TILLAGE MECHINARIES, IMPLEMENTS AND THEIR USES

Tillage machinery

This refers to the tillage implements that are first used to open or loosen the soil w preparing it to receive seeds. This initial opening of the soil is called primary tillage. The primary tillage implement are the ploughs
There are two types of tillage machinery. These are:

Primary tillage machinery:
This refers to the tillage implements that are first used to open or loosen the soil w preparing it to receive seeds. This initial opening of the soil is called primary tillage. The primary tillage implement are the ploughs.


Ploughs:
The ploughs are primary tillage implements unlike simple farm tools that used initially to break and turn the soil-over in the course preparing it for planting. Ploughs break soil into large clods lumps.Tillageis the working of soils or loosening of soils before seeds are planted. The purpose of soil tillage is to provide:
(a) Suitable seed-bed for seed germination and emergence,
(b) Easy water infiltration,
(c) Better soil aeration or air movement,
(d) Control of weeds,







(e) Erosion control,
(f) To work organic matter into the soil, and
(g) Adverse environment for soil inhabiting pathogens and pests.

There are two types of tillage machinery. These are:


Primary tillage machinery:
This refers to the tillage implements that are first used to open or loosen the soil w preparing it to receive seeds. This initial opening of the soil is called primary tillage. The primary tillage implement are the ploughs.
(b)
Ploughs:
The ploughs are primary tillage implements that used initially to break and turn the soil-over in the course preparing it for planting. Ploughs break soil into large clods lumps.



The ploughs are of three types. These are the moldboard plough, chisel plough, and the disc plough.The mouldboard plough amongst other parts, has the caughter and share for cutting and mouldboard for inverting the soil. Most importantly,
The disc plough has discs or concave metal blades that cut into the and turn it over. The discs are mounted on frames called disc standards. The standards connect the discs to the beam or hols and cylindrical part of the plough. The disc plough can better and is more adapted to Nigerian soils than the mouldboard plough.

The ploughs are usually attached to be pulled by the tract Work animals such as bullocks can also be used to pull plough for land cultivation.



(B)

Secondary tillage machinery:

This refers to tillage implements used to cultivate the soil after the ploughs have initially been used.

The purposes of secondary tillage include:


1. To break down the large solid clods obtained from primary tillage.
2. Kill weeds further
3. Incorporate manure or fertilizers into the soil, and
4. Produce suitable tilt or soil structure for seeds


The secondary tillage machinery includes the harrows, ridgers, cultivators, rotavators and rollers.


Harrows
The harrows are secondary tillage implements used for breaking help to put the soil in good seed-bed condition for seed emergence. The use of harrows kills weeds not affected by the ploughs. The implement can also be used to cover seeds with soil after broadcast.
The harrows consist of disc, or tines that are fitted to a shaft. All the parts rotate as one unit. The implement is hitched or attached to the tractor during farm operation.
Different types of harrows are in existence. They include:
1. The disc harrow
2. Spike toothed harrow
3. Spring tine harrow and
4. Tandem disc harrow

(ii)

Ridgers:

The ridger is an implement that is used to turn the soil in one direction after ploughing to form ridges. Crops such asyam, cassava and potato can be sown thereafter.

There are two types of ridges. These are the disc ridger and mouldboard ridger.

The two ridgers work in the same way. However, the disc ridger 1 is better for use in Nigerian soils. This is because the soil contains obstacles such as stumps, roots and stones. At times the soils are sticky and disc ridger can effectively work in such conditions without frequent breakdown.
The disc ridger consists of opposed concave discs which actually make the ridges. The discs are fitted to mental frame called standard.This is bolted to a bigger frame called beam. The ridger is attached to the tractor during field operation. The mouldboard ridger has features common to the disc
ridger. It however has concave or convex blades used to turn the soil in order to form rid»es.


