WEED CONTROL METHODS AND LIST OF WEEDS




WEED CONTROL METHODS


Weed control methods

There are several methods used in weed control. They can BE classified into:

(a) Mechanical or physical method.

(b) Cultural method.

(c) Biological method.

(d) Chemical method.

(a) Mechanical or physical method


1. Explain the meaning of weeds.
2. Identify common weed types.
3. Explain the harmful effects of weeds on crop plants
4. Enumerate various methods of controlling weeds.

(i) Hand pulling: 1 This is the pulling of weeds by hand in the farm. Though it is efficient, but only useful in small gardens and not large farms.








WEEDS CONTROL METHODS


(ii) Hoeing: The short or small hoe is very useful in weeding. It is used to cut the weed below the crown of the plant which gives, complete destruction of the shoot system. It is effective in the Weed control methods control of weeds either in pasture, home garden or row crops. Hoe can be used to weed from the furrow to the top of a ridge. Its use is however on a limited and it requires plenty of labour.
Weed control methods


(iii) Mowing: This method helps to prevent seed production in till of weeds. It removes all unsightly weed growth especially where weeds are too much for effective cultivation to take place. The method can be used to control weeds in lawns, plantation or fields. The mower is normally attached to a tractor or pulled by hand to move over the area to be cleared.


(iv) Flooding in Weed control methods: This is done by keeping the area to be weeded Hooded up to 20 cm of water for 3 to 8 weeks. This practice kill, the weeds because they can no longer receive air for a-.piration.


(v) Heat treatment: Heal can be used in controlling weeds. For instance nursery soil is sterilized to kill all weed parts and seeds. Fire ran be used to burn dry weeds on cultivated land before cultivation starts. Weed control methods


(vi) Smothering with non-Living materials: Weeds can be Followed by the use of mulch materials such, as papers, hulls from rice, manure, plastic materials or cellophane. These materials help to exclude sunlight and prevent shoot growth. The weeds then become etiolated (lose chlorophyll) and die off.


(vii) Culural method: This involves the use of cultural practices of crop production to reduce the growth of weeds on the farm. Such cultural practices include

Weed control methods

i. Burning of farmland: This kills weed parts, seeds and fruits both in the soil and on the surface.

ii. Tillage: Tillage helps to expose weed parts for destruction by sun or herbicides. They can also be hand picked and destroyed.

iii. Early planting: This ensures that crops are well established before the weeds start growing.

iv. Good spacing: Proper spacing of crops helps in the reduction of weeds along the crop rows. It also makes it easy for weeding to he done.

v. Mixed cropping: Planting or two or more crops, together oil the same farmland can help to reduce the intensity of weeds on the larm

(c)

Biological method


This involves the use of living plants and animals to control weeds. They include:

(i) Use of suppressive plants: Crops that grow fast and large too can be used to overshadow weeds thereby reducing their growth, Also, cover crops such as melon and legumes like groundnut can be used to control weeds on the farm.

(ii) Use of insects: This involves the use of identified insect pests weeds in controlling weeds on the farm. Insects which have been found to feed on a particular weed can be multiplied and introduced to the area to feed and destroy such weed species.

(iii) Pasturing: This involves the grazing of farm animals on weeds usually in plantations such as rubber and oil palm. Animals like i cattle, sheep or goat are commonly used in this method.








(d)

Chemical method


This is the method that is used on a large scale. It makes use of chemicals in the control of weeds. These chemicals are known as herbicides. They are sprayed either on the leaves of weeds or applied to the soil. They are classified into:

(i) Selective herbicides: These are chemicals that can kill certain groups or species of plants. Example is 2, 4 -D (Dichlorophen-oxyacetic acid). They can be used in cereals, sugar cane and soya beans farms to reduce weeds.


