maize smut disease of maize, method of transmission and prevention and control measures

What is maize smut disease?
They maize smut is a disease or fungal disease of the Maize crop. It
Is an airborne disease of maize. This means that the Maize smut is transmitted through the air.

What are airborne diseases?
This disease is known as airborne. They are spread through air, which  means It does not need human contact to be infected from one medium to another. they are spread through the air. they are contagious

This disease known as maize smut disease is caused by an organism call fungus also known as (ustilago maydis)

Transmission method of maize smut disease
1. Maize smut disease is transmitted through the air which means it is an airborne disease
 2. it is also transmitted using fungus spores deposited on fruits


How to identify the Maize smut disease
The following are some of the symptoms
1. It attacks the ears, leaves and tarsels, which letter turn black when you closely look at the leaves of Maize


How to control the spread of maize smut disease
We can instill the following measures to control the spread of Maize Smut disease
 take a look at them one after the other

1. The use of resistant variety of maize to plant on the farm is very key to controlling the effect and spread of Maize Smut disease. 
There are several varieties of maize which are very resistant to the attack of maize smut disease but from what i learnt as an agriculturist is that this seeds before planting are treated with chemicals that will not allow the Maize Smut disease to attack the crop after germination

2. Destroy diseased plant immediately you discovered it. This is simple whenever you discover the Maize smut disease on any maize crop on your farm, cut it down, take it to a very neat place and set fire on it or best dig a hole and bury it out of sight

3. Using treated seed for planting is important, 
 how do I mean by this? which means that before you plant maize on the Farm, treat the seed very well, if you don't know how to treat it before planting then seek the assistance of extension service workers within your area.
 they should be able to put you through what you should do



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general method of prevention and control of pest and diseases of crops

 generally speaking insect pest destroys crops in the field through their biting, chewing, boring, sucking and defoliation activities.
The attack of pest can also take place not just in the field but in the stored produce.
The attack of pest on crops on the farm may lead to reduction in viability of produce. Some of these pest are carriers of vectors of diseases

So at any time that pest attacks Farm it reduces the profit of farmers and then they also reduce the quality of product order in the store or in the field.
 they can also cause total death of crop plants

If they attack and damages caused by crop pest on the farm is this enormous and so let's go on and see some of the requirements, processes, prevention and control methods whereby a farmer can control the spread of pest on his farm.


How to control and prevent the spread of pest on the farm in general
There are so many ways to control the spread of pest, but in this article I am going to enumerate the general methods in controlling the spread of pest. So sit back and enjoy the ride with me

Pest of crops can be prevented or controlled through the following method, which are physical control method of pest. 
cultural control methods 
biological control method of pest and chemical control method

1. The physical control method of pest involves the physical removal of pest by hand-picking of insect and the lavae.
ii. By setting of trap on the farm to catch rodent pest
iii. We can also prevent the spread of pest physically by the use of gun
iv. Another critical method of physical control of pest on the farm is to fence around the farm with wire and net


2. The use of cultural methods to control the spread of pest involves the use of several Farm practices to prevent or control pest especially on the field. 
As a result of this, here's a few cultural method of controlling pest 

I. By practicing crop rotation we can control the spread of pest
ii. The use of pest resistant variety of crops to plant on the farm
iii. By applying the best tillage operations the spread of insect pest on the farm can be totally or at least dealt with in general
iv. By hand-picking and destruction of any insect pest found on the farm is an effective way to checkmate the spread of pest
V. The use of trap on the farm is a type of cultural method of pest control
vi. The Burning of residue of crops
vii. Timely planting of crops in season can also call the spread of pest
viii. Another typical cultural method of pest control is timely weeding of the farmfarm

So let's look into some of the biological method of pest control

1. Biological control method of pest and it spread is the introduction of the natural enemies of pest to control or keep the best population under
Such enemies that eat up or feed on this pest thereby reducing the population of the pest are widely advised to be used as a biological method of pest control



4. The use of chemical control method to control the spread of pest involve the use of chemicals called insecticide or pesticides to control pest of crop plants 

These chemicals are usually in the form of powder,
 liquid,
 granules and
 tablets which are used on the insect by various method like spraying or dustin seed or plant to check pest.

Examples of chemicals used to control pest are
1. Pesticides-  control of insect pest
2. insecticide - controlling insect
3. rodenticide - used in controlling rodent attack on crops
4. Avicides - chemicals used to control the spread of birds and  
5. nematicide- for controlling the spread of nematodes.


As a farmer or student of Agriculture, please keep in mind that the proper use and practice of the above-listed methods of pest control can go a long way in making sure that you maximise your crop production and profit margin



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