FEEDING REQUIREMENTS FOR GRAZING GOATS


FEEDING REQUIREMENTS FOR GRAZING GOATS

There are differences in the kind of feed prepared for different types of purpose goats reared by the farmer. Some goat are kept majorly for the flesh while some are kept for the sole. Purpose of the hide and skin


Vitamin requirements for a Grazing goat is as follows.

goats
1. Goats require vitamins and minerals for proper growth

2. They require vitamin A, B, E and Knowledge ( fat soluble) and the water soluble vitamins.

3. C & B COMPLEX
Grazing goats satisfy their vitamin A Need from the carotenoids in green plants.
5. They obtain vitamin B by activating the skin sterol through the ultra violet rays of the sun
6. Vitamin E & K can be supplied from the green forage which the goats consumes







7. Most farm animals can synthesize vitamin C from glucose of man and other primates cannot.

Rumen micro-organisms are capable of synthesizing B complex vitamins which the goats can absorb.

It can be said that for Grazing goats,  very little, if any vitamin supplements are required


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HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION






60. LIVING ORGANISM

80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES

89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING


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ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION


ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZATION

Farm Farm mechanization Farm mechanization Farm mechanization is Farm mechanization is the Farm mechanization is the use Farm mechanization is the use of Farm mechanization is the use of large farm implement. Farm mechanization is the use of large farm implements like tractors heavy machinery disc Harrows and Ploughing vehicles to telegram to ensure that the land is cultivated in large quantity for the purpose of producing the crops for commercial services farm mechanization ensures that all farm operation are done and completed within a given period of time.
Mechanization at the system level is one of the most important aspects required to reform Indian agriculture. India has made significant progress in field preparation by using tractors with matching implements for plowing and puddling


ADVANTAGES OF MECHANIZED AGRICULTURE

Farm mechanization has the following advantages
1.
TIMELINESS OF OPERATION
farm mechanization ensures that all farm operation are done and completed within a given period of time
2.
MECHANIZATION SAVES TIME
in farm mechanization, all most human efforts are substituted with machines. Hence labour saved could be employed somewhere else
3.
MECHANIZATION REDUCES HEALTH HAZARDS
farm mechanization reduces health hazards including those posed by the use of cutlass, hoe, digger, knives, stumps and pests

4.
MECHANIZATION REDUCES DRUDGERY
farm mechanization makes it easy to avoid unpleasant manual jobs
5.
MECHANIZATION INCREASES FARM YIELD
as a result of mechanization, farmers become richer due to increased yield
6.
IT ENCOURAGES LARGE SCALE FARMING
with the use of machine which reduces labour and thereby making the work faster and easier, farmers tends to go into large scale farming activities
7.
INCREASE IN OUTPUT
mechanization makes it possible for farmers to have increase in output






8.
IT MAKES SPECIALIZATION OF LABOUR POSSIBLE
farm mechanization enables people to become specialized in certain operations within the farm.
9.
CO-OPERATION AMONG FARMERS
mechanization enables many farmers to come together and pool their resources together, thereby promoting or encouraging co-operation among farmers.
10.
IT SAVES TIME:
mechanization translates quickly the products of man’s brain into reality.
11.
REDUCTION IN COST OF OPERATION we cannot actually finished the topic of Farm mechanization mentioning that farm mechanization helps in creating job opportunities:
mechanization leads to reduction in the cost of agricultural operations per unit output.
12.
IMPROVEMENT IN QUALITY OF PRODUCE:
mechanization usually improves the quality of some farm produce, e.g., rice processing.
13.
AVAILABILITY OF LABOUR FOR OTHER SECTORS:
mechanization also helps to release labour to other sectors of the economy.
14.
USE OF LESS HUMAN LABOUR:
mechanization helps to accomplish lots of work with less human labour.


Advantages of farm mechanization


(a) It removes the difficulty in farming. Farm work is considered by people to be very hard. The use of machines therefore makes farming enjoyable.
1. Mechanization also results in better utilization of agricultural land
2. The use of machine energy, therefore, leads to good agricultural production.
(Citation needed)


READ ABOUT RESPONSE TO STIMULI HERE

read more about mechanization in agriculture

READ ABOUT MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS HERE

Mechanization raises the efficiency of labor and enhances the farm production per worker. By its nature it reduces the quantum of labor needed to produce a unit of output. In the U.S.A., “the amount of human input and labor used to produce at most 100 bushels of wheat dropped from 320 hours in the year 1830 to 108 hours in 1900 (citation needed)