Weed control methods
(i) Mowing: This method helps to prevent seed production in till of weeds. It removes all unsightly weed growth especially where weeds are too much for effective cultivation to take place. The method can be used to control weeds in lawns, plantation or fields. The mower is normally attached to a tractor or pulled by hand to move over the area to be cleared.
Weed control methods

(ii) Flooding: This is done by keeping the area to be weeded Hooded up to 20 cm of water for 3 to 8 weeks. This practice kill, the weeds because they can no longer receive air for a-.piration.


1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION

40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS









90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE

Weed control methods
(iii) Heat treatment: Heal can be used in controlling weeds. For instance nursery soil is sterilized to kill all weed parts and seeds. Fire ran be used to burn dry weeds on cultivated land before cultivation starts.


(iv) Smothering with non-Living materials: Weeds can be Followed by the use of mulch materials such, as papers, hulls from rice, manure, plastic materials or cellophane. These materials help to exclude sunlight and prevent shoot growth. The weeds then become etiolated (lose chlorophyll) and die off.


(v) Culural method: This involves the use of cultural practices of crop production to reduce the growth of weeds on the farm. Such cultural practices include

YOU CAN READ DETAILS OF CULTURAL PRACTICES HERE


i. Burning of farmland: This kills weed parts, seeds and fruits both in the soil and on the surface.

ii. Tillage: Tillage helps to expose weed parts for destruction by sun or herbicides. They can also be hand picked and destroyed.

iii. Early planting: This ensures that crops are well established before the weeds start growing.

iv. Good spacing: Proper spacing of crops helps in the reduction of weeds along the crop rows. It also makes it easy for weeding to he done.

v. Mixed cropping: Planting or two or more crops, together oil the same farmland can help to reduce the intensity of weeds on the larm

(c)

Biological method


This involves the use of living plants and animals to control weeds. They include:

(i) Use of suppressive plants: Crops that grow fast and large too can be used to overshadow weeds thereby reducing their growth, Also, cover crops such as melon and legumes like groundnut can be used to control weeds on the farm.

(ii) Use of insects: This involves the use of identified insect pests weeds in controlling weeds on the farm. Insects which have been found to feed on a particular weed can be multiplied and introduced to the area to feed and destroy such weed species.
Weed control methods
(iii) Pasturing: This involves the grazing of farm animals on weeds usually in plantations such as rubber and oil palm. Animals like i cattle, sheep or goat are commonly used in this method. Weed control methods

(d)

Chemical method

Weed control methods
This is the method that is used on a large scale. It makes use of chemicals in the control of weeds. These chemicals are known as herbicides. They are sprayed either on the leaves of weeds or applied to the soil. They are classified into: Weed control methods

(i) Selective herbicides: These are chemicals that can kill certain groups or species of plants. Example is 2, 4 -D (Dichlorophen-oxyacetic acid). They can be used in cereals, sugar cane and soya beans farms to reduce weeds.
Some common garden weeds

Common names Botanical names

1 Guinea grass Panicumm maximum

2 Elephant grass Pennisetum purpureun

3 Tridax Tridax prociimbem

4 Carpet grass Axonopus compressus

5 Goose grass or Africana Cynodon dactylon

6 Siam weed Eluesine indica

Weed control methods
7 African or bush marigold Chromoleana odorata

8 Pig weed Aspilia Africana

9 Goat weed or blue top Boerhavia diffusa

10 Water leaf Ageratum conyzoides

11 Soft weed Talinum triagulare

12 Wild green Erogratis tenella 13. Stubborn grass 14. Igbologi 15. "Ichtei" 16. Dolukegu 17. Ebeleogu 18. Okpalieziza-Ike


