy
Land tenure by purchase
Land tenure by purchase or freehold
Land tenure by free gift or pledge
Tenant at the will of government


Note: Land tenure by
Freehold system
Leasehold system
Gift system
Tenant at the will of government inheritance system are collectively referred to as individual land tenure systems.

land tenure systems in Nigeria

LAND TENURE SYSTEM IN NIGERIA
Land tenure is defined as the system of land ownership or acquisition by individual, family, community or government agency either for temporary or permanent use.

The land tenure system in West Africa varies with tribes, communities and states. It can be classified into the following groups:



  • Communal land tenure
  • Land tenure by inheritance
  • Leaseholdsystem
  • Land tenure by tenancy
  • Land tenure by purchase
  • Land tenure by purchase or freehold
Land tenure by free gift or pledge
Tenant at the will of government


Note: Land tenure by

  • Freehold system*
  • Leasehold system
    * Gift system


   * Tenant at the will of government inheritance system are collectively referred to as individual land tenure systems.






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list of pre-planting and post-planting operations in agricultural production

PRE-PLANTING

, PLANTING AND POST PLANTING OPERATIONS IN CROP PRODUCTION
EFFECTIVE CULTURAL PRACTICES IN CROP PRODUCTION
(1)     Transplanting
(i)     The transfer of seedlings from nursery beds to their permanent positions in the field.
(ii)     The tools used for transplanting are hand trowel, digger, hoe or cutlass. (iii) Plant is removed with a ball of soil around its roots.
(iv)     Mostly done in cool weather, in morning or evening times.
(v)     Transplants require shading to reduce wilting.
(vi)     Soil around roots at permanent site are firmed to eliminate air pockets for good root establishment.
(vii)     Watering is done morning and evening.
(viii)     Mulch after transplanting to reduce evapo-transpiration.
(ix)     Usually done at the early stages of development of the crop plant, long before maturity.
(x)     Weak or diseased seedling should not be transplanted.

SOME CULTURAL PRACTICES IN CROP PRODUCTION
(2)     Shading
(i)     Art of erecting cover above seedlings.
(ii)      Protects seedlings from harsh external environmental conditions e.g. sun and rain drops. Reduces evapo-transpiration. Shades are progressively removed until they are finally dispensed with.
Materials used for shading include palm fronds, tall grasses and tarpaulins.


3.    Supplying / filling-in
(i)    The replacement of seeds that fail to germinate or seedling that dies
(ii)    It is earned out to maintain desired plant population.
(iii)    Usually done by transplanting new seedlings or planting new seeds in the site for the ungerminated seed.
(iv)     It is usually manually done.
(v)     Done within 2 weeks of 1st planting to obtain uniformity in growth (growth uniformity).
(4)     Nursery
(i)     Nursery can be practised in polypots, seed boxes and bed.
(ii)     Seeds which are smaller and delicate or plants which are delicate while young require pre-planting sites known as nurseries
(in)     Is meant to have seedlings become adjusted to the harsh environment
(iv)     Nursery sites should have good top soil with good drainage
(v)     Seeds are mostly broadcast or drilled and lightly covered with soil.
(vi)     Watering is done with a fine rose watering can
All seed boxes, beds, drills must be properly labeled
Nurseries are usually shaded
Usually enclosed or fenced
Weeding, pest and disease control and application of fertilizer are usually practiced in the nursery
(5)     Seed rate: Seed rate refers to the quantity of seeds required to plant one hectare of land. Quantity of seeds used usually depends on spacing or plant population desired. (e.g the seed rate of maize is 25 —30 kg/ hectare).
(6)     Thinning: Thinning is the removal of weak plants from a stand, to give rise to one or two vigorous crop plants. It is usually done by hand and practised when the crop plants are very young.
(7)     Weeding: This is the removal of unwanted plants which grow among cultivated crops. Weeding is done regularly on farmlands in order to prevent competition with crops for space, sunlight, nutrients, soil moisture, soil oxygen, etc. Weeding can be done manually by hoeing, cutlassing, etc or chemically with the use of specific herbicides, or mechanically with machine.
(8)     Mulching: Mulching is the covering of heaps or ridges with dry leaves to reduce soil temperature, conserve soil moisture and prevent rottening of some• crop plants, e.g. yam setts.
(9)    Spacing: Spacing refers to the distance within and between crop plants in a farmland. This ensures greater yield of crops and prevents over — crowding. and easy ventilation within and between rows of crop plantsFor example, the spacing for maize could be 90 cm x 30 cm at one seed per hole or 75cm x 25cm at two seeds per ho1e.
(1))    Staking: Staking is the act of providing stakes or certain plant or wood to enable the crop plants stand erect and prevent lodging. Stems are tied or trained to the stakes. Staking allows for good fruiting and keeps fruits from disease attack arising from contact with soil. Staking is usually done before flowering. Examples of crop plants that require staking are tomato and yam.
(11)     Pruning: Pruning is the removal of lower branches of crop plant using sharp cutlass. Pruning encourages better canopy formation, more light penetration and improved air movement. Examples of crops that usually require pruning are cocoa, oil palm, rubber, orange, mango, etc.

pest and diseases of cassava and their control methods

<h1>Pest and diseases of Cassava and control methods</h1>
Variegated Grasshopper
Variegated Grasshopper:
Adults and nymphs at up the leaves and young and eat up the tubers.
Control:
Trapping
Shooting with gun
Wire fencing round the farm



<h2>Diseases of Cassava and control</h2>
Types of cassava diseases
Cassava  mosaic disease of cassava
Bacteria blight of cassava
Angular leaf spot of cassava

<h2>Cassava mosaic disease and symptoms:</h2>
It is caused by virus which is transmitted by a piercing and sucking insect (white flies).
Symptoms of cassava leaf spot disease
Symptoms include vein clearing and distortion of the leaves and stunted plants
Control
Grow resistant varieties
Uproot and burn infected plants
Use disease free planting materials


<h2>Bacteria blight of cassava and control:</h2>
It is caused by bacteria which are transmitted by infected cuttings.
Symptoms
These include angular, water- soaked area of discoloured leaf tissue, blighting, wilting and reduction in yield.
Control Bacteria blight of cassava:
Use resistant varieties
Use lean and disease-free stem cuttings

(3)     Angular leaf spot: It is caused by a fungus.

