RANGE LAND MANAGEMENT



MEANING OF RANGELAND AND PASTURE

A rangeland is an extensive area of land which contains forage grasses and legumes and other herbage plants where animals like cattle, sheep and goat can graze. The forage plants such as the grasses and legumes used for grazing by the farm animals are called Pasture.

IMPORTANCE OF RANGE-LAND

(i) Rangeland provides food for livestock, especially ruminants
(ii) Grasses and legumes in the rangeland, when cut at early flowering stages of growth, can be preserved in the form of hay or silage.





(iii) Rangeland allows animals to exercise their body.
(iv) The animals have access to varieties of forage, thus eating balanced feed.
(v) Rangeland reduces the cost feeding animals, especially ruminants.
(vi) Rangeland increases infiltration and percolation of water, thereby reducing run-off and soil erosion
(vii) Dead plant materials from rangeland build up the fertility of the soil
(viii) Rangeland affords animals the opportunity for mating without the supervision of the livestock attendant
(ix) Rangeland also provides adequate nutrients to the soil through legumes which fix nitrogen into the soil by the bacteria in their root nodules
FACTORS OF PRODUCTION IN AGRICULTURE

CHARACTERISTICS OF RANGELAND

(i) It contains high quality grasses and legumes
(ii) It contains no weed except some plants for shades
(iii) Selected grasses and legumes are grown in adequate proportion
(iv) It has a high regenerative ability after being fed on by animals
(v) It can withstand trampling by farm animals
(vi) It is properly managed for high productivity of the forage crops, e.g fertilization, irrigation and rotational grazing.


COMMON GRASSES OF LIVESTOCK IN RANGELAND

Common name Botanical name
1 Elephant grass Pennisetum purpureum
2 Guinea grass Panicum maximum
3 Giant star grass Cynodon plectostchyum
4 Carpet grass Axonopus compressus
5 Spear grass Imperata cylindrical
6 Bahama grass Cynodon dactylon
7 Northern gamba Andropogon gayanus
8 Southern gamba Andropogon tectorum


COMMON LEGUMES OF LIVESTOCK IN RANGELAND

Common name Botanical name
1 Centro Centrosema pubescens
2 Stylo Stylosanthes gracilis
3 Kudzu or puero Pureraria phascoloides
4 Calopo Calopogonium mucunoides
5 Mucuna Mucuna utilis
6 Sun hemp Crotalaria juncea







FACTORS AFFECTING THE LEVEL OF PRODUCTION OF HERBAGE

Factors which affect the level of productivity of herbage include:
(1) Rainfall: Rainfall is needed for the continuous growth of grasses and legumes. Rainfall helps to dissolve nutrients and make it available to pasture plants.
(2) Grass and Legumes Mixture: Pasture or rangeland should include a mixture of grasses and legumes because legumes help to increase the fertility of the soil for rapid growth of the grasses.
(3) Grazing: The range should be carefully planned to ensure adequate grazing should be adopted to provide opportunity for the grazed plants to regenerate. Overgrazing, a condition whereby there are too many animals on a piece of grassland feeding on the herbage should be avoided.
(4) Removal of Trees: Trees within the rangeland should be cut off since they can provide shade that might prevent grasses and legumes from receiving adequate sunlight. This can reduce the productivity of herbage
(5) Fertility of the soil: The soil on which herbage plants grow must be fertile so that their production can be enhanced
(6) Control of weeds: for herbage plants to improve their productivity, weeds must be removed from the rangeland regularly, since they compete with herbage plants for nutrients, space and sunlight
(7) Avoidance of overstocking: The correct number of animals should be allowed to graze a specified area of pasture


METHODS OF RANGE LAND AND PASTURE IMPROVEMENT

To ensure the continuous availability of grasses and legumes, it is necessary to adopt some management principles that would lead to the improvement of rangeland and pasture. Such principles are:

(1) Controlled Stocking: This refers to the situation whereby the correct number of animals are allowed to graze a particular area of land. An adequate stocking rate should be maintained as overstocking could lead to deterioration of the rangeland.