13 Tropical kudzu Amaranthus spinosus

14 Centro Calapogonium mucunoides

15 Blue flower or water grass Centrosema pubescens

16 Spear grass Commelina spp

17 Striga Imperata cylindrical

18 Wild potato or moring glory Striga senegalensis

19 Broom weed Ipomea spp

20 Emilia Sida acuta

21 Giant star grass Emilia sonchifolia

22 Stubborn grass Cynodon nlemfuensis

23 Sensitive plant Sporobolus pyramidalis

24 Bur weed Mimosa pudica

25 Acanthospermum hisidum


READ THE FULL LISTS OF WEEDS AND THEIR BOTANICAL NAMES HERE

1. Blue feather--------------------------------Commelina nudiflora


DONT FORGET YOU CAN MAKE COOL MILLION ONLINE HERE IN THIS GUIDE


2. BAHAMA GRASS-----------------Cynodon dactylon


BUR WEED-----------------------------Triumfetta rhumboidea

CALAPO---------------------------------Calapagonium mucunoides

CARPET GRASS----------------------Axonopus compressors

to understand the effect of leaching and liming, read here

READ ABOUT POULTRY FARMING AND BIRDS HERE

science and its usefulness. read here

CELOCIA--------------------------------Celosia rotundus

CENTRO-----------------------------------Centrocema pubescens

DESMODIUM-----------------------------Desmodium Spp


DODDER----------------------------------Cascuta americana


ELEPHANT GRASS----------------------Pennisetum purpurium


EMILLIA-----------------------------------Emillia sognifochia

you can read my post on bush fallowing here

here is my detailed article on the botanical names of crop

you can read more about weed control methods here

FOXTAIL GRASS--------------------------Setaria barbata

GOAT WEED-----------------------------------Ageretum conyzoides

GUINEA GRASS----------------------------Panacum maximum

GIANT STAR GRASS=============Cynodon plectostachyus

GUATEMALA GRASS------------------------Tripsaum laxum

GRAGOSTIC GRASS------------------------Gragrostic aspera

LEMON GRASS---------------------------Cymbopogon citratus

here is a post on propagation of crops here

here is a post on agricultural practice

MILK WEED--------------------------------Euophorbia hirta
MISLETOE--------------------------------------LORANTHUS PENTAGONA
MONEY WEED--------------------------------accanthospernum hispidum
NORTHERN GAMBA GRASS-------------------Andropogon gayanus
GLORIOSA PLANT-------------------------Gloriosa superba
PARA GRASS--------------------------------Pernicum barbinode
PANGOLA GRASS---------------------------Digitaria decumbens

PIG WEED-----------------------------------Boerhavia diffusa

SOME OF THESE WEED ARE VERY USEFUL TO MAN. YOU CAN READ MORE HERE


read how weeds can be used as mulching materials

PUERO----------------------------------------Pueraria phaseoloides

RUBBER WEED-----------------------------Mimosa pudica

RHODES GRASS-----------------------------Chloris guyana

SOUTHERN GAMBA GRASS---------------Andropogon tectorum

SUNHEMP-------------------------------------Crotelaria juncea

SPEAR GRASS--------------------------------Imperata cylindrica

STYLO-------------------------------------------Stylosanthes gracilis

SENSITIVE PLANT--------------------------Mimosa pudica






SEDGE PLANT-----------------------------Cyperus rotundatus

SIAM WEED------------------------------Chromolina oohum

STUBBORN GRASS----------------------Sida acuta

GREEN-TETE-WITH THORNS------------------------Amaranthus spinosis

ou can read about the use of herbicide and its application here

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Advantages and disadvantages of MECHANIZED AGRICULTURE



Meaning of Mechanization

Mechanization is concerned with the use of machines in farm work.
The introduction of machines into farming has enabled, for instance, land clearing to be carried out more easily with the bulldozer.

Digging of the land before seeds are planted can now be done with either the disc or mouldboard plough. Different machines called planters are now available to plant different crops.In Nigeria, farm work is carried out using simple farm implements.

For example,
1. clearing of land is done with the cutlass, digging of the land with hoe and, planting with cutlass and trowel

The introduction of machines into farming has enabled, for instance, land clearing to be carried out more easily with the bulldozer.

Digging of the land before seeds are planted can now be done with either the disc or mouldboard plough.