(iii)

Cultivator:

The cultivator is a secondary tillage implement. It is attached to the tractor during field operation. It consists of several tines used to stir the soil and breakdown soil clods. The cultivator is also used for weed combing, and dragging out stones and tree roots from the soil. The implement can be used for weeding and incorporating fertilizers into the soil after broadcast.
(iv)

Rotavator:

This is also a secondary tillage implement that has set of rotating blades. It breaks up soil clods and farm thrashes are chopped up in the process for easy decomposition.








4
Other farm machinery
(a)

Seed drills:

These machines can be operated by tractor or by hand. They drop or plant seeds and in some cases, discharge fertilizer at the same time. Most seed drills plant crops in row. They are set up to plant seeds at appropriate rate and distance. Crops such as maize, rice, wheat, barley, rye. oat and beans can br planted using the drills.





(b)
Planters:
These are machines designed to plant seeds. Some of them are built to plant one type of seed. Others can plant more than one type of crop. This is achieved by changing the plates.
The planter built to plant seeds in rows with enough distance between the stands is referred to as row planter. Some plant are able to plant seeds and distribute fertilizer at the same time
The planters can be mounted on a tractor or trailed.



(c)
Lathes:
The lathe is a machine that is used for holding and turning wood or metal into different shapes. Today, there many different lathes used for all types of shaping of mi materials.

The kinds of lathes developed from the centre lathe capstan lathes, turrel lathes, cropping lathes, automatic lat|j and special purpose- lathes. In the school workshop, la operations are turning, facing, drilling, boring, parting, knurl! and sometimes screw cutting.

(d)
Motor-saw or powered chain-saw:
This is a machine consists of a small petrol engine, steel blade and chain round the blade. The chain rotates during operation and is the cut edge of the machine. The motor-saw has two handles for ei handling and positioning during use. The machine is becoming popular among small-scale farmers because:
(i) It is used in cutting down (felling) trees during farming preparation.
(ii)It is used in felling and cutting timber trees into logs.
(iii)it Also used to split logs into planks.
(iv) It is used in trimming the big branches of trees.

(e)
Harvesters:
These are machines designed for the harvesting of ripe and mature crops from the field.

Common harvest machines are:


(i) Combine harvester,
(ii) Forage harvesters.
(iii)Corn pickers
(iv) Balers,
(v) Cotton scrippers-. and
(vi) Field mowers.


The combine harvester is commonly used in commercial farms for the harvesting of cereals such as rice, maize, wheat, barley As the name suggests, the combine cuts the standing crops, separates the seeds from the chaff, and collects the grains tank while tank while the crop residues are thrown Held. These activities are completed in one operation.

The forage harvesters are machines used in cutting forage crops (grasses and legumes) for making silage to be kept for feeding animals during the dry season.

The field mowers (weeders) are machines used to cut grasses for hay making. They are also used for clearing farms lawns and parks. Most field mowers are designed in rows. Examples are the blade mower and the drum mower

(f)
Sprayer
This is a machine consisting of tank where chemical is stored pump, spray booms and nozzles.

The sprayer is used for:


1. Applying herbicides, insecticides and fungicides.
2. Watering crops
3. Applying liquid fertilizers.
4. Applying hormones to increase fruit yield or prevent dropping of fruits.


There are three types of sprayer. These are:

1.
The simple knapsack sprayer:
This can take between nine and twenty-three litres of solution. It is usually mounted and tiped to the back of the operator during field operation.
2.
The tractor mounted sprayer:
This is attached to the tractor during field operation. The sprayer is operated by the power take-off or P.T.O.
3.
The knapsack engine operated:
This type is made of plastic tank for the liquid chemical and uses petrol as Its source power. As in the simple knapsack, the operator i the spray boom to the crops or objects to be sprayed.

Spraying with chemicals should not be done during bad weather. The chemicals left after spraying exercise must not be poured in places where they can contaminate vegetables, and drinking water

Protective covers should be used by the operator during field operation. Sprayers should be washed, cleaned after use, and a safe place until when needed.