Symptoms: include spores which produce pale, brownish colour on affected leaves Control:
(i)     Spray with fungicide, e.g., Bordeaux mixture.

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types of reproduction in spirogyra

Reproduction process in spirogyra How does spirogyra reproduce? Is spirogyra an animal or a plant? Does spirogyra make use of male and female part in reproduction? All these are questions that begs for answers and build me a little further, I will explain the process of reproduction as found in spirogyra and some other microscopic organisms There are basically two ways in which spirogyra reproduces. These processes through which a spandrel can reproduce its Young Ones can be seen in two weeks of forms So the two major ways in which spirogyra produces is known as conjugation and fragmentation. 1. What is conjugation process of reproduction in spirogyra? Conjugation is a simple type of sexual reproduction which occurs in some lower organisms such as mucor, rhizopus, paramecium and spirogyra. In other words conjugation is the process in reproduction found in some lower organisms by which nuclear materials are passed from one cell to another. In spirogyra for example conjugation starts with two filament called conjugant coming together to lie side by side. So as this country can't come together to lie side by side lateral outgrowth start to develop opposite each other from opposite cell in the two filament of the spirogyra during this process of conjugation The outgrowth meet and the separating wall dissolves and form a continuous channel called conjugation tube. And meanwhile the cytoplasm of each cell shrinks away from the cell walls and roundup to form gamete. So one of the gamete regarded as the male migrate through the conjugation tube into the other cell.. so during this time the cytoplasm of the two cell fused together including the nuclei which will also fuse together and is zygote is formed. After sometimes the zygote or zygosphere will germinate and the new filament is formed. this type of reproduction in spirogyra is called sexual reproduction of 2. What is fragmentation process of reproduction in spirogyra? The fragmentation process of reproduction found in spirogyra is a process that a part of an organism breaks up or fragments and gives rise to a new individual. The process of fragmentation in spirogyra is a form of regeneration. Fragmentation process of reproduction occurs in organisms like algae. When fragmentation process of reproduction occurs in spirogyra it is when a filament reaches a certain length and part of it breaks away and grows into a new filament this type of reproduction in spirogyra is called asexual or vegetative reproduction. Thank you for coming to our website today feel free to use our social media handles to share with your friends and families and don't forget to leave us a comment behind if you have any suggestions to give

how does paramecium reproduce

Reproduction in paramecium We all know that paramecium is a microscopic organisms that lives in the Water. Paramecium is so small that you can only see it with the aid of a microscope. So if this animal called paramecium that sometime probably seen as a plant is a microscopic organism then the reproductive system, how does it look like? is paramecium a male or a female organism? how does paramecium reproduce? how many months does it take paramecium to reproduce a new daughter cell? 1. Reproduction process in paramecium Paramecium reproduces in two ways the first is asexual reproduction known as binary fission while the second method of reproduction in paramecium is known as sexual reproduction also known as conjugation Reproduction in paramecium just like amoeba reproduces by binary fission. Binary fission in other words is known as the simplest type of asexual reproduction in unicellular organisms. A. Binary fission in paramecium This process of reproduction in paramecium is very simple, here the parent organisms simply divide into two or more parts then each of this daughter cell that is divided can exist by itself. so in paramecium where the cell just divides into two identical part the process is called binary fission This type of reproduction is classified as asexual reproduction. binary fission is a reproductive system found in microscopic organisms whereby the parent cell divides into two with identical parts it is known as binary fission. Now that you have learnt about the binary fission process of reproduction in paramecium I want to take you further to the other part of reproduction in paramecium known as conjugation B. Conjugation process of reproduction in paramecium In some unicellular organisms like paramecium sexual reproduction also occur and very simple type of reproduction. So in conjugation process of reproduction in paramecium the wholesale may act as a gamete. During conjugation process of reproduction that is found in most unicellular organisms like paramecium in this process, The Whole cell acting as a garmete may then pair with another similar whole cell and exchange nuclei Thank you for coming to our website today to read some of our article feel free to explore sofa archives using our page gadget and search channel

reproductive processes in amoeba

Reproduction in amoeba How does amoeba reproduce? Is there a special reproductive system found in amoeba? First of all amoeba is a microscopic animal. Talking about amoeba as a microscopic organisms or animal we simply mean that this animal called amoeba cannot be seen with the naked eye except with the aid of a microscope How reproduction occur in amoeba as an organism Reproduction in amoeba occurs through a process called binary fission. 1. What is binary fission Binary fission is a process of asexual reproduction in unicellular organisms in which a single cell divides into two equal parts by mitosis to produce two new daughter cells. 2. What is multiple fission? Multiple fission is a reproductive process in amoeba to which Division of the cell is divided into more than two. .

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