(2) Reseeding: This involves replanting of seeds of forage crops on a depleting rangeland. When animals have grazed a lot on a rangeland, the crops may start to show signs of dying off, then reseeding becomes necessary. The farmer should improve on the range by broadcasting new seeds and allowing the rangeland to rest. Reseeding is most beneficial where rotational grazing is practiced.
(3) Legume and Grass Mixture: In a natural grassland without legumes, the farmer may improve it by introducing legume seeds into the rangeland. Legumes provide protein for animals and also add nutrients to the soil. Once the legume and grass mixture has been established, it should be maintained. Legumes such as: pueraria, Centrosema and stylosanthes can be used
(4) Paddocking: Paddocking involves dividing the rangeland into a number of plots or sections with fences. The animals normally feed on each section on a rotational basis. This allows for good regeneration of forage crops and prevents the pests and diseases build-up. It also prevents selective grazing of grasses and legumes. While the animals are grazing on one section, others will be at rest. The farmer may cut forage for hay and silage from the resting rangeland.






(5) Avoidance of Overgrazing: Overgrazing involves constant grazing and cutting of forage crops such that the crops start to die and the land becomes bare. Overgrazing and overstocking should be avoided as it leads to the destruction of rangeland and erosion. It also leads to overgrazing and soil pulverization.
(6) Use of Fertilizers: Fertilizers should be applied to rangeland plants. This ensures enough foliage formation for grazing and silage preparation. Compound fertilizers e.g. N.P.K should be applied once every year or two.
(7) Pest Control: In order to destroy some pests of crops and animals, it may be necessary to spray the rangeland with suitable pesticides. This ensures that the rangeland is pest-free. It reduces the rate of disease spread.
(8) Controlled Burning: This aids regeneration of forage crops. It also sanitizes the rangeland, i.e. by getting rid of weeds, seeds, disease organisms and pests. It adds some nutrients e.g. potassium to the soil
(9) Irrigation: Rangeland should be irrigated especially during dry season to ensure an all-year round availability of fresh and succulent grasses.

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
75. SOIL WATER
80. SANDY SOIL CLAY SOIL LOAMY SOIL
83. SOIL TEXTURE
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES





soil improvement techniques
90. MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112. THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING CLEARING
121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING FARM YARD MANURE
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149. PLOUGHS
142. FIELD MACHINES
157. PLANTERS
164. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION





SOURCES OF FARM POWER IN AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE


Sources of farm power

Farm power can be described as any source of energy(energy transfer in an ecosystem read here) or force that can be used in doing farm work.
The common sources of farm power are human, animal, mechanical, solar, wind, electrical, water and fuel
1. HUMAN POWER
2. WATER POWER
3. WIND POWER
4. SOLAR POWER
5. FUEL POWER
6. ELECTRICAL POWER
7. MECHANICAL POWER AND
8. ANIMAL POWER

1.

Human sources of farm power

HUMAN POWER
Human beings are the main source of power for operating small tools and implements.
This is where energy for doing farm work is supplied by man. Almost all types of farm work require human effort. Land clearing, digging, planting of crops, weeding and harvesting are some of the uses of human power. the use of human farm input
is usually used in the practice of subsistence agriculture. this type of farm input requires the use of simple farm tools and implements for most the farming activities. in commercial agriculture, the use of human farm input is largely limited so animal power or mechanical farm input in used. the use cutlass, hoe, rake, head pan, and spade majorly used and it is done in subsistence agriculture



2.

Animal sources of farm power

In some places, animals provide the energy for doing farm work. Animals can be used to pull tillage implements such as the ploughs and harrows.
They are also used to transport farm produce by the farmer. The use of animals in doing farm work is common in Northern parts of Nigeria where tse-tse fly infestation is low and people are use to the handling of animals. well the use of animals in farm work is as old as man himself. animals like cattle of different breed are used as animal power in farming activity. these animals can be used as tillage machine in place of tractors for tilling the ground for pre-planting and planting operation. the use of animals as farm input can enhance production thereby facilitating the practice of commercial agriculture and large scale crop farming or production








3.

Mechanical sources of farm power

This is power supplied by machines through the burning of fuel or electricity. The The tractors, bulldozers, harvesters and sheller are common sources of mechanical power. Mechanical power can be employed for land clearing, ploughing and 'harrowing, planting of crops-and processing. 4. This is where sun is the source of farm power. The energy is employed by local farmers in the drying of farm products such as cocoa, groundnut, rice, melon and beans. The ability to harness solar proper use is still lacking among the majority of Nigerian farmers.

5.

Wind sources of farm power

The energy for farm work is sometimes supplied by the Wind power can be made use of by the windmills. This can employed in pumping water for domestic and irrigation purposes. Electricity can also be generated from the windmill. Wind power is greatly used in the winnowing of farm products such as melon and rice by local farmers.