5.
Accessory Tools
These are tools which are useful for the effective utilization of farm machines. They include:

(a)
Pliers:
This tool is like a pair of scissors. It is made with two handles having plastic coverings. The pliers holding things such as wires during electrical
(b)
Screw drivers:
These are made of round rods which are beaten flat at the tips. The handles are either made of wooden materials. The screw driver is used for tightening and re-tightening of screws, it is also used for loosening screw. There is also the star-screw driver with multiple or star-like grooves.
(c)
Nuts and bolts:
Nuts are small pieces of metal num screwed onto the end of a bolt. On the other hand, bolts are metal pins with heads. Nuts and bolts are together used for holding parts of machines together or in place.


(d)
Spanners:
The spanners are made of metal. Some have the two ends split into two teeth for holding nuts and bolts. the spanner is essentially used for:
( i) tightening and re-tightening of nuts and bolts: and
(ii) loosening nuts and bolts.

(e)
Hammers:
The hammer consists of a thick small metal head and a wooden or metal handle. It is used for knocking in nailing and also to beat metals into flat shapes.

(f)
Alien key:
This is a tool that is used in tightening, re tightening and loosening deep seated nuts or nuts that cannot be reached with the ordinary spanner or screw driver.

(g)
Oil applicator or can:
This contains oil which is applied to engine parts with the help of its pointed tip.

(h)
Grease gun:
This instrument is used to apply grease into engine parts. It consists of the tank and a long pipe with which the "tease is pumped into inner parts of engines.

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You can read some of most interesting topics below
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING

37. COCOA

39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION

FARM SURVEYING AND MATERIALS



FARM SURVEYING AND PLANNING

MEANING OF FARM SURVEYING
Farm surveying is defined as the process of measuring and mapping out the position, topography, size and boundary of an area of farmland. It can also be defined as the process by which measuring of land is made on the farm. Such measurements by tables, plans or layout are done for specific purposes.

IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEYING AND PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE

Reasons why farm surveying is important include the following:
(1) Determination of size of farmland: Farm survey helps to determine the size or hectare of farmland.
(2) For feasibility studies: Farm survey is also important or useful for the preparation of feasibility studies.
(3) Proper use of farmland: Farm survey enables farmers to make proper use of the land.
(4) Location of farm buildings: Farmers can determine where to site and locate certain buildings or structures in the farm.
(5) Planning of farmstead: Farm maps or soil maps are useful in planning the farmstead.
(6) For soil classification: Characteristics and features of the various soil units are used for soil classification.
(7) Projection of yield: The yield or productivity of farmland can be projected.
(8) For collateral security: Results of farm survey can be used as collateral for securing loan from financial institutions.
(9) Acquisition of certificate of occupancy (C of O): Farm survey facilities acquisition of certificate of occupancy (C of O).
(10) Determination of gradient of farmland: Farm survey also helps to determine the gradients of the farmland.
(11) Construction of roads: Road and others access ways can be constructed with the knowledge derived from surveying of the land.








SOME COMMON SURVEYING EQUIPMENT/INSTRUMENTS

Some common surveying equipment or instruments.
(1) Ranging pole
(2) Gunter’s chain
(3) Measuring tape
(4) Prismatic compass
(5) Theodolite
(6) Arrows or pin
(7) Offset staff
(8) Beacons or pillars.

Ranging pole

Description
(i) Ranging pole is made of wood or metal
(ii) It is of varying lengths e.g 18m, 2.4m, or 3.0m
(iii) It is generally circular in section, though some octagonal types are obtainable.
(iv) It is usually painted black, bright, red and white to enable it to be seen from a distance.
(v) It has a pointed end.
Function/uses:
(i) It is used for making stations
(ii) It is also used for making straight lines

Gunter’s chain

Description
(i) It consists of a series of dumb bell-shaped links of steel wires joined together by three small rings
(ii) One Gunter’s chain is normally 20.13m (66ft) in length.
(iii) It has brass handles at either side.
(iv) It is divided into 100 links so that each link is 19.8cm or 7.92 ins.
(v) A link is the distance from the middle of the central ring to the middle of the next central ring.
(vi) The chain is entirely metallic.
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION

TYPES OF SURVEY

Deformation survey:
a survey to determine if a structure or object is changing shape or moving. First the positions of points on an object are found. A period of time is allowed to pass and the positions are then re-measured and calculated. Then a comparison between the two sets of positions is made.