Different machines called planters are now available to plant different crops.

it In addition, different crop harvesters are now in existence for the harvesting of mature







Advantages of farm mechanization


(a) It removes the difficulty in farming. Farm work is considered by people to be very hard. The use of machines therefore makes farming enjoyable.

(b) Large areas of farm Iand can be prepared within a very short time. This means that mechanisation saves time.

(c) It allows the farmer to perform some difficult jobs easily; for example, the felling of trees is easily done with the motor-saw instead of the axe and cutlass.

(d) Mechanization saves labour. Very few laborers are required when machines are employed on the farm.

(e) It increases farm productivity because of large cope operation. Increased productivity leads to higher farm income and standard of living.

(f) The cost of using machines on the farm is cheaper in the long run compared with the cost of farm-labour that is always rising.

(g) It prevents bad agricultural practices such as complete burning all vegetation on new farmland.

In addition, large are of farm land can still be cultivated by the farmer during one cropping season

(h) It enables the farmers to use surplus farm products profitably, For example, the crop dryer allows quick and easy drying of crop product such as rice, maize, sorghum and wheat. Crop product can be processed into different products, more acceptable to consumers. In addition, surplus perishable products such as tomatoes, vegetables, milk and meat can be stored for a long time using the refrigerator arrd cold storage.

(i) The use of machines in farming may attract young and educated persons to take up farming as- an- occupation.


(j) The mechanisation of farming may release some workers formerly engaged in farming to take up jobs in Agro-allied industries in urban centres.


Disadvantages of mechanisation
(a) Many of the farm- workers will be jobless. With the use of cs in fanping, the work that can be done by many workers be carried out by very few. farm hands. The others need to be retained before they can fit into new jobs.

(b) The use of heavy machine. such as the bulldozers and- tractors islmvs ihc.soii structure. This ma'y result in soil erosion caused by water.

(c) The environment is polluted becairse of the use of machines. The exhaust from motor-vehicles and scraps from machines and Blirinenls result in environmental pollution.

(d) The use of heavy machines leads to soil compaction. The continuos use of tillage implements results in the development iiilpan or hard soil layer below the soil surface. This reduces water inhlliation in the soil as well as crops roots penetration.

(e) Mechanization has directed production to those crops that are mechanized such as rice, maize, and few others. The production of crops such as cocoyam and yam that are not easils produced with the aid of machines is therefore declining yearly.

(f) Machinery requires large capital investment. Only farmers that have enough money will be able to acquire machines.

(g) The use of machines in farming requires adequate and continuos supply of energy from fuel and electricity.
Problems will arise if the supply is not enough, or is lacking.

Problems of farm mechanization in Nigeria


(a) Farm holdings are very small: farm mechanization is only suitable with large farm holdings.

(b) Most of the farmers poor. Tractors and other farm machines are costly and many farmers cannot buy them.

(c) Nigerian soils contain large tree stumps, roots and stones. These breakdown farm machines and render them useless. Also the presence of small hills, pits and moats makes the land rugged and unsuitable for machines.

(d) There is lack of adequate facilities for the maintenance of farm machines. The result is that machines can be rendered useless because of minor faults.

(e) The people that have skills to operate the tractor and other farm machines. Many farmers do not have the money to employ those that are trained in the use of farm machines.

(f) There are no good access roads in farming communities. Tractors and other machines spend long hours on the road between farm sites and sheds. They sometimes get stuck in the mud.

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HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER






80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

what are the effect of insect pest on crop production

Understanding what are insect pest of crop is very important in the production of crops and animals in agriculture.

As long as there are the existence of insect pest of crops the production of crops will have great challenges in meeting up with Demand

So on the basis of the damages that are done to crop production by insect pest, I am going to list some of the effect of this on agricultural production 


Effect of crop pest on agricultural or crop production

1. Insect pest of crops destroyed crops in the field through their biting, chewing, boring, sucking and defoliation activities.