(b) Large areas of farm Ind can be prepared within very short time. This means that mechanization saves time.
(c) It allows the farmer to perform some difficult jobs easily; for example, the felling of trees is easily done with the motor-saw instead of the axe and cutlass
(d) Mechanization saves labour. Very few labourers are required when machines are employed on the farm.
(e) It increases farm productivity because of large co operation. Increased productivity leads to higher farm income and standard of living.
(f) The cost of using machines on the farm is cheaper in the long run compared with the cost of farm-labour that is always rising. read about farm machines here






(g) It prevents bad agricultural practices such as complete burning all vegetation on new farmland. In addition, large are of farm land can still be cultivated by the farmer during one cropping season
(h) It enables the farmers to use surplus farm products profitably, For example, the crop dryer allows quick and easy drying of crop product such as rice, maize, sorghum and wheat. Crop product can be processed into different products, more acceptable to consumers. In addition, surplus perishable products such as tomatoes
, vegetables, milk and meat can be stored for a long time using the refrigerator and cold storage.
(i) The use of machines in farming may attract young and educated persons to take up farming as- an- occupation.
(j) The mechanisation of farming may release some workers formerly engaged in farming to take up jobs in Agro-allied industries in urban centres.

you can also read about farm machinery here


DISADVANTAGES OF AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION

Farm mechanization has the following disadvantages
1.HIGH COST OF RUNNING:
farm mechanization, due to the high cost and numerous machines involved, is very expensive to operate

2.DISPLACEMENT OF WORKERS :
in farm mechanization, very few workers are required. Hence many people will be out of job when mechanization is introduced

3. COMPACTION OF SOIL:
mechanization lead to compaction of soil due to the movement of heavy machines

4.

mechanization CAUSES ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

:
mechanization causes environmental pollution due to smokes emanating from engines of these machines, chemicals and the use of fertilizer

5.

MECHANIZATION LEADS TO DEGRADATION OF LANDSCAPE

:
mechanization leads to degradation of landscape due to or as a result of continuous excavation

6.

LAND TENURE SYSTEM CAUSES PROBLEM FOR FARM MECHANIZATION

:
land tenure system may hinder efficient use machines like tractors, bulldozer due to small holdings of farmland

7.

MECHANIZATION LEADS TO DESTRUCTION OF SOIL STRUCTURES

:
the soil structure can easily be destroyed due to continuous use of heavy machines

8.

MECHANIZATION LEADS TO REDUNDANCY OF FARM LABOUR

with farm machines working on the farms, the work can easily be completed and this situation can create redundancy in farm labour

9.
FEW CROPS CAN BE MECHANIZED
very few crops like maize, rice, millet and guinea corn that easily be mechanized






10.
INADEQUATE TECHNICAL KNOW-HOW
there is always inadequate technical know-how in handling the farm machines and equipment in most developing countries of the world

11.

MECHANIZATION CAUSES DAMAGE TO CROPS

most crops are easily damaged during mechanize farm operation

12.

INADEQUATE SPARE PARTS IS A MAJOR PROBLEM TO MECHANIZED FARMING

most of the spare parts or replacement parts for most of these machines are not readily available

13.

HIGH COST OF MAINTENANCE OF MACHINES IS A PROBLEM OF MECHANIZATION

there is usually high cost of maintenance of machines involved in mechanized agriculture especially for the heavy duty machines

14.

MECHANIZATION CAUSES SPREAD OF PEST AND DISEASES

mechanization help to spread diseases through contaminated machineries

15.
HUMAN CONTROL
mechanization needs human labour to control it

16.
UNSTABLE FUEL SUPPLY
unstable supply of fuel in the international market can easily affect the use of these machines in mechanized agriculture

Disadvantages of mechanization

(a) Many of the farm- workers will be jobless. With the use of machines in farming, the work that can be done by many workers be carried out by very few. farm hands. The others need to be retained before they can fit into new jobs.

(b) The use of heavy machine. such as the bulldozers and- tractors destroys the soil structure. This may result in soil erosion caused by water.

(c) The environment is polluted because of the use of machines. The exhaust from motor-vehicles and scraps from machines and Blurriness result in environmental pollution.

READ ABOUT LEVELS OF LIFE IN LIVING ORGANISMS

d) The use of heavy machines leads to soil compaction. The continuous use of tillage implements results in the development of hard soil layer below the soil surface. This reduces water inhlliation in the soil as well as crops roots penetration.