Dimensional control survey: This is a type of survey conducted in or on a non-level surface. Common in the oil and gas industry to replace old or damaged pipes on a like-for-like basis, the advantage of dimensional control survey is that the instrument used to conduct the survey does not need to be level. This is useful in the off-shore industry, as not all platforms are fixed and are thus subject to movement.


Engineering surveying: topographic, layout, and as-built surveys associated with engineering design. They often need geodetic computations beyond normal civil engineering practice.

Foundation survey: a survey done to collect the positional data on a foundation that has been poured and is cured. This is done to ensure that the foundation was constructed in the location, and at the elevation, authorized in the plot plan, site plan, or subdivision plan.

this few types of survey was just sighted to give you a little insight on the different types of land survey. you can also follow these links for information

1. wikipedia.org
2. https://study.com


17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.





39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING

65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER






127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS

153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE

Precautions to be taken when chaining a farmland.

(i) Pull taut chains, tapes or ropes
(ii) Avoid errors of transporting figures on papers
(iii) Equipment such as theodolite should be placed on a perfect horizontal plane.
(iv) All chains, tapes, ropes, etc must be properly allligned before taking measurement.
(v) Avoid error of parallax when reading measurements.
(vi) Make sure the chain is not faulty before use.
Function/use
It is used in taking short or detailed measurement of length and breadth

Measuring tape

Description
(i) It is usually made of linen of fine steel sheet.
(ii) It is usually marked on one side with metric units and the other side with the imperial unit.
(iii) The tape is of various types and lengths.
(iv) The tape is normally wound in a small case from where it is unwound for use.
Function/use





It is used for taking measurement of length, breadth and height.

Prismatic compass

Description
(i) It is normally placed on a stand
(ii) It has a prism
(iii) It has a compass card marked in degrees, half degrees, minutes and seconds in a clockwise direction.
(iv) It has a straight slot.
Functions/uses
It is used in taking bearings; it is also used in measuring angular distance.

Theodolite

Description
(i) It consists of a tripod stand made of wood of lightweight metal solid or telescopic legs.
(ii) The tripod stand forms the base of the instrument
(iii) It has a lower plate which contains the graduated horizontal circle made of glass or brass
(iv) It has a spirit level which is used to define horizontal plain against which angles of the elevation or depression are measured
Function/use: It is used to measure horizontal or vertical angles or planes.


Arrow or pin

Description
(i) This is thin pointed steel wire of about 3cm long with one end curved into a ring
(ii) A red cloth is normally attached to the ring so that it can be seen from afar.
Functions/uses
(i) It is used during chaining for marking off chain lengths as measured
(ii) It can also be used for marking stations

Offset Staff

Description
(i) This is a graduated rod-3m long
(ii) A hook may be fitted at the top for the purpose of pulling a chain through a hedge
(iii) Each telescope link is 0.3m (30cm) in length
Function/Use
(i) It is used for taking short offset measurements


Beacon or Pillar

Description
(i) It is made of rectangular block usually in concrete form
(ii) Marks are usually inscribed on top of the block
(iii) The beacons are always buried in the ground with marked head raised a little above the ground
Function/Uses
(i) It is used for making off points measured
(ii) It is also used for the recognition of the measured


General Maintenance of Surveying Instruments

(i) All instruments must be clean after use.
(ii) Keep instruments in dry and cool places
(iii) Those with metals parts should be oiled or greased or painted before they are put away for a long time
(iv) Keep instruments away from heat and rain to prevent damage and rusting respectively.
(v) Replace worn-out parts
(vi) Use instruments only for the intended functions
(vii) Let competent surveyor hand and use the instruments only or as he may direct.