2. Insect pests of crops can also cause reduction in viability of stored produce, like produce stored in the barn or silos

3. As one of the effect of crop pest, we can say that spot of Injuries by insect may predispose crops to disease attacks

4. Due to the damage caused by insect pest of crops, they invariably increase the cost of production during the course of controlling them

5. Crop pest will always render vegetables and fruit unattractive and unmarketable

6. Most most major crop pest are carriers or vectors of disease

7. During the whole year round, profit of farmers are reduced tremendously because they end up spending excess money beyond their budget in order to control the infection caused by pests of crops

8. Crop pest may reduce the quality of produce in the store or in the feed as time entails

9. Pests of crop generally reduces the yield of crops

10. Naturally when you have pest of crops in Greater attacks, they can cause total death of crop plants there by plunging the Farmer into dept



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classification of insect pest into groups

Definition of insect pest
 pests are organisms that are insect by Nature which destroys or alter the growth and production of crops and animals on the farm or on the storage Barn


Classification of insect pest
Insect pest can be classified into various groups based on their mode of feeding. The various are the groups into which insect pest can be classified into
This group of insects are classified as follows

1. Biting and chewing insects

2. Piercing and sucking insect

3. Burrowing insects



1. The characteristics of biting and chewing insects

a. Biting and chewing insect possesses strong mandible and maxillae which is their mouth parts

b. The mouth part of biting and chewing insect looks like a pair of scissors used for cutting objects.

c. Typical of biting and chewing insects insects are 
termites
Grasshoppers
Leaf worms
Army worms
Mantids
Praying mantis
Locust
Soldier ant
Cricket



2. Characteristics of piercing and sucking insect

a. Piercing and sucking insect possesses strong mouthparts called proboscis

b. The purposes of piercing and sucking insect enable them pierce and suck liquid materials

c. Typical examples of piercing and sucking insects are as follows
I. Aphids
ii. Cotton Stainer
iii. Mealybugs
iv. Capsids
v. White flies




3. Characteristics of burrowing insects
Borrowing insect are types of insects that bore holes on the stems of plants and crops

a. Borrowing insert are capable of burrowing into plant parts and destroying the tissues

b. Burrowing insects are capable of destroying fruit and seeds by boring holes through them

c. Typical examples of burrowing insects are as follows
I. Bean beetle
ii. Stem burrowers 
iii. Rice Weevil
iv. Maize Weevil
v. Etc



what is mixed farming effect on agricultural production

First let us define mixed farming
What is mixed farming?
Mixed farming is the type of farming system in which the Farmer cultivates his crops and rear animals on the same piece of land

What mixed farming represent is a rat mixed farming is a farming system whereby a farmer with plant his crops rear his animals on the same piece of land year in year out. Sometimes mixed farming can also be known or called ranching system of farming where you don't just plant crops but your also rear  animal in an extensive scale.


One cannot but ask questions that is there any effect or problems involved in the practice of mixed farming

Engaging in mixed farming system, will it reduce my crop yield for the year or is there any important problem that is associated with farming and planting of crops on the same piece of land at the same time? Ok having understood what is mixed farming let us go on to look at the possible effect or importance of mixed farming to agricultural production


The effect of mixed farming on agricultural production

1. Mixed farming does not just have side effect but it has a major effect on the farm because when farming on crops and also rear animals on the same piece of land,
 the Dung of this animals will always add nutrients to the soil


2. The odour is coming out from the dung or excreta of the animals red on the farm can cause air pollution


3. Mixed farming system helps to maximize the use of land


4. The one of the major effect of which is common to mixed farming is that if you're not careful that the animals caged and where they stay is well-prepared they may end up eating the crops on the farm.


5. Keeping animal on the same piece of land that crops are planted attracts the presence of pests like tick, fleas, tse-tse fly etc.


6. The presence of animals may also build up diseases in the land



Haven't seen what mixed farming is all about we have also seen some of the effect or importance of mixed farming




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