maize rust disease and its prevention method

What is maize rust disease?
The maize rust disease is a disease that affects corn or maize as it popularly known in some part of the world.  This disease causes dryness as if the leave of the Corn is Burnt Through Fire.
Most often the maize rust disease does not affect the yield of maize but it is also dangerous in some part of the country like Nigeria.

Causes of maize rust disease
There are two major causes of Frost on the Maize corn crop but the main common cause of this disease is caused by a fungus known as puccinia polysora

In general the sweet corn is most susceptible to the attack of this disease

Transmission method of maize rust
It is observed that the measure of disease of corn is mostly effective during the wet period of the year

Airborne spores are deposited on leaves of maize causing rust

The major symptoms of the presence of maize rust

1. In a farm where we have the presence of maize rust 
there will always be red spots on leaves causing the leaves to turn reddish brown

2. The presence of maize rust causes the leaves of the corn not to be able to carry out its normal photosynthesis and which may eventually lead to the death of the crop

3. In some cases this Maze rust spots is always found and seen around the farm throughout the whole planting season

4. These can be easily recognized and distinguished from other diseases by the development of dark, reddish-brown pustules

How to control the presence of maize rust
We can control the presence of maize Rust using the following methods

1. Early planting of maize and the proper use of treated seed. This is to make sure that the Maize is cultivated around the best period of the Year where we have maximum rainfall

2. The use of disease resistant variety. This can also mean treating the seed of maize before planting

3. The practice of crop rotation is another method of controlling maize rust
this is important in the effect that when you plant crops of different types around your farm in one planting season, at the next year you rotate, it means it will not be easy for the transmission of the maize rust

4. The cultivation of maize on a well-drained loamy soil is very important. The choice of land or soil in the cultivation of crops is very important as a well-drained loamy soil will be rich for the plant to be able to absorb nutrients and minerals from the soil that will enable it to fight off the disease of maize rust

In general, the maize rust disease of corn can be troublesome but may not affect crop yield if the crop is planted during the early planting season of the year. 
Spraying the corn field with the right herbicide or fungicide is also helpful

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damages caused by rice blight disease, the effects and prevention methods

What is rice blight disease?
The rice bacteria blight disease is a type of disease that attacks rice as a crop. it is a fungus type of attack 

the attack or disease known as rice Bacteria blight is caused by a fungus called piricularia  oryzae

"The genus Xanthomonas, which mostly comprises phytopathogenic bacteria, is a member of the family Xanthomonadaceae. Among xanthomonads, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae causes bacterial blight (BB) of rice which is one of the most important diseases of rice in most of the rice growing countries"

The transmission method or transmitting method of rice  blight disease

 rice blight disease is an airborne type of disease deposited on leaves.
What this means when we say airborne disease is a type of disease transmitted through the air. 
In areas of wet season where rice is planted in the swampy regions of the world 
the spread of bacterial Blight of rice can also take place when water washes down the disease from the leaf of an infected plant to the root whereby the nearest plant can also absorb it and infection spreads on
So the bacterial blight disease is also a waterborne

So what are the symptoms of the rice bacteria blight disease rice crop

We can recognise the presence of the bacteria rice blight disease through the following means

 the first method of recognition is that there will be a small longitudinal red spots which eventually will turn grey or brown

So if you are a rice farmer and you are keen on making profit from your crops, better be on the lookout for red spots that are small but longitudinal on leaves of rice on their stands

One of the major effect or damages caused by the rice blight is that it reduces crop yield
This disease will eventually reduce the capacity of the rice to carry out photosynthesis therefore weakening the crop
Rice Bacterial blight disease first shows up as water-soaked streaks which spread from the leaf tips and collums, becoming bigger and eventually releasing a milky liquid that dries into yellow droplets. 

Characteristic of bacteria blight of rice, is the grayish white which spread on the leaves, signaling the late stages of infection, when leaves dry out and die.

Ways farmers can use to prevent and control the spread of rice blight disease

Various ways of controlling rice bacterial blight are limited in effectiveness that is to say they are not very effective in curbing the spread of the bacteria disease.

The use of Chemical control methods has been grossly ineffective in reducing the effects of bacterial blight due to safety issues, and bacterial resistance capacity.

 Biological control methods, rely on the use of bacterial killer of pathogens -disease-causing organisms, which can reduce bacterial blight of rice.,

 most-common method of defending against rice bacterial blight is the cultivation of rice varieties. Which is the use of bacteria blight resistant varieties of rice

The use of clean seeds during planting of rice is very key

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