MEANING AND IMPORTANCE OF FARM PLANNING

(i) It enables the farmer to make proper use of the land






(ii) It also ensures the proper sitting of certain buildings or structures in certain locations within the farmstead
(iii) It ensures the location of livestock buildings in relation to other farm buildings
(iv) It promotes the neatness and prevents pollution within the farmstead

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE

what is land tenure system by rent and its characteristics




Land Tenure by Rent and its characteristics
In this system, the farmer rents the land for use over a short period of time during which certain amount of money is paid as rent by its use. At the end of the period, the agreement ma he reviewed, if the landlord so desires.


Advantages of Land Tenure by Rent and its characteristics
(i) It makes use of available land r agricultural purposes.
(ii) The land is efficiently used and maintained for maximum production within the short period.



Disadvantages or Problems of Land Tenure by Rent and its characteristics
(i) The land cannot be used for securing loan.
(ii) It affects long term planning.
(iii) There is limitation in the development of such land.

Land Tenure by Purchase or Free hold Features
In this type of land tenure, a farmer buys a piece of land for agricultural purpose. He pays certain amount of money to the landlord and the land becomes his personal property.
It gives the owner compete freedom on the land. He may sell the land, leave it fallow, farm on the land or rent it out. The owner can use the land as collateral for agricultural loan.


Advantages of Land Tenure by Purchase
The farmer can use the land to secure loan from bank
Perennial crops can be grown
Proper planning in the development of such land can be done


Disadvantages or Problems of Land Tenure by Purchase
The land may be too expensive to purchase
The actual owner may be difficult to establish
The farmer may not have sufficient money to buy the exact size of the land he needs

pest and diseases of tomato and their control methods

Pests and diseases of Tomato The following are a lists of tomato pests and diseases and their control methods Cricket and Beetle pest of tomatoes Effects of cricket and beetle pests of tomato These eat up leaves or cut off young seedlings and cause damage to crops. How to Control Cricket and Beetle pest of tomatoes: Spray with insecticides, e.g. Vetox 85 Diseases of Tomato and control methods Fusarim Wilt (root rot): Fusarim Wilt (root rot) is a fungal disease (Fusarium oxysporium) which is spread by wind. Symptoms of Fusarim Wilt (root rot) of tomato Symptoms of Fusarim Wilt (root rot) of tomato include gradual dropping of leaves followed by wilting and drying up of leaves of the whole plant. Control of Fusarim Wilt (root rot) of tomato Treat soil with copper fungicide Practice crop rotation Root knot disease of tomato and control methods: Root knot disease of tomato is caused by a nematode. Roots develop galls or knots with yellow, curled leaves and dwarf plants. Control of Root knreadour artiisease of tomato Treat soil with nematicide Plant resistant varieties In order to Practice crop rotation Bacterial wilt disease of tomato: Bacterial wilt disease of tomato is caused by a bacterium called pseudomona solaraceurium. It is transmitted through the soil and it attacks roots. Symptoms of Bacterial wilt disease of tomato: Symptoms Bacterial wilt disease of tomato include wilting of the leaf, death of the affected plant, and slimy exudation from the stem How to Control Bacterial wilt disease of tomato Practice crop rotation Avoid infected soil Leaf spot disease of tomato: Leaf spot disease is caused by a fungus called Chadosporium spp. Leaf spot disease is an air borne disease whose spores are deposited on leaves of tomatoes Symptoms of Leaf spot disease of tomato Symptoms of Leaf spot disease of tomato include circular white patches which appear on the leaves. Dead spots also appear on the leaves Control of Leaf spot disease of tomatoes To control leaf spot disease of tomato, the following methods should be applied Use copper fungicides like Perenox and Bordeaux mixture Practice crop rotation Use resistant varieties . . Please use our comment box to leave us a message if you have any question in your mind Thank you for coming to read our articles today will be grateful to see you again next time and don't remember to share this with your friends and family using our social media handles

cultural practices in cassava farming

<h1>Cultural Practices in cassava propagation</h1>
Weeding: This is done regularly
Fertilizer Application: Apply 250kg/ha of NPK. Fertilizer four to six weeks after planning.


