what is damping off disease of okra

What is damping off disease of okra?
Damping off disease of okra is a fungus attacked or caused disease that affect the okra plant on the farm.

The damping-off disease effects of okra
it is caused by the fungi Pythium spp. and Rhizoctonia solani, which severely disrupt the early stage of the crop germination process by causing poor emergence of the seeds and death of the emerging seedlings and the cotyledons, which results in poor stands in seedbeds and fields.

The damping off also causes stunted growth in okra which is the result of the cells absorbing too much water



Possible causes of damping off disease of okra
Damping-off is caused by a number of seed- and soil-borne and fungus like oomacete, including Rhizoctonia solaniAphanomyces cochlioides, and species of pythium, Phytophthora, Botrytis, Fusarium,Cylindrocladium, Diplodia, Phoma, and Alternaria. 


Prevention and control measures of damping off disease of okra
The following are some of the ways we can control the effect and spread of damping off disease of okra

1. One easy way to prevent the spread of damping off disease of okra is to spray with copper fungicide
2. It is always advised to plant our farm with the use of disease resistant varieties of okra
3. First and foremost before planting of the feed the soil where we want to use for the production of crop should be sterilized to kill off the infections in the ground
4. Keep the environment within the pot clean.
5. Use powdered kitchen spices on the soil surface.
Water with hydrogen peroxide solution.
Let the plant's root system grow so it can protect itself before transplanting.


Conclusion
Damping off can be reduced by planting fungicide-treated seed directly into without using nursery. Other preventative measures include cultivating on a well-drained soil and avoiding overcrowding of crops during planting process. Also, clean and wash all  tools used before reuse and discard contaminated implement


what is root knot of tomato and okra disease? prevention method of tomato root knot disease

What is the root knot of tomato and okra disease?
The root knot of tomato and okra disease is a disease of the tomato crop and okra caused by a nematode
This nematode that attack the tomato roots and it's knot lives in the ground and eat up the root of the tomato or okra thereby causing the plant to die.
Root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne spp. Is one of the three most economically damaging of plant-parasitic nematodes on vegetables and field crops

What are the general symptoms of the attack of the nematodes causing root knot disease?
The root knot disease of tomato causes knotting or galling of roots
The disease is one of the mostly end widely distributed disease of the tomato and okra and causes a lot of damage to tomato production all over the world

This disease causes retarded growth of the tomato crop
The attack of the root knot disease of tomato and okra result in reduction in the production capacity

What are the prevention and control measures of the root knot disease of okra and tomato?
The following underlisted are some of the ways to prevent and control the spread of the root knot disease of tomato and okra
1. Make sure to sterilize the soil of your farm before planting can begin
2. The use of crop rotation
3. Always plan to farm using resistant varieties of tomato and okra for effective checkmating of the disease known as root knot of tomato and okra
4. If detected early please uproot and burn infected plants
5. Make sure to avoid late planting of your crops. plant early


Conclusion
Root knot nematodes are small  eelworms' like earthworm that live in soil and become plant parasites when they use tomato roots as their source of food.
Infected plants are stunted meaning that growth is retarded, the tomato plant then appear yellow or pale green in color, and wilt easily, even when soil moisture is adequate.



what is black arm bacterial Blight of cotton, its effects on cotton production, transmission processes, symptoms of the attack and prevention method?

What is black arm bacterial Blight of cotton?

 black arm bacterial Blight of cotton is a bacterium caused infection of the cotton crop. 
The attack of the black arm disease occurs through the leaves and stems near the ground
causes seedling blight, leaf spot, blackarm on stem and petioles, black vein and boll rot. On cotyledons small, green, water-soaked rounded or irregular spots form which turn brown.  

 the black arm bacteria blight disease of cotton is one of the most devastating and dangerous disease that can affect cotton production all over the world

 it is so deadly that almost 40% of production capacity of cotton the world over are lost yearly to the disease

The transmission process of the black arm bacterial blight disease of cotton

Bacterial blight of cotton is a disease affecting the cotton plant resulting from infection by Xanthomonas axonopodis pathovar malvacearum a Gram negative, motile rod-shaped, non spore-forming bacterium with a single polar flagellum. This disease is transmitted through the leaves of cotton stems near the ground base of the cotton crop


What are the symptoms of the attack of the black arm bacterial disease of cotton
The attack of this disease can be identified through Angular spot-on leaves and the stems of cotton

Whenever the blight disease attacks the cotton you will discover that the bolls of the cotton will begin to rot

As a result of the attack of the black arm bacterial Blight of cotton you will discover exudate from affected leaves

Above all is that the black arm black disease causes retarded growth of the cotton crop and reduce Yield



What are the prevention and control measures of the black arm bacterial Blight of cotton?

The following are some of the ways in which we can prevent and control the effect and spread of the black bacteria arm Blight of cotton

1. Important to always practice crop rotation

2. You should uproot and burn infected of Cotton

3. When planting your cotton Farm or cotton plantation please use resistant varieties of cotton seed

4. Remove weeded vegetative debris in the farm.
 
5. do not plant new crops where previous infected plants were once growing. 



There are no recognized chemical treatments for black arm bacteria disease. Your best proven prevention and mechanical control of the bacteria blight is at the first sign of symptoms of bacterial infected leaf 

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