(e) Mechanization has directed production to those crops that are mechanized such as rice, maize, and few others

The production of crops such as coco-yam and yam that are not easily produced with the aid of machines is therefore declining yearly.

(f) Machinery requires large capital investment. Only farmers that have enough money will be able to acquire machines.

(g) The use of machines in farming requires adequate and continuous supply of energy from fuel and electricity. Problems will arise if the supply is not enough, or is lacking.



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1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION

18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING

61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88.






104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES








154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)

158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE

TYPES OF TILLAGE SYSTEMS AND PRACTICES




what is tillage

is the process of loosening the topmost soil before planting commences in other to expose the soil nutrients to the reach of plant roots
5. Tillage Practices
Land tillage is the operation that follows after the land area has been cleared, stumped and plotted. Tillage involves the opening up of the soil for seed planting. This could be done by means of simple farm implements like ploughs, harrows or ridgers could be used in tilling the land. This is used mostly under large scale farming. The purpose of tillage is the same whether hand tools or mechanized equipment are used.

Importance of land tillage practices

1. It provides good soil environment for germination and emergence of seeds.
2. It encourages aggregation of particles for better contact between seed roots and soil.
3. It helps to improve aeration of the soil







4. It assists the farmer in weed control.
5. Organic matter is incorporated into the soil during tillage operations, thereby increasing soil nutrients.
6. It improves the soil physical conditions such as infiltration rate of water in the soil and water holding capacity.
However, constant or constant or continous tillage makes the soil loose and easily eroded. Leaching of bases could occur, resulting in soil acidity.

(a) Ploughing:
This involves the tilling or turning of the soil upside down. It can be done with a hoe, a spade, or a tractor driven plough in the tropical regions or mould-board plough, used mostly in the temperate regions. Animals could be used to draf the plough during tilling. It is usually the first equipment to usf on cleared farmland. The plough cuts and inverts large lumps soil. Weed seeds are then buried below cultivated seeds. The disc plough is more suitable for use in heavy, stick) and dry tropical sails tlifin the mouldboard plough.
(b) Harrowing: The harrow is the next equipment used after land has beeif ploughed. It is used to further breakdown the lar| lumps of soil cut by the plough into smaller pieces. This called pulverisation of soil. The disc harrows are more suitabl for use in tropical environment. After harrowing it may possible to grow crops such as rice which do not require sei beds or ridges. However, it may be necessary to construct set beds or ridges for other crops such as yam, tomato and groundni after harrowing. This will necessitate the next operation which is ridging.
(c) Ridging: This is the last stage in land preparation for planting of seeds or seedlings. It can be done by means of Indian hoes tractor driven disc ridger or mouldboard ridger. Animals could be used to drag ridger for ridge making.

Ridging is done normally across the slope of the land to prevent it from being washed away by erosion. It is spaced 1m apart. This is measured from the top or crest of one ridge to the other. The length of the ridge depends on available land and choice the farmer. A standard ridge should should be 25m long. It has a conically shaped top or rrest or triangular shape. The trench between two ridges is called furrow. Tie-ridges can be constructed at intervals between two ridges especially in the school farms.They are also called cross-bars. They help to keep water in the furrow for plant use in the ridges and prevent water erosion.

Ridging increases the depth of surface soil for better crop growth. Manure is better provided for crop use during ridging.
Ridging provides fine tilts that makes it easier for roots to penetrate and get food for plants in the soil. Other forms of seed beds are:
(i) Heap: This is a built up small cone shaped hill usually less than 60 cm high. It is constructed with a hoe for growing tuber crops such as yam and cassava.
(j) Mound: This is a raised heap with circular base. It is made with hoes and used for growing root and tuber crops such as yam. Coco-yam, cassava, potatoes and others. More than one crop can be sown at one time on it. It is commonly used in Igbo farming communities of Nigeria.








(iii) Flat seed bed: This is used in low rainfall areas or periods or level and well drained land. There may be no other construction in this case, after farmland has been ploughed-and harrowed. It is used foreclose, growing crops such as rice.
(iv) A bed: This ronld be a SPP'H bed used for initial growing of crops before transplanting to the field or root bed us^ growing crops to maturity. A bed generally is a raised top soil with square or rectangular flat top. It is suitable for vegetable crop production, though, other crops such as tobacco, cocoa, and citrus could be raised first in a seed be< (nursery bed), that is usually 1.20 m wide and 25 m long for a standard bed. don't forget to use the comment box and leave a message or suggestion and we will get back to you within seconds. You can read some of most interesting topics below HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES. 1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE







79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES


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