6.

Electrical sources of farm power

This is where electrical energy is used to operate farm machines. Many of the processing machines employ electrical power. The energy from electricity is equally used for the supply of light in the farm, incubation of eggs, drying of farm products such as maize and in refrigerators and cold storage(farm storage system).

7.

Water sources of farm power

Water power can be employed as energy for doing farm work through the construction of hydro-electrical power station.
It involves the building of dams such as the Kainji Dam built across the River Niger.
The electrical energy generated can be used to operate many farm machines and supply light to homes and offices.
Water is also employed in the transportation of farm products in riverine areas.

8.

Fuel sources of farm power

Energy is supplied by machines through the burning of fuel.
Common fuels that supply energy include the petrol, diesel oil and kerosene. Other fuels that are used by farmers are wood and coal.
The energy generated through the burning of fuel is used to move the tractor and some other farm machines.









Wood and cola sources of farm power

provide heat during burning and such heat can be used for drying farm produce.
solar


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Agricultural biology topics









HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS

40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES

56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT









USES OF BARNS


1.

Barns

These are used for storing yam tubers. The method involves the tying of yam tubers with strong twine to small vertical poles, which are supported by strong horizontal poles, also tied to solid stakes. Shade is needed over the barn to prevent the tubers from excessive drying

Advantages of the barn method

1. It is cheap to construct as forest woods and ropes can readily obtained (especially in the high forest).
2. The yam tubers do not get rotten quickly because they are raised from the ground
3. It is easy to detect any tuber that is going bad.
4. It can be
used to safeguard yam tubers from being eaten by the mammalian pests (e.g. rodents) and insect pests (e.g. yam beetle)
Disadvantages
1. The method is laborious
2. Yam tubers are affected by weather conditions. For example tubers become dehydrated after
some time.

2. Boxes and Underground Pits or Trenches These are used for storing cassava tubers. Yam tubers can also be ill lor a short time in underground pits immediately after harvest. Underground pit is most common for storing cassava tubers. Under this method, layers of palm fronds are laid at the bottom of the pit. Then one or two layers of cassava tubers which must be harvested it bruise, are arranged on top of the fronds. Another layer of is laid and tubers arranged on top. This procedure is followed ill tin pit is filled or the tubers to be stored are finished. The top is llh covered with a layer of palm fronds and about 10 cm thick of soil.
The use of boxes has the same procedure, except that moist saw dust is used in place of palm fronds. The moist saw dust is placed round on top of the tubers and the tubers are also arranged in layers.

Advantages
1. It can be used to store cassava tubers up to 6 weeks.
2. The method is cheap and not too laborious.
3. If boxes are used, they can be transported.

Disadvantages







1. Cassava tubers may get rotten if not properly stored
2. It cannot keep tubers for a very long time.

3.

Silos

These are used for storing dry grains such as .maize,guinea corn and rice. They are made of cement, metal or aluminum and are tall, round, looking like towers.

importance of silos

Silo used for Storing Dry Grains.

Advantages of silos
1. They protect the products from insects and rodents.
2. They can accommodate large quantities of grains.
3. Because they are alright, fumigants can be safely used to protect the grains.
4. They can test for Very long time.

Disadvantages of silos
1. Silos are very expensive to construct
2. They are not movable. . .
3. Grains could mould if not dried properly.

4. Cribs
These are also used to store maize particularly dried unshelled cobs which have been dehusked. Cribs consist of side poles covered by wiwe—mesh or lined closely with thatch or zinc.



DIAGRAM
Figure 3.7.3: Maize Cobs in a Crib.

Advantages
1. It is cheap and easy to use.
2. Grains are protected from rodents and birds.
3. The method can keep maize for a long time.

Disadvantages
1. It cannot accommodate large quantities at a time
2. Does not protect the grains from insects or weevils.

5. Bags or Sacks
These include jute and hessian bags as well as polythene bags. They are used for storing products such as garri(cassava flour), melon, rice and other grains. They can be kept in rooms or store while raised from the ground.

Advantages
1. They are simple and cheap to use.
2. Different sizes are available for use for different quantities of products.
3. They can be used for a wide variety of products.
4. They make transportation of products easy.

Disadvantages
. They are not solid enough to protect products from rats and insects.
2. They require good rooms or store for safe-keeping.
read more on farm storage here
don't forget to use the comment box and leave a message or suggestion and we will get back to you within seconds.

You can read some of most interesting topics below

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE







79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES

126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION







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