<h2>Maturity Period of cassava</h2>:
This occurs between 8 – 15months depending on varieties/

<h2>Harvesting process of cassava</h2>:
 Use cutlass to remove some soil and pull the stem gently so that the tubers are pulled along or, use cassava puller.

<h2>Processing of cassava:</h2>
 Cassava is processed into garri, foofoo, flour or livestock feed.
Storage: Cassava is stored in processed form in sack as garri or foofoo.

TYPES OF FARM BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES IN AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE



FARM BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES

1. Identify different types of farm buildings and structures.
2. Outline the uses of the various buildings and structures.
3. Explain how the different buildings and structures on the farm can be maintained.

READ MY POST ON FARM STORAGE FACILITY HERE

Types of farm buildings and structures

Farming is mainly concerned with the production of plant and animal products. This production process cannot be completely achieved without some major facilities being available on the farm.
These basic facilities arc the farm buildings and structures. Farm buildings and structures are of different types. The types that may found on a farm will depend on the amount of capital at the farmer’s disposal, climatic conditions. Materials available for construction. the nature of the farm, the purpose for the construction and others.

Farm buildings All buildings on the farm are collectively referred to as farmstead. They include:
(a) Dwelling house: On large farms, there may be the need to have a house of residence for the farmer and his family, or farm workers like the farm manager and livestock attendants.

(b) Administrative building: This provides the headquarters or base of all operations on the farm. It is a building with office Space and facilities. It is usually located at the centre of the farm.






YOU CAN READ MORE ON FARM STRUCTURE HERE

(c) Animal (livestock) buildings: These are buildings meant to farm animals like poultry, goats, sheep, pigs, cattle,and the nature of Venture. For examples fowls may be reared in deep litter house, goats and sheep and cattle in a shed. Milking cows in pens, pigs in stye, e.t.c

(d) Workshop: This is a building used for the repair and servicing of farm machines and implements.

(e) Farm shop: This is a building where the products from the farm are sold out to members of the public.


(f) Farm store: The store is a building devoted to the safe-keeping of different items on the farm. These items could be processed farm products like bags of corn or rice, tools, machines and machine parts, chemicals, and so on.

g) Plant nurseries: These are buildings where young seedlings are raised before they are transplanted into the open field. Factors to Consider in Farmstead Construction

(a) Fertility of the soil: The least fertile areas of the farm should be used for construction of buildings.

(b) Topography: This has to do with the slope of the land. Flat land should be used to avoid the problem of erosion.







(c) Accessibility: Farm buildings should be constructed on parts of the farm that can be reached with ease. Such buildings should be linked with good paths to facilitate movement to and from the buildings.

(d) Protection: Farm buildings should be constructed in areas where they will be protected from wind destruction (that is, they should not be orientated along the windward slope): erosion, and fire hazards.

(e) The use of the building: The construction of a building will be influenced by its intended use and duration of use.

(f) Materials available: The materials available for construction are also considered before construction is embarked upon.
In some instances, sawn planks are used instead of cement blocks, while in others, split bamboos may be used. Farm structures Apart from concrete buildings, there are several other structures on the farm.

These structures could he of temporary or permanent nature. depending on their uses.

The following are the structures commonly found on the farm:


(a) Storage structure:
These are used for storing farm produce or different kinds. They include:

(i) Yam barn for storing yam tubers:
The yam barn is constructed by fitting vertical poles into the ground. Horizontal poles are tied to the vertical poles are fitted to the horizontal poles to which the yam tubers are tied singly in a horizontal position.

(ii) Silos: These are tower-like structures usually built of aluminum and are used for storing dried grains like maize and sorghum (guinea corn).

(iii) Cribs: These are structures used for storing unshelled maize on the farm. Processing structures: These are structures used for the processing of different kinds of produce on the farm.
They include cassava mill, rice mill, abattoir (for slaughtering animals) milk pasteurizing shed (for sterilizing fresh milk) fish/meal smoking or drying shed.

Fence:
This is a structure constructed round the farm. Fence could be any of the following types:
1. Barbed wire fence 2. Hedge or live fence 3. Post and rail fence 4. Wire netting fence 5. Wall fence 6. Electric fence.
Fence serves several purposes on the farm. These include:
1. To protect the crops and animals.
2. To demarcate boundaries.
3. To prevent thieves from gaining easy access to the farm.
4. To improve the grazing habit of animals such as in rotational grazing.
5. To control animal breeding habit.
6. To reduce the spread of pests and disease organisms
7. To add beauty to the farm.



(d) Gates and porter’s lodge: these are attached to the fence at the entrance into the farm. The gate is controlled by the mate-man who stays in the porter's lodge. It is used to control movement In ti out of the farm. Gates are also found in animal pens and fenced paddocks. They are used to control the movement of the animals.

(c) Other Structures include: Roads, electricity generating plant. Bore- holes and dam for supplying water to the farm, spray races .mil dips for removing ecto or external parasites from animals crushes for restricting animal movement, manure pits and water tanks.
A11 these are collectively referred to as utility structures.

Maintenance of farm buildings and structures

Buildings and structures on the farm require adequate maintenance if they are to last for a long time and perform the 1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE







COFFEE RUST1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE

68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES


146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE
functions they are meant for.
Therefore, it is necessary that the farmer carries out frequent and regular checks on all the structures on the farm to ensure that they are in proper form.
The following are some of the ways farm buildings and structures can he maintained:

1. Concreting The floors of buildings should be made of concrete to avoid cracking and wearing away. Concreted floors do not provide hideouts for rodents and other pests of farm produce.

2. Painting, Oiling or Greasing The wooden parts of buildings and structures should be painted with anti-insects chemicals such as sorghum to prevent them from being damaged by termites and other insects.
Also, metal parts should be painted with anti-rust paint especially tanks and other materials used in storing water. Other metal materials that arc likely to become rusty after sometime should be painted with oil paint, oiled, or greased.

3. Seasoning Wooden materials used in building and construction of farm structures should be seasoned, that is properly dried before being used. This will help to protect the wood from insect damage and the possibility of the structure becoming slacked after some times.

4. Regular inspection and repairs All farm structures should be checked frequently and age should be repaired without delay. The damaged parts of any building or structure should be-replaced new ones. Openings on the walls of building should Be covered to prevent rodents from in them.

5. Cleaning It is important to keep buildings and structures clean as this helps to prolong their lifespan. Water tanks should be cleaned always abattoris, milking sheds, processing structures and others need cleaning. Storage structures should be cleaned after the odd consignment has been removed before bringing in new ones.

6. Roofing The tops of farm buildings, should be properly roofed to make them rat proof. Asbestos, iron, or aluminum sheets should be used instead of thatched roofs. This helps to protect the buildings against too much sun, rainstorm, and rats.

7. Bracing of Walls Wall and heavy roofs should be supported by pillars to make them strong and prevent them from collapsing.


FACTORS TO CONSIDER BEFORE ERECTING FARM BUILDING

Factors to be considered in site selection;

Security

Nearness to a source of water

Topography

Direction of the prevailing wind

Direction of the sun

Personal whims and preference
Nearness to means of communication.







AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS- SIMPLE FARM TOOLS




AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS

TYPES AND USES OF SIMPLE FARM TOOLS OR IMPLEMENTS.

During agricultural production farmers carry out many farm operations or activities such as land clearing, felling of trees, digging, planting of seeds, harvesting and processing of crops. The tools that are used by the farmer to carry out these activities are called farm tools or
here is an article on fish preservation
farm implements. They include the cutlass, rake
, file, sickle
, spade, shovel, hoe, go-to-hell, axe, pruning saw and many others.
1. CUTLASS:
the cutlass or machete consists of a wooden or rubber handle and a long flat metal blade, the blade is mostly sharpened on one side. The other is usually blunt and is held with one hand during use.

USES OF A CUTLASS

The various uses of a cutlass are as follows,
i. Land clearing or brushing
ii.Planting of seeds and transplanting seedling
iii. Weeding
iv. Harvesting of Yam








v. Digging of holes
vi. Cutting of woods
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE

JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION







58. HAY SILAGE

90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
2.

HOE:

the hoe has short, broad metal blade and a long wooding handle. It is usually held with two hands during use, standing astride and bending.



TYPES AND USES OF SIMPLE FARM TOOLS OR IMPLEMENTS

.
During agricultural production farmers carry out many farm operations or activities such as land clearing, felling of trees, digging, planting of seeds, harvesting and processing of crops. The tools that are used by the farmer to carry out these activities are called farm tools or







USES OF HOE


i. Weeding
ii. Making ridges, beds and heaps
iii. Planting of yam, cocoa-yam
, cassava and others
iv. Harvesting groundnut
v. Uprooting of stumps
vi. Digging

3.

SPADE:

the spade consists of a rectangular steel blade and a long wooden or iron handle. The handle terminates in a loop for easy handling.

USES OF A SPADE

I. Uses for digging holes e.g. when transplanting seedlings
II. Leveling of the soil
III. For making of beds or ridges
IV. Used for spreading manure
V. Turning of compost manure

4.

SHOVEL:

the shovel has the same features as the spade. However


the metal blade is oblong and curved in shovel. Like spade it is held with two hands while standing use.

USES OF A SHOVEL


i. For leveling of the soil
ii. Spreading of manure on the bed
iii. Turning of compost manure
iv. Digging holes and transplanting seedlings
v. Lifting and carrying of soil or manure MORE IMAGES OF FARM TOOLS

READ MORE DETAILS OF FARM TOOLS AND IMPLEMENTS HERE


TYPES AND USES OF SIMPLE FARM TOOLS OR IMPLEMENTS.

During agricultural production farmers carry out many farm operations or activities such as land clearing, felling of trees, digging, planting of seeds, harvesting and processing of crops.
The tools that are used by the farmer to carry out these activities are called farm tools or farm implements. They include the cutlass, rake, file, sickle, spade, shovel, hoe, go-to-hell, axe, pruning saw and many others.

1.

WHAT IS A CUTLASS?:

the cutlass or machete consists of a wooden or rubber(rubber tree) handle and a long flat metal blade, the blade is mostly sharpened on one side. The other is usually blunt and is held with one hand during use.

USES OF A CUTLASS

The various uses of a cutlass as Farm implement as follows are as follows, the use of Farm implement in farming activity is not limited to cutlass Alone that are other farm implement that I used in the local farms in villages and towns and urban areas in places like Nigeria northern Nigeria and the southern part of Nigeria but we will discuss details of the use of Farm tools like cutlass here on this post as

i. Land clearing or brushing
ii. Planting of seeds and transplanting seedling
iii. Weeding
iv. Harvesting of Yam
v. Digging of holes
vi. Cutting of woods

Not when it comes to farm implement and Farm tools the ones I listed all the are not the only implement that use in agricultural science if you must noticed there are so many crude are there are other crude implement that are not listed here which are used in the local levels in some communities in Africa safari implements like Spear for fishing spear that are not listed there are also part of simple Farm tools then we have gotten her for the harvesting of kola nuts that we have
Sometimes in farming activity people mistake things like agricultural machinery as simple tools they use of machines in Farm I important but in environment where access to heavy machines for farming production is not easy to come by then the use of implement our will encourage the Fart implements like

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